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OT Equipments

Hold the highest standard with best pieces of equipments

Introduction :
OT furniture & equipments are fabricated to suit the efficient functioning of surgical procedures & also meet the demands of emergency situation. The equipments are made of stainless steel so that antiseptic wash before & after the surgical procedures is possible to combat cross infection from contamination.

Following are the furniture & equipments in OT:

Operation tables Operation table mattress Mayo stand Instrument trolley Overhead ( Gerhardt) table Ring stand Trolley /table for scrub attire Miscellaneous equipment trolley Kick bucket Sitting stool Standing platform

Anesthesia trolley Cardiac monitor Defibrillator Artificial respirator or ventilator Pulse oximeter Suction unit O2 cylinder I/v stands /hooks/poles OT light Operative microscope X ray machine

Cryosurgery Unit Image Intensifier Closed Circuit Television Computers Sterilizer Fire Extinguisher Alarm Bell Wall Clock

Music System Racks Shelves Almirah Stretchers Trolleys Wheel Chairs.

Operation table
Operation table It is the most important item of equipment on which pt lies or rest through out in the surgery. The OT table is designed in such a way that it is capable of adjustment to provide different positions for various surgical procedures. The OT table top is also capable of adjustment on various heights such as raising or lowering by a adjustment mechanism to facilitate to work of the surgical team. OT tables are designed for specific operations . Generally OT has all operation tables that is designed to suit a wide variety of operations such as general as well as specific operations . The standard operation table is divided into 3 to 5 sections joined.

This arrangement allows articulations of the different sections of the table top by flexing or by extending the joints which facilitates the position of the pts for required surgery. The foot end can be lowered & pts buttocks can be brought to the lower edge in lithotomy position OT table has a single or double armed which can be adjusted with the table top at 90 degree which can be also be locked to prevent their movement. Pts arms are placed on the arm board to facilitate surgery on any part of the arm ,hand ,finger ,facilitates injection ,infusion ,monitoring pts pulse.

OT table also consist of shoulder braces ,body braces ,thigh straps ,knee braces used to fixed with the OT table. It is used to stabilized pts body in various position. OT table also has stirrups on which legs are hung & supported in lithotomy position.

Operation table mattress :

A rubber mattress fits the operation table. The mattress is firm covered with a water proof cover to prevent its damage. The mattress is further covered with conductive rubber to prevent electrical hazards. The mattress can be fixed with OT table top by means of clips or hooks. It can be removed to allow cleaning of the OT table top.

Mayo stand:
It is a frame on which a rectangular stainless steel top can be fixed. The base of this frame can be slide under the operation table & top comes over the sterile field on which instruments, sutures, ligatures, sponges etc can be laid . These can be conveniently used by the scrub surgeon during surgery as it provides easy access.

Instrument trolley :
This trolley also serves the same purpose as of mayo stand. This may supplement the mayo stand because it provides extra space where more instruments, sutures, ligatures, sponges can be laid. This trolley is made of stainless steel. After cleaning the trolley with antiseptic lotion, a sterile drape is put on the top shelf to make a sterile surface on which instruments are laid.

Overhead (Gerhardt) table

5) Overhead (Gerhardt) table This table also can be slided over the operation table near the place where the scrub nurse stands during surgery. This provide a large surface area on which more instruments, extra drapes, sponges etc can be kept.

Ring stand :
There may be one or more ring stand. These are circular frames which are covered by sterile drapes to make a sterile surface. Then sterile basins containing sterile warm normal saline water are placed on the ring. It is used for rinsing blood stained instruments, soaking sponges or washing blood stained gloved hand during surgery.

Trolley /table for scrub attire :

The scrub personnel have to wear sterile gown & gloves after scrubbing & drying their hands. A separate trolley or a table is set up on which sterile packets containing scrub gowns & gloves packets are kept so that they can be picked up or handed over conveniently.

Miscellaneous equipments trolley :

Another trolley is set with miscellaneous & clean articles such as in infusion sets, transfusion sets, infusion fluids, antiseptic lotions, specimen bottles, scissors etc.

Sitting stool :
When the operation is of long duration the surgeon may like to sit & do the operation. The sitting stool is stainless steel with adjustable heights. The stool top should be spacious enough to allow comfortable sitting.

Kick bucket :
These buckets are used for discarding soiled swabs sponges etc during operation. Theses buckets are lined with plastic bags so that the inner side of the bucket does not get stained or rusted.

Standing platform :
A scrub personnel who is short heightened may need to stand on a platform to work comfortably on the OT table without stretching his or her back. The platform should be made of steel & should be stable & strong enough to bear the persons weight.

Anesthesia trolley :
The anesthesia trolley contains anesthetic drugs, anesthetic equipments, O2 mask, Endotracheal tubes of different sizes, Endotracheal connectors, laryngoscopes etc.

Cardiac monitor
This is an apparatus which is used in operation theater for monitoring cardiac functioning of the pt during the surgery.

Defibrillator :
This is cardiac resuscitative equipment used for cardiac defibrillator

Artificial respirator or ventilator :

This apparatus is used for pulmonary resuscitation for maintaining pts pulmonary function.

Pulse oximeter :
It is a device used for pulse oximetry that is for measuring hemoglobin & o2 saturation of blood.

Suction unit :
Modern operation theaters are equipped with inbuilt suction unit. Most of the OT have portable suction unit either with one bottle or two bottles. A suction apparatus is used for suctioning of the operation site through a sterile suction catheter.

O2 cylinder :
All modern OT have inbuilt O2 supply channels from a central source through the 02 pipeline & O2 sockets. OT keeps one or two O2 cylinders for ready use & the cylinders should be complete with regulator ,humidifier etc.

20) I/V stands/hooks/poles :

I/v hooks or poles are preferably ceiling mounted such a s hanging from the ceiling. They should be movable & adjustable to any height. the mounted designs cluttering of OT floor with too many equipments & provide maximum space for the OT personnel to move about freely. It also allows free movement of stretcher ,trolley etc in the OT.

OT light :
A circular ceiling mounted light which is movable at any angle & adjustable to any height in the source of light in OT which focuses on the Operation site to facilitate visibility. The light is shadow less & without glare.

Operative microscope
This microscope assists in microscopic surgery such as surgery on hands or blood vessels. This is also ceiling mounted & movable as well as adjustable.

X-ray machine
OT has a portable X-ray machine. This also may be ceiling mounted. This X-ray machine is used to take X-ray film during the surgery.

Cryosurgery unit
Cryosurgery devices can also be ceiling mounted & can be used in OT as & when needed. The selective exposure of tissues to extreme cold, often by applying a probe containing liquid nitrogen, to bring about the destruction or elimination of abnormal cells

Closed circuit television and TV Screen for endoscopic surgeries

Closed circuit television system with ceiling mounted cameras which will project full & an excellent view of the operation to the central monitor at the nurses desk can also be installed. This will allow the personnel to determine the progress of the operation. These cameras are movable & adjustable so that they can be moved just above the operation site. Even the others OT members as well as the visitors can have full view of the surgery through the video cameras.

Computers :
Computers in OT is an essential gadget for maintaining data base of the surgical pts. Computers data base helps the circulatory nurse &all concerned to feed information about pts profile such as pts name, age, gender, registration no, bed no, ward no, D.O.A, religion, education, occupation, marital status, address, diagnosis, preoperative assessment, assessment of diagnostic tests, preanaesthetic assessment, preoperative nursing care.

Sterilizer :
A small sterilizer is kept in OT in sterilization room for sterilization purposes. Small items in small no: can be sterilized in such sterilizers though major supply of sterilized equipments comes from central sterilization supply department.

Fire extinguisher
It is an essential items in OT which is kept ready for safety purpose to combat the hazards in case there is sudden fire breakout due to electrical short circuit etc. All operation theatre personnel should be able to operate it.

Alarm bell :
operation theatre has a ringing alarm bell for emergency use.

wall clock
This is an essential item which is kept in OT for monitoring timings.

Music system :
OT should have central music system where soft music can be played throughout which is very soothing to the personnel as well as to pts when they are awake.

Racks ,shelves ,almirah :

OT has a good number of steel racks ,shelves & almirah which provides storing space for clean articles ,sterile articles ,sterile linens ,sterile instruments ,others articles ,emergency equipments ,emergency medicines & injections ,infusions fluids ,antiseptic lotion etc.

Stretchers ,trolleys ,wheel chairs :

There should be number of stretchers, trolleys, wheel chairs in OT for transportation of pt to OT & also from the OT to the recovery room or to the wards or OPD.