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Maintenance & Inspection of Piping in Hydrocarbon Industry

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PIPING SYSTEM

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PIPING TYPES
PIPING

UNDER GROUND

ABOVE GROUND

INSULATED

BARE

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PIPING MATERIALS
CS - SR AS PER SERVICE, THICK. > 19mm AS - POOR WELDABILITY, SR REQD.

SS - NO PRE-HEAT, SR
RUBBER LINED

CEMENT LINED
SS LINED

HDPE
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PIPING MATERIALS
CARBON STEEL ALLOY STEELS STAINLESS STEELS

PIPE SCHEDULES

PIPE SCHEDULES

PIPING DESIGN/ LAYOUT


OVERALL PLOT PLAN

P&IDs
GENERAL ARRANGEMENT DRAWINGS (GADs)

PIPING MATERIAL SPECIFICATION (PMS)

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PIPING DESIGN/ LAYOUT


PLOT PLAN

PIPING DESIGN/ LAYOUT


PIPING & INSTRUMENT DIAGRAM

PIPING DESIGN/ LAYOUT


GENERAL ARRANGEMENT DRAWINGS (GADs)

PIPING COMPONENTS
PIPE FLANGES / VALVES EXPANSION BELLOWS FITTINGS
HALF COUPLINGS MITRE BENDS REDUCER ELBOWS GASKETS
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PIPING COMPONENTS
SUPPORTS
GUIDE
FREE IN TWO DIRECTION

CROSS-GUIDE
FREE IN ONE DIRECTION

ANCHORS
NOT FREE FOR MOVEMENT

SPRING SUPPORTS

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PIPING WALL THICKNESS


BARLOWS FORMULA
t = PiD/ 2SA tn = t + allowance(s)
t= Minimum Wall Thickness (M) Pi= Maximum Allowable Operating Pr. (MPa) D= Outside Diameter (M) SA= Allowable Stress (MPa) tn = Nominal Wall Thickness(M)
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PIPING TEST PRESSURE

PT = 1.5P x ST/S
PT= Minimum Test Gage Pressure

P=Maximum Allowable Working Pressure


ST=Stress Value at Test Temperature S=Stress Value at Design Temperature
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PIPING FABRICATION
WELDING
SMAW GTAW PRE/ POST-WELD HEAT TREATMENT

HOT TAPPING
BRANCH CONNECTION WITHOUT INTERRUPTION TO THE FLOW OF FLUID

PIPE BENDING
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HOT TAPPING

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PIPE BENDING

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GENERAL GUIDELINES

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GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR PIPING

All small bore pipings and tracer lines, size and below should be welded by TIG process for all types of joints, e.g. butt, socket, tee, etc. to ensure proper quality of welding. Use of half coupling may be considered to increase reliability of small-bore connections. Minimum thickness of pipe for sizes up to 1 should be Sch.80 for CS and AS. Reinforcement pad shall be provided at support location. Steam drain points should be routed to a drain header and taken out of the unit area.

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GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR PIPING


Stiffener should be provided in small bore bleeder/ drain point connection welded to immediate upstream or downstream of safety valves. As far as possible, stub-in type branch connection are to be provided when branch size is less than one size than the main pipe. All the reinforcement pad telltale holes should be drilled and tapped properly. Gas cut holes should not be accepted. Wherever two phase flow in piping is expected, piping design including its support system should be checked w.r.t. most adverse conditions/ ratio of both the phases (slug flow) to avoid line vibration during operation.

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GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR PIPING


All the fittings like valves, flanges etc. in high temperature service (> = 300 0C) should also be fully insulated if they are in open area or the localized cooling can cause operational problems like coking etc. All SS piping should have chloride free insulation or preferably should have SS foil wrapped between pipe and insulation. Branch connections for fire hydrants along the roads should be totally above grounds. Hydrant connections also should remain above ground.

Firewater and cooling water lines emerging from underground should be wrapped coated beyond the ground level up to a length of 500mm.

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GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR PIPING


Hard surfacing with a proper slope towards open drain system is to be provided beneath the offsite pipe rack area with a clear space of 500mm from bottom of the pipe. Interspacing between the offsite piping on the support pedestal should be such that the lines should not touch each other even after insulation (at least 3 gap after insulation). Identification marks for location/ visibility of drain points of offsite piping should be provided. All drain points should be approachable and clearly visible.

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GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR PIPING


Piping insulation ends should be properly sealed to avoid water ingress. Hard surfacing under the piping bay in offsite areas should be done with proper slope & drainage facility.

Proper slope and gap should be provided in piping culverts to avoid water logging.
In fire water lines, the hydrant tapping should not be taken from the bottom side of pipe. Tapping should be taken from the top or from side.

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GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR PIPING


Any piping circuit if idle for more than six month shall be inspected or hydrotested before taking into service
Ensure adequate wrapping & coating and at least 0.5mtr wrapping & coating shall be visible externally at both ends on above ground portion of pipe. All piping route in off-site area shall be made grass & debris free. In Hydrocarbon service dia. 2 pipe shall be of minimum Schedule 80. Low point drain (LDP) shall be offset by 1 meter from the supports and shall not be embedded into soil.

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PIPING FABRICATION

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PIPING FABRICATION
FIT UPS

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PIPING FABRICATION
BRANCH CONNECTIONS

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PIPING FABRICATION
BRANCH CONNECTIONS

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PIPING FABRICATION
PREHEAT TEMPERATURES

PIPING FABRICATION
POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT

PIPING FABRICATION
TYPICAL WELD DEFECTS

DEGRADATION MECHANISMS IN PIPING SYSTEM

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DETERIORATION IN PIPING SYSTEM

INTERNAL CORROSION
UNIFORM CORROSION DUE TO LOW/ HIGH pH

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DETERIORATION IN PIPING SYSTEM

INTERNAL CORROSION
LOCALIZED CORROSION- IN CREVICES, BENDS ETC.

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DETERIORATION IN PIPING SYSTEM

INTERNAL CORROSION
CONDENSATION/ TWO PHASE SYSTEMS

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DETERIORATION IN PIPING SYSTEM


STAGNANT AREAS - IN DEAD ENDS ETC

INTERNAL CORROSION

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DETERIORATION IN PIPING SYSTEM

INTERNAL CORROSION
STRESS CORROSION CRACKING

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DETERIORATION IN PIPING SYSTEM

INTERNAL CORROSION
HYDROGEN ATTACK

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DETERIORATION IN PIPING SYSTEM

INTERNAL CORROSION
AREAS D/STREAM OF INJECTION POINTS

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DETERIORATION IN PIPING SYSTEM

INTERNAL CORROSION
IMPINGEMENT AREAS

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DETERIORATION IN PIPING SYSTEM

INTERNAL CORROSION
NAPHTHENIC ACID/ POLYTHIONIC ACID CORROSION

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DETERIORATION IN PIPING SYSTEM

INTERNAL CORROSION
FIRE WATER CORROSION

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DETERIORATION IN PIPING SYSTEM

INTERNAL CORROSION
COOLING WATER CORROSION

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DETERIORATION IN PIPING SYSTEM

EXTERNAL CORROSION
CORROSION UNDER INSULATION

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DETERIORATION IN PIPING SYSTEM

EXTERNAL CORROSION
SOIL SIDE CORROSION OF UNDER-GROUND LINES

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DETERIORATION IN PIPING SYSTEM

EXTERNAL CORROSION
EXTERNAL CORROSION DUE TO SOIL/ WEEDS

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DETERIORATION IN PIPING SYSTEM

EXTERNAL CORROSION
ATMOSPHERIC CORROSION - SULFUROUS / ACIDIC ENVIRONMENT

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DETERIORATION IN PIPING SYSTEM

WELD CORROSION
PREFERENTIAL ATTACK ON WELD

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DETERIORATION IN PIPING SYSTEM

EXTERNAL CORROSION
CORROSION AT SOIL / AIR INTERFACE

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DETERIORATION IN PIPING SYSTEM

STRESS RELATED
OVERPRESSURIZATION

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DETERIORATION IN PIPING SYSTEM

STRESS RELATED
VIBRATION- AS IN PUMP CONNECTED PIPING

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DETERIORATION IN PIPING SYSTEM


FAILURE OF WELD SEAM

STRESS RELATED

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DETERIORATION IN PIPING SYSTEM


THERMAL STRESSES

STRESS RELATED

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INSPECTION OF PIPING SYSTEM

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ROLE OF INSPECTION
To evaluate present physical condition of the pipeline. To keep the concerned operating and maintenance personal fully informed about the the condition of the lines. To determine causes of deterioration and advise suitable economical solution to the problem. To initiate procurement action of materials. To co-relate deterioration rate with design life for further run.

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FREQUENCY OF INSPECTION
The interval between inspections depend upon :
Degree of corrosiveness/ erosiveness of the fluid.

Remaining corrosion allowance.


Type of protective coating. Atmosphere prevailing around the piping. Potentially of fire /explosion in case of a leak or failure. Statutory requirements.

Importance of operations.
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FREQUENCY OF INSPECTION
Frequency of inspection for offsite piping (hydrocarbon):
Service Crude (sour)
LP/Natural gas Gasoline / naphtha ATF/ HSD/ LDO/ SKO FO/RCO/Bitumen/ VBO Fuel gas/ Flare gas Lube oil

External 3
2 2 3 3 3 5

Comprehensive 6
4 4 5 5 5 10

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FREQUENCY OF INSPECTION
Frequency of inspection for offsite piping (Utilities):
Service Fresh water
Fire water Air / steam Ammonia / caustic DEA/ MEA Furfural/ phenol Benzene/ toluene

External 2
3 (lined) / 1 (unlined) 3 2 3 2 2

Comprehensive 4
5 (lined) / 2 (unlined) 6 4 5 3 4

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INSPECTION PROCEDURE
Visual Inspection: For determining leaks, misalignment, supports, vibration, external corrosion, cracks, insulation damage. Ultrasonic Inspection: For ascertaining wall thickness, by scanning at least four spots (12 o clock, 3 o clock, 6 o clock and 09 o clock positions) on each circumferences for every 30 m of straight length and all bend locations.
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INSPECTION PROCEDURE
Radiographic Inspection: Critical spots which cannot be inspected by UT may be radio graphed during operation to determine internal fouling, pitting, scaling etc.

Shutdown Inspection: All piping which cannot be inspected during operation has to be inspected during shutdown.

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INSPECTION PROCEDURE
Hydrostatic Testing: Along with all NDTs hydro test has to be carried out to evaluate strength of existing and new joints of the line in addition to establishing overall integrity of the line.
For new lines hydro test is to be done at 1.5 times design pressure. For old lines or partially repaired or replaced line it is carried out at 1.5 times operating pressure. Coated or insulated lines are hydro tested before coating operation. Before using any line which has been idle for long time, hydro test is to be carried out. Portable water is to be used for CS or AS pipes and DM water is to be used for SS pipes. Water must be drained after the test.

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INSPECTION PROCEDURE
AREAS SUSCEPTABLE TO ACCELERATED CORROSION

In the presence of certain corrodants, corrosion rates are normally increased at areas of increased velocity and/or turbulence. Elbows, reducers, mixing tees, control valves, and orifices are examples of piping components where accelerated corrosion may occur because of increased velocity and/or turbulence. In the areas of no flow, such as dead legs, accelerated corrosion may occur. Such components are normally areas where an inspector would locate additional TMLs in a piping circuit.
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INSPECTION PROCEDURE
INSPECTION POINTS

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INSPECTION PROCEDURE
INSPECTION POINTS

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ON-LINE MONITORING OF PIPING


pH MONITORING

CORROSION PROBES
CORROSION COUPONS IN WATER LINES

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NDT IN PIPING SYSTEM


ULTRASONIC THICKNESS SURVEY DCVG / PEARSON SERVEY SPARK / HARDNESS TEST OF RUBBER LINED PIPES RADIOGRAPHY

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NDT IN PIPING SYSTEM


DCVG SURVEY
The Direct Current Voltage Gradient (DCVG) technique is a "newer" technique for coating surveys on buried pipelines. It has been used for not only locating but also sizing coating defects. The technique is fundamentally based on measuring the voltage gradients in the soil above a cathodically protected pipeline.

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NDT IN PIPING SYSTEM

DYE PENETRANT TESTING


CRACK DYE APPLIED

TRAPPED DYE ON CLEANED SURFACE

CRACK VISIBLE ON APPLYING DEVELOPER

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NDT IN PIPING SYSTEM

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING
RADIATION SOURCE DISCONTINUITY METAL

FILM

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NDT IN PIPING SYSTEM

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING
Sample Films :

Lack Of Penetration

Cluster Of Porosity

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NDT IN PIPING SYSTEM

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING
Sample Films :

Tungsten Inclusion Transverse Crack

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NDT IN PIPING SYSTEM

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING
Slag inclusions

Lack of fusion

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NDT IN PIPING SYSTEM

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING
Suck back

Root undercut

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NDT IN PIPING SYSTEM

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING
External undercut

Mismatch

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NDT IN PIPING SYSTEM

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING
Poor reinforcement

Excess reinforcement

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NDT IN PIPING SYSTEM LONG RANGE ULTRASONIC TESTING


This technique uses low

frequency

guided

ultrasonic

waves to detect a length of piping. It locates the affected area in terms of distance from transducer and serves as a screening tool to inspect large lengths of piping especially at

difficult to access locations.

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NDT IN PIPING SYSTEM LONG RANGE ULTRASONIC TESTING

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NDT IN PIPING SYSTEM LONG RANGE ULTRASONIC TESTING

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PHASED ARRAY ULTRASONICS


ELECTRONIC SCANNING

ELECTRONIC COMBINED WITH STEERING AND FOCUSING

DOCUMENTATION OF TMLs

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CORROSION PREVENTION IN PIPING SYSTEM

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CORROSION PREVENTION

PAINTING

ENAMEL, EPOXY, COAL TAR, CLORINATED RUBBER, BITUMENOUS


HIGH TEMPERATURE PAINTS TEMPERATURE INDICATIVE PAINTS TAPE COATING
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CORROSION PREVENTION

CATHODIC PROTECTION
PRINCIPLE OF CP
MOST NEGATIVE REGIONS ACTS AS ANODE

PRE-REQUISITE FOR CP
COATING / WRAPPING EFFECTIVENESS PIPE TO SOIL POTENTIAL SURVEY SOIL RESISTIVITY SURVEY INTERFERENCE WITH FOREIGN LINES
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CORROSION PREVENTION

CATHODIC PROTECTION
SACRIFICAIL ANODE TECHNIQUE

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CORROSION PREVENTION

CATHODIC PROTECTION
IMPRESSED CURRENT TECHNIQUE

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CAUSES OF PIPING FAILURES

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PIPING FAILURES
MAJOR REASONS OF PIPING FAILURES
MATERIAL NOT SUITABLE / MATERIAL MIX-UP

Carbon steel 5 Cr-1/2 Mo

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PIPING FAILURES
MAJOR REASONS OF PIPING FAILURES
VIBRATION

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PIPING FAILURES
MAJOR REASONS OF PIPING FAILURES
FLOW ACCLERATED CORROSION

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PIPING FAILURES
MAJOR REASONS OF PIPING FAILURES
CATALYST EROSION

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PIPING FAILURES
MAJOR REASONS OF PIPING FAILURES
THERMAL STRESSES

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PIPING FAILURES
MAJOR REASONS OF PIPING FAILURES
COATING DAMAGE

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PIPING FAILURES
MAJOR REASONS OF PIPING FAILURES
PROBLEMS WITH LOW POINT DRAINS

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PIPING FAILURES G MAJOR REASONS OF PIPING FAILURES


SEAM OPENING

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PIPING FAILURES
MAJOR REASONS OF PIPING FAILURES
GRASS / WEED GROWTH & SOIL CONTAMINATION

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PIPING FAILURES
MAJOR REASONS OF PIPING FAILURES
INTERNAL UNDER DEPOSIT / MICROBIAL CORROSION

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PIPING FAILURES
MAJOR REASONS OF PIPING FAILURES
CORROSION AT SUPPORT LOCATIONS

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PIPING FAILURES
MAJOR REASONS OF PIPING FAILURES
CORROSION UNDER INSULATION

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PIPING FAILURES
MAJOR REASONS OF PIPING FAILURES
IMPROPER FABRICATION

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PIPING FAILURES
MAJOR REASONS OF PIPING FAILURES
IMPROPER JOINT DESIGN

Standard Joint

Poor Penetration & Under cut

Improper Fit Up & Welding

Crack

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