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Dimitri Mendeleev was the first scientist to publish an organized periodic table of the known elements.
The „Periodic Law‟ states: When arranged by increasing atomic number, the chemical elements display a regular and repeating pattern of chemical and physical properties.
Besides the 4 blocks of the table, there is another way of classifying element: Metals Nonmetals Metalloids or Semi-metals. The following slide shows where each group is found.
43 Å .86 angstroms apart.86 Å 1.43 Å. the radius of each atom is 1. 2.43 Å 1. Two Br atoms bonded together are 2. So.
. making the atoms larger with each step.The trend for atomic radius in a group is to go from smaller at the top to larger at the bottom. an entirely new shell added to the electron cloud. With each step down the group.
.The trend across a horizontal period is less obvious. Electrons are added to existing shells or subshells. Each step adds a proton and an electron (and 1 or 2 neutrons).
. The ENC is the positive charge that an electron experiences from the nucleus.The effect is that the more positive nucleus has a greater pull on the electron cloud because the shielding effect remains the same. the electron cloud is pulled in tighter. As effective nuclear charge increases.
The shielding effect is The attraction for electrons in the outermost shell by the nucleus is shielded by electrons in lower energy levels / inner shells. The smaller is the radius. the more pull it feels.Atoms become smaller as we move from left to right across a period. . The closer an electron is to the nucleus.
Atomic Radii for Main Group Elements (s. Atomic radii actually decrease across a row.p) . Within group the atomic radii tend to increase.
giant covalent & simple molecular . ∆Hvapour = heat change when 1 mole element is converted frm liquid to vapour @ its bp Depends on 2 factors : 1. Bonding – metallic. covalent & van der waals 2. Structure – giant metallic.
In P2. mp & bp increase from Li to giant molecule C Decrease abruptly to simple molecule N until monoatomic Ne The same trend is repeated for mp & bp across P3 mp & bp S > P since molecular size S8 > P4 .
Same trend also observed for enthalpies of vapourisation going across P2 & P3 .
bp >> mp oP2 > P3 . atomic radii of metals smaller. Giant metallic structure oMoving across metals in P2 & P3. ALL metallic bonds still exist have to be broken. stronger metallic bonds in P2 .& nuclear charge oMetallic bonds become stronger oConsequently mp. bp & ∆Hvapour increases oMetals change frm liq to vap. gradual ↑ in valence e.
bp & ∆Hvapour are very high omp (loosen the bond) < bp (break all bonds) . giant covalent / network / giant crystal lattice structure oStrong covalent bonds must be broken before solid melts. C (graphte/diamond) & Si . omp. Giant covalent structure oB.
Ar oAr > Ne . O2 oCl2 > F2. S8. Simple molecular structure oAll non-metallic elements in P2 & P3 form small & discrete molecules oCovalent bonds within molecules are strong. but VdW forces between molecules are weak omp. bp & ∆Hvapour are low oVdW forces ↑ as molecular size ↑ oP4. > N2.
Structure and Properties Structure Giant metallic Bonding Metallic Formula Type of Metallic force bond broken on melting/ boiling Period Li 2 Be Giant metallic Metallic Metallic bond B Giant covalent Covalent Covalent bond C Giant covalent Covalent Covalent bond N Simple molecule Covalent N2 VdW O Simple molecule Covalent O2 VdW F Simple molecule Covalent F2 VdW Ne Monato mic Ne VdW Structure Bonding Formula Type of force broken on melting/ boiling Period Na 3 Mg Giant metallic Metallic Metallic bond Al Giant metallic Metallic Metallic bond Si Giant covalent Covalent Covalent bond P Simple molecule Covalent P4 VdW S Simple molecule Covalent S8 VdW Cl Simple molecule Covalent Cl2 VdW Ar Monato mic Ar VdW Giant metallic Metallic Metallic bond .Bonding.
Structure and Properties .
EC decreases • Metal are good conductors in solid or molten state . delocalised electrons present . Elements in P2 & P3 can be classified into : ◦ Metals ◦ Metalloids ◦ Non-metals Across P2 & P3.
all valence e. C(graphite) & Si higher than non-metals but lower than metals . no mobile eMetalloids are poor conductors • EC of B. no mobile electrons • Noble gases – stable octet arrangement .• • Non-metals are non-conductors .used to form covalent bonds.
it can leave the atom completely. If an electron is given enough energy (in the form of a photon) to overcome the effective nuclear charge holding the electron in the cloud. Lower IE. more easily its electrons can be removed . The number of protons and electrons is no longer equal. The atom has been “ionized” or charged.
Depends on : ◦ Distance between outer e.Def : The min energy required to remove 1 mol electron from substance in gaseous state (measured in kilojoules.and nucleus ◦ Size of nuclear charge ◦ Shielding/screening effect . kJ) Ionization energy is always endothermic. that is energy is added to the atom to remove the electron.
• IE decreases as atomic radius increases • Distance btwn outer e.& nucleus ⇑.are shielded from attraction of nucleus by many inner shells electrons . attraction of +ve charge nucleus for -ve charge e-⇓ • Nuclear charge ⇑. ⇓ IE • Valence e.by +vely charged nucleus stronger • ⇑ screening effect. IE ⇑ • Attraction on -ve charge outer e.
ENC becomes higher as the number of protons in the nucleus of the atom becomes larger. N > B. . Mg. Be. O : P3 . S b) With an electron already in the orbital there is repulsion between the two in the same orbital and it comes out with less IE. P > Al. IE (1st) is larger . •Exceptions : P2 .a) as we go across P2 & P3.
Be : 1s22s2 B : 1s22s22p1 P3 .P2 . Mg : 1s22s23s2 Al: 1s22s22p63s23p1 •More energy is required to remove an electron from a fully filled s orbital than a singly occupied p orbital P2 . N : 1s22s22p3 O: 1s22s22p4 P3 . P : 1s22s22p63s23p3 S: 1s22s22p63s23p4 •More energy is required to remove an electron from a half filled p orbital than a partial filled p orbital .
and 4th electrons and so on. and 4th ionization energies are those required to remove the 2nd. d) The 2nd. 3rd.c) The trend going down a group shows a decrease in the IE1 which corresponds to an increase in the atomic radius. 3rd. .
Increase because ions produced become more +ve as more electrons are removed. The atom has been “ionized” or charged. more easily its electrons can be removed . The number of protons and electrons is no longer equal. Lower IE.
Big jump shows how many valence electrons .
with 3 shells & 1 valence electron e. thus it is K.Big jump Frm SIE. 19 electrons contain in this element.confg : 1s22s22p6 3s23p64s1 .
Eg 1 : The graph of log IE of elements X is given above. hence its identity. Determine the electron configuration & position of X in the Periodic Table. Cl . Sol : element X consists of 3 shells with 7 valence electrons 1s22s22p63s23p5 P3. G17 .
G2 (Period unknown since SIE partially !!!) . Ans : ns2 .Eg 2 :Partial SIE of an element Q is as follows. Determine the valence shell configuration & position of Q in the Periodic Table.
Reaction with oxygen Reaction with water Hydrolysis of oxides Acidic & basic properties of oxides .
Magnesium Magnesium burns with an intense white flame to give white solid.Rx ĉ Oxygen Sodium Sodium burns with an orange flame to produce the white solid. .
. Sprinkle of aluminium powder into flame. otherwise the strong oxide layer inhibit the reaction. white sparkles is produced. White solid silicon dioxide is produced. Silicon Silicon will burn if heated strongly.Aluminium Aluminium will burn if powdered. White aluminium oxide is formed.
with a white flame and producing clouds of white smoke . the product is almost entirely phosphorus(V) oxide: .Phosphorus White phosphorus catches fire spontaneously in air. In excess oxygen.a mixture of phosphorus(III) oxide and phosphorus(V) oxide.
Cl2O (yellowish gas) & Cl2O7 (colourless liquid) prepared by other means.Sulphur Sulphur burns on gentle heating with a pale blue flame. . Chlorine – no effect . some SO3 is also formed. It produces colourless sulphur dioxide gas. In excess oxygen.
S & Cl2 – smaller size & higher IE Eg : Cl2 oxidises Fe(II) to Fe(III) . Mg. Al – larger size & lower IE Eg : Al used in thermite rx to extract Cr by reducing Cr2O3 Good oxidising agent (electron acceptors) @ P.Ability as Ox Agt & Rd Agt Good reducing agents (electron donors) @ Na.
Reactions with oxygen Sodium Magnesium Which is which? Sulphur .
Rx ĉ Water 2Na + 2H2O 2NaOH + H2 (vigorously ĉ cold water) Mg + 2H2O Mg(OH) 2 + H2 (vigorously ĉ steam) 2Al + 3H2O Al2O3 + 3H2(vigorously ĉout protective oxide layer) Si + 2H2O SiO2 + 2H2 (slow ĉ steam @ red heat) P & S – do not react under any conditions Cl2 + H2O HCl + HClO(dissolves sparingly to form acids ) .
Chemical properties of the oxides Reaction of oxides with water Na2O + H2O 2NaOH -dissolves readily in water. no hydrolysis occur .insoluble in water. MgO + H2O Mg(OH)2 -undergoes hydrolysis to produce OHAl2O3 . undergoes hydrolysis to produce OHMgO sparingly soluble in water.
Reaction of oxides with water SiO2 .Hydrolysis occur to produce H+.insoluble in water.Hydrolysis occur to produce H+ SO2 + H2O H2SO3 (dissolves readily) SO3 + H2O H2SO4 (very exothermic) . no hydrolysis occur P4O10 + 6H2O 4H3PO4 (vigorously ĉ water) P4O6 + 6H2O 4H3PO3 .SO3 more acidic than SO2 Cl2O + H2O 2HClO (decompose to light to produce HCl & O2) Cl2O7 + H2O 2HClO4 .
Acid/base properties of oxides Na2O dissolves in water to produce strong alkali Na2O + H2O 2NaOH MgO dissolves slowly in hot dilute acids MgO + H2SO4 → MgSO4 + H2O .
concentrated alkali (ionic compnd with covalent character) to show amphoteric nature BASE : ACID: Al2O3+ 3H2SO4 → Al2(SO4)3 + 3H2O 2NaAl(OH)4 Al2O3+ 2NaOH + 3H2O → .Al2O3 dissolves slowly in hot dilute mineral acids & hot.
S & Cl react with alkalis to produce salts P4O10 + 12NaOH 4Na3PO4 + 6H2O P4O6 + 12NaOH 4Na3PO3 + 6H2O SO2 + 2NaOH Na2SO3 + H2O SO3 + 2NaOH Na2SO4 + H2O Cl2O + 2NaOH 2NaOCl + H2O Cl2O7 + 2NaOH 2NaClO4 + H2O .SiO2 reacts as weak acid SiO2 + 2NaOH Na2SiO3 + H2O Oxides of P.
Use of SO2 in Food Preservative -Widely used in food & beverage industries. -Prevent growth of bacteria & avoid rancidity of f&b . -Preservatives & antioxidant => mild reducing & acidic properties.
END OF PERIODIC TABLE : PERIODICITY .
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