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APPLIED AERODYNAMICS

Airfoils and Finite Wings



AVIONICS DEPARTMENT

PAF KIET
UDPATES
Mid-term grades

Team project
Lab session to work on project this week (Thursday and Friday)
Literature review and motor selection report due on March 25 (will likely push
this back a week)

Mid-Term Exam
Monday, March 21 in class
Covers Chapter 4 and Chapter 5.1 5.15
Open book / open notes but no time to study during the exam
Sample Mid-Term with Solution on line
Review Session: Tuesday, March 15, Crawford auditorium 112, 8 10 pm

PRO|ENGINEER DESIGN CONTEST
Winner
Either increase your grade by an entire letter (C B), or
Buy your most expensive textbook next semester
Create most elaborate, complex, stunning Aerospace Related project in
ProEngineer
Criteria: Assembly and/or exploded view
PRO|ENGINEER CONTEST
PRO|ENGINEER CONTEST
If you do the PRO|E challenge

Do not let it consume you!
SKETCHING CONTEST
Choose any aerospace device you like (airplane, rocket, spacecraft, satellite,
helicopter, etc.) but only 1 entry per person
Drawing must be in isometric view on 8.5 x 11 inch paper
Free hand sketching, no rulers, compass, etc.
Submit by April 22, 2011 by 5:00pm
Winner: 10 points on mid-term, 2
nd
place: 7 points, 3
rd
place: 5 points
Decided by TAs and other Aerospace Faculty
DO NOT SUBMIT
READING AND HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENTS
Reading: Introduction to Flight, by John D. Anderson, Jr.
For April 4
th
lecture: Chapter 5, Sections 5.13-5.19
Read these sections carefully, most interesting portions of Ch. 5

Lecture-Based Homework Assignment:
Problems: 5.7, 5.11, 5.13, 5.15, 5.17, 5.19
DUE: Friday, March 25, 2011 by 5pm
Turn in hard copy of homework
Also be sure to review and be familiar with textbook examples in
Chapter 5
ANSWERS TO LECTURE HOMEWORK
5.7: Cp = -3.91
5.11: Cp = -0.183
Be careful here, if you check the Mach number it is around 0.71, so the flow is
compressible and the formula for Cp based on Bernoullis equation is not valid. To
calculate the pressure coefficient, first calculate

from the equation of state and find


the temperature from the energy equation. Finally make use of the isentropic relations
and the definition of Cp given in Equation 5.27
5.13: c
l
= 0.97
Make use of Prandtl-Glauert rule
5.15: M
cr
= 0.62
Use graphical technique of Section 5.9
Verify using Excel or Matlab
5.17: = 30
5.19: D = 366 lb
Remember that in steady, level flight the airplanes lift must balance its weight
You may also assume that all lift is derived from the wings (this is not really true
because the fuselage and horizontal tail also contribute to the airplane lift). Also assume
that the wings can be approximated by a thin flat plate
Remember that Equation 5.50 gives o in radians
LIFT, DRAG, AND MOMENT COEFFICIENTS (5.3)
Behavior of L, D, and M depend on o, but also on velocity and altitude
V

, Wing Area (S), Wing Shape,

, compressibility

Characterize behavior of L, D, M with coefficients (c
l
, c
d
, c
m
)
( ) Re , ,
2
1
2
1
2
2

=
=
=
M f c
S q
L
S V
L
c
Sc V L
l
l
l
o

Matching Mach and Reynolds


(called similarity parameters)
M

, Re

M

, Re

c
l
, c
d
, c
m
identical

SAMPLE DATA
Lift coefficient (or lift) linear
variation with angle of attack, a
Cambered airfoils have
positive lift when o = 0
Symmetric airfoils have
zero lift when o = 0
At high enough angle of attack,
the performance of the airfoil
rapidly degrades stall

c
l
Cambered airfoil has
lift at o=0
At negative o airfoil
will have zero lift
SAMPLE DATA: NACA 23012 AIRFOIL
Lift
Coefficient
c
l
Moment
Coefficient
c
m, c/4
o

Flow separation
Stall
AIRFOIL DATA (5.4 AND APPENDIX D)
NACA 23012 WING SECTION
c
l

c
m
,
c
/
4

Re dependence at high o
Separation and Stall
o

c
l
c
d

c
m
,
a
.
c
.

c
l
vs. o
Independent of Re
c
d
vs. o
Dependent on Re
c
m,a.c.
vs. c
l
very flat

R=Re
EXAMPLE: SLATS AND FLAPS
EXAMPLE: BOEING 727 FLAPS/SLATS
Flap extended
Flap retracted
AIRFOIL DATA (5.4 AND APPENDIX D)
NACA 1408 WING SECTION
Flaps shift lift curve
Effective increase in camber of airfoil
PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION AND LIFT
Lift comes from pressure distribution
over top (suction surface) and bottom
(pressure surface)

Lift coefficient also result of pressure
distribution
PRESSURE COEFFICIENT, C
P
(5.6)
Use non-dimensional description, instead of plotting actual values of pressure
Pressure distribution in aerodynamic literature often given as C
p

So why do we care?
Distribution of C
p
leads to value of c
l
Easy to get pressure data in wind tunnels
Shows effect of M

on c
l
2
2
1

V
p p
q
p p
C
p

EXAMPLE: C
P
CALCULATION
For M

< 0.3, ~ const


C
p
= C
p,0
= 0.5 = const
COMPRESSIBILITY CORRECTION:
EFFECT OF M

ON C
P
2
0 ,
2
1

V
p p
C
p

M

2 2
0 ,
1
5 . 0
1

=
M M
C
C
p
p
For M

< 0.3, ~ const


C
p
= C
p,0
= 0.5 = const
Effect of compressibility
(M

> 0.3) is to increase


absolute magnitude of C
p
as
M

increases
Called: Prandtl-Glauert Rule
Prandtl-Glauert rule applies for 0.3 < M

< 0.7
COMPRESSIBILITY CORRECTION:
EFFECT OF M

ON C
P
M

OBTAINING LIFT COEFFICIENT FROM C
P
(5.7)

( )
2
0 ,
0
, ,
1
1

=
~
}
M
c
c
dx C C
c
c
l
l
c
upper p lower p l
COMPRESSIBILITY CORRECTION SUMMARY
If M
0
> 0.3, use a compressibility correction for C
p
, and c
l
Compressibility corrections gets poor above M
0
~ 0.7
This is because shock waves may start to form over parts of airfoil

Many proposed correction methods, but a very good on is: Prandtl-Glauert Rule

C
p,0
and c
l,0
are the low-speed (uncorrected) pressure and lift coefficients
This is lift coefficient from Appendix D in Anderson
C
p
and c
l
are the actual pressure and lift coefficients at M

2
0 ,
1

=
M
C
C
p
p
2
0 ,
1

=
M
c
c
l
l
CRITICAL MACH NUMBER, M
CR
(5.9)
As air expands around top surface near leading edge, velocity and M will increase
Local M > M


Flow over airfoil may have
sonic regions even though
freestream M

< 1
INCREASED DRAG!
CRITICAL FLOW AND SHOCK WAVES
M
CR
CRITICAL FLOW AND SHOCK WAVES
bubble of supersonic flow
AIRFOIL THICKNESS SUMMARY
Which creates most lift?
Thicker airfoil
Which has higher critical Mach number?
Thinner airfoil
Which is better?
Application dependent!
Note: thickness is relative
to chord in all cases
Ex. NACA 0012 12 %
AIRFOIL THICKNESS: WWI AIRPLANES
English Sopwith Camel
German Fokker Dr-1
Higher maximum C
L
Internal wing structure
Higher rates of climb
Improved maneuverability
Thin wing, lower maximum C
L
Bracing wires required high drag
THICKNESS-TO-CHORD RATIO TRENDS
A-10
Root: NACA 6716
TIP: NACA 6713
F-15
Root: NACA 64A(.055)5.9
TIP: NACA 64A203
MODERN AIRFOIL SHAPES
http://www.nasg.com/afdb/list-airfoil-e.phtml
Root Mid-Span Tip
Boeing 737
SUMMARY OF AIRFOIL DRAG (5.12)
w d p d f d d
wave pressure friction
c c c c
D D D D
, , ,
+ + =
+ + =
Only at transonic and
supersonic speeds
D
wave
=0 for subsonic speeds
below M
drag-divergence
Profile Drag
Profile Drag coefficient
relatively constant with
M

at subsonic speeds

FINITE WINGS
INFINITE VERSUS FINITE WINGS
S
b
AR
2

Aspect Ratio
b: wingspan
S: wing area
High AR
Low AR
AIRFOILS VERSUS WINGS
Upper surface (upper side of wing): low pressure
Recall discussion on exactly why this is physically
Recall discussion on how to show this mathematically
AIRFOILS VERSUS WINGS
Upper surface (upper side of wing): low pressure
Lower surface (underside of wing): high pressure

Flow always desires to go from high pressure to low pressure

Flow wraps around wing tips
FINITE WINGS
Front View
Wing Tip
Vortices
EXAMPLE: 737 WINGLETS
EXAMPLES: AIRCRAFT WAKE TURBULENCE
FINITE WING DOWNWASH (5.13)
Wing tip vortices induce a small downward component of air velocity near
wing by dragging surrounding air with them
Downward component of velocity is called downwash, w
Local relative wind
Two Consequences:
1. Increase in drag, called induced drag (drag due to lift)
2. Angle of attack is effectively reduced, o
eff
as compared with V


Chord line
ANGLE OF ATTACK DEFINITIONS
o
geometric
: what you see, what you would see in a wind tunnel
Simply look at angle between incoming relative wind and chord line
o
effective
: what the airfoil sees locally
Angle between local flow direction and chord line
Small than o
geometric
because of downwash
o
induced
: difference between these two angles
Downwash has induced this change in angle of attack
induced effective geometric
o o o + =
INFINITE WING DESCRIPTION
LIFT is always perpendicular to the RELATIVE WIND

LIFT
Relative Wind, V

FINITE WING DESCRIPTION
Relative wind gets tilted downward under the airfoil
LIFT is still always perpendicular to the RELATIVE WIND
Lift vector is tilted back so a component of L acts in direction normal to
incoming relative wind results in a new type of drag
induced effective geometric
o o o + =
Induced Drag, D
i
3 PHYSICAL INTERPRETATIONS

1. Local relative wind is canted downward, lift vector is tilted back so a
component of L acts in direction normal to incoming relative wind

2. Wing tip vortices alter surface pressure distributions in direction of
increased drag

3. Vortices contain rotational energy put into flow by propulsion system to
overcome induced drag
INDUCED DRAG: IMPLICATIONS FOR WINGS
d D
l L
c C
c C
>
<
Finite Wing
Infinite Wing
(Appendix D)
V

o o <
eff
HOW TO ESTIMATE INDUCED DRAG
i i
i i
L D
L D
o
o
=
= sin
Local flow velocity in vicinity of wing is inclined downward
Lift vector remains perpendicular to local relative wind and is tiled back
through an angle o
i
Drag is still parallel to freestream
Tilted lift vector contributes a drag component
HOW TO ESTIMATE INDUCED DRAG
Calculation of angle o
i
is not trivial (MAE 3241)

Value of o
i
depends on distribution of downwash along span of wing
Downwash is governed by distribution of lift over span of wing
WHY A LIFT DISTRIBUTION?
CHORD MAY VARY IN LENGTH
Thinner wing near tip
delay onset of high-speed
compressibility effects
Retain aileron control
WHY A LIFT DISTRIBUTION?
SHAPE OF AIRFOIL MAY VARY ALONG WING
NACA 64A210
NACA 64A209
F-111
WHY A LIFT DISTRIBUTION?
WING (AIRFOIL) MAY BE TWISTED
P&W / G.E. GP7000 FAMILY
HOW TO ESTIMATE INDUCED DRAG
Special Case: Elliptical Lift Distribution (produced by elliptical wing)
Lift/unit span varies elliptically along span
This special case produces a uniform downwash
AR
C
C
AR
C
S q
D
AR
C
S q
AR
C
L L D
AR
C
L
i D
L i
L L
i i
L
i
t
t
t t
o
t
o
2
,
2
2
=
=
= = =
=

Key Results:
Elliptical Lift Distribution
ELLIPTICAL LIFT DISTRIBUTION
For a wing with same airfoil shape across span and no twist, an elliptical lift
distribution is characteristic of an elliptical wing plan form
Example: Supermarine Spitfire
AR
C
C
AR
C
L
i D
L
i
t
t
o
2
,
=
=
Key Results:
Elliptical Lift Distribution
HOW TO ESTIMATE INDUCED DRAG
For all wings in general
Define a span efficiency factor, e (also called span efficiency factor)
Elliptical planforms, e = 1
The word planform means shape as view by looking down on the wing
For all other planforms, e < 1
0.85 < e < 0.99
eAR
C
C
L
i D
t
2
,
=
Span Efficiency Factor
Goes with square of C
L
Inversely related to AR

Drag due to lift
DRAG POLAR
eAR
C
c C
L
d D
t
2
+ =
Total Drag = Profile Drag + Induced Drag
{
c
d
EXAMPLE: U2 VS. F-15
Cruise at 70,000 ft
Air density highly reduced
Flies at slow speeds, low q


high angle of attack, high C
L

U2 AR ~ 14.3 (WHY?)
eAR
C
c C
L
d D
t
2
+ =
L
SC V W L
2
2
1

= =
Flies at high speed (and lower
altitudes), so high q

low
angle of attack, low C
L

Low AR (WHY?)
U2 F-15
EXAMPLE: U2 SPYPLANE
Cruise at 70,000 ft
Out of USSR missile range
Air density,

, highly
reduced
In steady-level flight, L = W



As

reduced, C
L
must
increase (angle of attack must
increase)
AR C
D

U2 AR ~ 14.3

eAR
C
c C
L
d D
t
2
+ =
L
SC V W L
2
2
1

= =
EXAMPLE: F-15 EAGLE
Flies at high speed at low angle
of attack low C
L
Induced drag < Profile Drag
Low AR, Low S

eAR
C
c C
L
d D
t
2
+ =
L
SC V W L
2
2
1

= =
WHY HIGH AR ON PREDATOR?
CHANGES IN LIFT SLOPE: SYMMETRIC WINGS
o
geom
c
l
Infinite wing:
AR=
Infinite wing:
AR=10
Infinite wing:
AR=5
c
l
=1.0

Slope, a
0
= 2t/rad ~ 0.11/deg
CHANGES IN LIFT SLOPE: CAMBERED WINGS
o
geom
c
l
Infinite wing:
AR=
Infinite wing:
AR=10
Infinite wing:
AR=5
c
l
=1.0

Zero-lift angle of attack independent of AR

Slope, a
0
= 2t/rad ~ 0.11/deg
FINITE WING CHANGE IN LIFT SLOPE
In a wind tunnel, the easiest thing to
measure is the geometric angle of attack

For infinite wings, there is no induced
angle of attack
The angle you see = the angle the
infinite wing sees



With finite wings, there is an induced
angle of attack
The angle you see the angle the
finite wing sees

i eff geom
o o o + =
Infinite Wing
Finite Wing
o
geom
= o
eff
+ o
i
= o
eff
o
geom
= o
eff
+ o
i
FINITE WING CHANGE IN LIFT SLOPE
Lift curve for a finite wing has a smaller
slope than corresponding curve for an
infinite wing with same airfoil cross-section
Figure (a) shows infinite wing, o
i
= 0, so
plot is C
L
vs. o
geom
or o
eff
and slope is a
0

Figure (b) shows finite wing, o
i
0
Plot C
L
vs. what we see, o
geom
, (or
what would be easy to measure in a
wind tunnel), not what wing sees, o
eff

1. Effect of finite wing is to reduce lift curve slope
Finite wing lift slope = o = dC
L
/do
2. At C
L
= 0, o
i
= 0, so o
L=0
same for infinite or
finite wings

i eff geom
o o o + =
Infinite Wing
Finite Wing
SUMMARY: INFINITE VS. FINITE WINGS
Properties of a finite wing differ in two major respects from infinite wings:

1. Addition of induced drag

2. Lift curve for a finite wing has smaller slope than corresponding lift curve for
infinite wing with same airfoil cross section (depends on AR)
EXTRA CREDIT
What is the aspect ratio of this airplane?
What is the aspect ratio of a 747?
What aerodynamics decisions went into selected the A380 aspect ratio?
What non-aerodynamics decisions went into limiting the A380 aspect ratio?
A380 burns about four liters (one gallon) of fuel per passenger every
80 miles and can fly some 8,000 nautical miles and seat as many as
550 passengers.