Hydrology

Unit 6 + 7
Storage
Capacity
and Yield
Storage Capacity & Yield
• What storage capacity is required?
• Water demand for irrigation
• Water demand for livestock
• Water demand for domestic use
• Assessment of annual safe yield in seasonal streams
• Determination of peak discharge
• Spillway design
Hydrology
Unit 6 + 7
Storage
Capacity
and Yield
What Storage Capacity Is Required?
Storage Capacity Required =
Water Demand + Losses in the reservoir
Livestock Domestic
use
Irrigation
Hydrology
Unit 6 + 7
Storage
Capacity
and Yield
Irrigation water demand
What Storage Capacity is Required?
Ir (m
3
) = 10 x ETcrop (mm) x Ca (ha)
Eff

Ir : Irrigation water requirements in cubic meters
for the whole dry period
Etcrop : Crop water requirement in mm during the dry period
Ca : Area irrigated with water from the reservoir in ha
Eff : Overall water application efficiency
Hydrology
Unit 6 + 7
Storage
Capacity
and Yield
Crop water requirement, ETcrop
What Storage Capacity is Required?
ETcrop = Kc x ETo

ETcrop : Crop water requirement in mm per unit of time
Kc : Crop factor (crop coefficient)
ETo : Reference crop evapotranspiration in mm per unit of time
Hydrology
Unit 6 + 7
Storage
Capacity
and Yield
What Storage Capacity is Required?
ETo
 Cool
 Humid
 Cloudy
 Little or no wind
 Hot
 Dry
 Sunny
 Windy
ETo
Hydrology
Unit 6 + 7
Storage
Capacity
and Yield
What Storage Capacity is Required?
Computation of ETo
Method Temp. Humid. Wind Sunsh. Rad. Evap. Env.
Blaney-Criddle M E E E E
Radiation M E E M (M) E
Penman M M M M (M) E
Pan E E M M
Minimum data requirement for various ETo computation methods
M: measures data; E: estimated data; (M): if available, but not essential
Hydrology
Unit 6 + 7
Storage
Capacity
and Yield
Class A evaporation pan
What Storage Capacity is Required?
Class a Evaporation Pan: measurement of E
pan
• the pan is installed in the field 15 cm above
the ground
• the pan is filled with water 5 cm below the rim
• the water is allowed to evaporate during certain
period of time (usually 24 hours)
• measurement is usually taken at 7:00 hours
• rainfall, if any, is measured simultaneously
• the difference between the two measured
water depths yields the pan evaporation rate:
E
pan
(mm / 24 hours)
Source: Critchley & Siegert 1991
Pan dimension:
Diameter = 1.21 m
Depth = 25 cm
Hydrology
Unit 6 + 7
Storage
Capacity
and Yield
What Storage Capacity is Required?
Blaney-Criddle method
ETo = p (0.46 T
mean
+ 8)
T
mean
: Mean daily temperature (
0
C)
P : mean daily percentage of annual day time hours
Pan Evaporation method
ETo = E
pan
x K
pan
E
pan
: Evaporation from pan (standard pan is Class A pan)
K
pan
: Pan factor. Varies between 0.35 to 0.85.
Average value is 0.7
Hydrology
Unit 6 + 7
Storage
Capacity
and Yield
What Storage Capacity is Required?
Indicative values of ETo
Adapted from
Critchley & Siegert
1991
Climatic Zone
Arid
Semi-Arid
Low
(<15
o
C)
Medium
(<15-25
o
C)
High
(>25
o
C)
4 -6
mm/d
4 -5
mm/d
7 -8
mm/d
6 -7
mm/d
9 -10
mm/d
8 -9
mm/d
Mean daily temperature
Hydrology
Unit 6 + 7
Storage
Capacity
and Yield
What Storage Capacity is Required?
Crop factor, Kc
• Varies for different crops
• Varies with growing stages
• Varies in climate
Variation of Kc in growing stages
Initial Dev.
Mid
season
Late
season
C
r
o
p

f
a
c
t
o
r
,

K
c

Hydrology
Unit 6 + 7
Storage
Capacity
and Yield
What Storage Capacity is Required?
Crop factor, Kc
Crop factors for the most commonly grown crops under WH;
Adapted from Critchley & Siegert 1991
Crop I nitial
stage
days Crop
dev.
stage
days Mid-
season
stage
days Late
season
days Season
av erage
Cotton 0.45 30 0.75 50 1.15 55 0.75 45 0.82
Maize 0.40 20 0.80 35 1.15 40 0.70 30 0.82
Millet 0.35 15 0.70 25 1.10 40 0.65 25 0.79
Sorghum 0.35 20 0.75 30 1.10 40 0.65 30 0.78
Grain/small 0.35 20 0.75 30 1.10 60 0.65 40 0.78
Legumes 0.45 15 0.75 25 1.10 35 0.50 15 0.79
Groundnuts 0.45 25 0.75 35 1.05 45 0.70 25 0.79
Hydrology
Unit 6 + 7
Storage
Capacity
and Yield
What Storage Capacity is Required?
Water demand for livestock
WL = NL x Ac x T
1000
WL: Water needed for livestock during the
critical period in cubic meters
NL : Number of animals to be watered from
the reservoir
Ac : Average rate of animal water
consumption in liters per day per animal
25 - 60 liters/animal/day
T : Duration of the critical period in days
Average daily water consumption
of selected animals
Animal Consumption
(l/d)
Camel 50
Cattle 25 - 35
Sheep 5 - 15
Goat 5 - 15
Donkey 16 - 20
Chicken 15 - 20/100 heads
Hydrology
Unit 6 + 7
Storage
Capacity
and Yield
What Storage Capacity is Required?
Water demand for domestic use
Wd = Po x Dc x T
1000

Wd : Domestic water supply during a critical period in cubic meters
Po : Users of the reservoir
Dc : Average rate of water consumption in liters
per day per person
40 liters / person / day
T : Duration of the critical period in days
Hydrology
Unit 6 + 7
Storage
Capacity
and Yield
What Storage Capacity is Required?
Losses: Evaporation and Seepage
Evaporation losses:
• Can be calculated or measured
using Pan A
Seepage losses:
• Difficult to assess as it depends on
permeability of the prevailing soil
• As a rule of thumb can be
assumed equal to ETo losses
Evaporation losses
Seepage losses
Reservoir
Total losses = Evaporation + Seepage
losses losses
Hydrology
Unit 6 + 7
Storage
Capacity
and Yield
What Storage Capacity is Required?
Example : Computation of required water storage capacity
Crop data: Selected crop is Sorghum, Average Kc is 0.7
Livestock data: Total livestock number(using the reservoir) 500, water consumption is
50l/day/animal
Population data: Number of users is 400, water consumption 40l/day/person
General data: Average reference crop evapotranspiration during the dry period is 6mm/d,
Irrigated area is 2ha, overall water application efficiency is 40%, dry period is 90 days, seepage
loss is assumed to be equal to ETo losses. Reservoir: Surface area is 1000 m² , bottom and
side walls area is 1500 m²
Irrigation water demand
Etcrop = Kc x Eto= 0.7 x 6mm/d = 4.2mm/d
Etcrop(dry period) = Etcrop(day) x dry period
= 4.2mm/d x 90d = 378mm
Ir = 10 x Etcrop x Ca = 10 x 378 x 2 = 18900m
3

Ef 0.4
Livestock water demand
WL = NL x Ac x T = 500 x 50 x 90 = 2250 m
3

1000 1000
Domestic water demand
Wd = Po x Dc x T = 400 x 40 x 90 = 1440 m
3

1000 1000
Hydrology
Unit 6 + 7
Storage
Capacity
and Yield
What Storage Capacity is Required?
E
x
a
m
p
l
e
:

C
o
m
p
u
t
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

r
e
q
u
i
r
e
d

w
a
t
e
r

s
t
o
r
a
g
e

c
a
p
a
c
i
t
y

Total water demand = Ir + WL + Wd
= 18,900 + 2,250 + 1,440 = 22,590m
3

Losses = Evaporation losses + Seepage losses
Evaporation losses = ETo X Surface area of reservoir =
6mm/d x 1000 m² = 6 m³ /d
Seepage losses assumed equal to 6mm/d
Total seepage losses = Seepage loss X Bottom and side wall areas =
6mm/d X 1500 m² = 9 m³ /d
Total losses = (Evaporation losses + Seepage losses ) X Dry period =
(6 + 9 m³ /d) x 90d = 1350 m³
Required Storage Capacity = Total water demand + Losses =
22,590 + 1,350 = 23,940 m
3

Hydrology
Unit 6 + 7
Storage
Capacity
and Yield
Assessment of Annual Safe Yield in Seasonal Streams
Assessment of annual safe yield:
• Get annual runoff or rainfall amount
• Make frequency analysis
Probability in %
99.8 67 1

A
n
n
u
a
l

r
u
n
o
f
f


i
n

m
3

Hydrology
Unit 6 + 7
Storage
Capacity
and Yield
Determination of Peak Discharge
Peak discharge: the maximum amount of runoff (discharge) for
which the structures are designed.
Computation Methods
Adapted from
Baban 1996
- Flood Frequency analysis
< 5000 km
2
Unit Hydrograph
- Empirical
< 50km
2
Rational Method
Applicable
catchment area
Methods
Hydrology
Unit 6 + 7
Storage
Capacity
and Yield
Rational Formula (method)
Determination of Peak Discharge
Qp = Kr x I x C
3.6

Qp : peak flood discharge (m3/s)
Kr : rational runoff coefficient (different from K,
annual or seasonal runoff coefficient)
I : rainfall intensity (mm/hr)
C : area of the catchment (km2)
Hydrology
Unit 6 + 7
Storage
Capacity
and Yield
Rational Method: Steps
Step 1:
Compute time of concentration, tc, with the following formula.
tc = 0.019471 x L
0.77

G
0.385
Determination of Peak Discharge
tc : time of concentration (minutes)
L : maximum length of travel of water (m)
G : slope of the catchment, H/L, H is the difference
in elevation between the outlet & remote point.
Hydrology
Unit 6 + 7
Storage
Capacity
and Yield
Remote
Point
Outlet
point
A
B
Catchment map
L
H

Section A-B
A
B
Step 1: (Continued)
Determination of H and L
from the catchment map.
Rational Method : Steps
Determination of Peak Discharge
Hydrology
Unit 6 + 7
Storage
Capacity
and Yield
Step 2: Find the corresponding intensity (I) for duration equal to
tc for a certain return period, from the Intensity - duration -
frequency curve prepared for the area.
Determination of Peak Discharge
Rational Method : Steps
A
v
e
r
a
g
e

I
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
m
m
/
h
r
)

Return period -
years
15
50
100
Duration (h)
tc
I
Intensity -
duration -
frequency curve
(sample)
Hydrology
Unit 6 + 7
Storage
Capacity
and Yield
Determination of Peak Discharge
Rational Method : Steps
Step 3: Select suitable rational runoff coefficient Kr, having knowledge
of the surface cover of the catchment area. Use the following table.
Values of
rational runoff
coefficient kr;
adapted from
Baban 1996

0.70
0.60

0.40
0.30
Tight clay
cultivated
woodland
Sandy loam
cultivated
woodland
Hilly Area

0.50
0.40

0.20
0.10
Tight clay
cultivated
woodland
Sandy loam
cultivated
woodland
Flat Area
Value of Kr Land cover General Slope
Hydrology
Unit 6 + 7
Storage
Capacity
and Yield
Determination of Peak Discharge
Rational Method : Steps
Step 4: Compute Qp using the rational formula.
Qp = Kr x I x C
3.6
Hydrology
Unit 6 + 7
Storage
Capacity
and Yield
Determination of Peak Discharge
Example: Determination of peak discharge
Runoff from a catchment, which is 0.9 km
2
large, is required to be harvested
and stored in a small earth reservoir. Determine the 15 year(probability of 6.7%)
peak discharge for designing the dam spillway.
From the topographic map of the area & field observation:
• length of the catchment along the main drain (L) is 800m
• slope (G) of the land is 0.7%
• catchment is woodland on sandy loam
From a meteorological station nearby, the following data was obtained.
Maximum depth of rainfall with 15 year return period
Duration (minutes) 5 10 20 30 40 60
Depth of rainfall (mm) 17 26 40 50 57 62
Hydrology
Unit 6 + 7
Storage
Capacity
and Yield
Determination of Peak Discharge
Example: Determination of Peak discharge
Step 1: Computation of tc
tc = 0.019471 x L
0.77
= 0.019471 x 800
0.77
= 22.6 minutes
G
0.385
0.007
0.385

Step 2: Look for the corresponding intensity for duration of 22.6 minutes .
• From the given table, interpolating for 22.6 minutes of duration yields 42.6mm of
rainfall i.e. I = (42.6mm/22.6minutes) x 60 minutes/hour = 113.1 mm/hr
Step 3: Select suitable value for rational runoff coefficient Kr
• For sandy loam, woodland and hilly area, Kr = 0.3
Step 4: Use rational formula to compute Qp
Qp = (Kr x I x c)/3.6 = (0.3 x 113.1 x 0.9)/3.6 = 8.48m
3
/s
Hydrology
Unit 6 + 7
Storage
Capacity
and Yield
Spillway Design
Spillway is a structure constructed at a dam site, for effectively
disposal of the dam surplus water from upstream to downstream.
B) Lined spillway
Dam
Reservoir
A) Natural spillway
Dam
Reservoir
Safety valve of a dam!
Hydrology
Unit 6 + 7
Storage
Capacity
and Yield
Spillway Design
Design Criteria
• Enough capacity to dispose peak discharge
• Maximum permissible velocity not to erode parts of structures
Qp
Cost
Risk
Hydrology
Unit 6 + 7
Storage
Capacity
and Yield
Spillway Design
Design Steps - Fixing flow depth & bottom width
Step 1: Compute the peak discharge Qp,
(use rational formula)
Step 3: Compute Flow area, A.
A =
Q p
v
Step 2: Compute hydraulic radius R,
(use Manning’s formula)

v : mean velocity
n : manning’s roughness coefficient
s : bed slope
v n
s
R = ( )
3/2
Hydrology
Unit 6 + 7
Storage
Capacity
and Yield
Spillway Design
Design Steps - Fixing flow depth & bottom width
Step 4: Compute wetted
perimeter, P.
P
A
R
=
( )
( )
y
P P A H H
H H
1
4 2 1
2 2 1
2 2
2
=
+ ÷ + ÷
+ ÷
( )
( )
y
P P A H H
H H
2
4 2 1
2 2 1
2 2
2
=
÷ ÷ + ÷
+ ÷
Step 5: Compute flow depth, y.
The solution gives two values.
P
y
b

1
H
Side slope: H: V ( H: 1)
Hydrology
Unit 6 + 7
Storage
Capacity
and Yield
Spillway Design
Design Steps - Fixing flow depth & bottom width
Step 6: Compute bottom width, b. Two values
are computed corresponding to y values.



From (y1, b1) & (y2, b2) select the reasonable
pairs, i.e. non-negative one.
b P y H 1 1
2
2 1 = ÷ +
b P y H 2 2
2
2 1 = ÷ +
Hydrology
Unit 6 + 7
Storage
Capacity
and Yield
Spillway Design
Example: Spillway design
A spillway is to be designed using the following input values.
Peak flow , Qp = 50m
3
/s
Spillway channel slope, s = 0.02
Roughness coefficient , n = 0.03
Maximum permissible velocity = 4.0m/s
Side slope of spillway channel 3: 1 (H:V)
Hydrology
Unit 6 + 7
Storage
Capacity
and Yield
Spillway Design
E
x
a
m
p
l
e

:


S
p
i
l
l
w
a
y

d
e
s
i
g
n

Step 1: Qp = 50 m3/ (given)
Step 2: Compute R, = 0.78 m
Step 3: Compute A, A = Qp/V = 50/4 = 12.5 m
2

Step 4: Compute P, P = A/R = 12.5/0.78 = 16.03 m
Step 5: Compute y (y1 & y2),
=
× |
\

|
.
|
4 003
002
3 2
.
.
/
R
vn
s
=
|
\

|
.
|
3 2 /
( )
( )
y
P P A H H
H H
1
4 2 1
2 2 1
2 2
2
=
+ ÷ + ÷
+ ÷
( )
( )
=
+ ÷ × + ÷
+ ÷
1603 1603 4 125 2 3 1 3
2 2 3 1 3
2 2
2
. . .
= 3.84 m
( )
( )
y
P P A H H
H H
2
2 2
2
4 2 1
2 2 1
=
÷ ÷ + ÷
+ ÷
( )
( )
=
÷ ÷ × + ÷
+ ÷
1603 1603 4 125 2 3 1 3
2 2 3 1 3
2 2
2
. . .
= 0.98 m
Hydrology
Unit 6 + 7
Storage
Capacity
and Yield
Spillway Design
E
x
a
m
p
l
e

:


S
p
i
l
l
w
a
y

d
e
s
i
g
n

Step 6: Compute b (b1 & b2)




The flow depth value of 3.83m yields a negative bottom width
and hence rejected. Therefore, the correct values are:
• Flow depth (y ) = 0.98 m &
• Bottom width (b) = 9.83 m
b P y H 1 1
2
2 1 = ÷ +
= ÷ × + 16 03 2 384 3 1
2
. .
= - 8.26
b P y H 2 2
2
2 1 = ÷ +
= ÷ × + 16 03 2 0 98 3 1
2
. .
= 9.83
Hydrology
Unit 6 + 7
Storage
Capacity
and Yield
• The required storage capacity is fixed by water demand
(Irrigation, livestock and domestic) and losses in the reservoir
• Evapotranspiration varies over growing stages, in climate and variety
of crops
• Average rate of animal water consumption is 25 - 60 liters/animal/day
• Human average rate of water consumption is 40 liters/person/day
• Spillway is “safety valve of a dam”
Summary