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BY Mrs. Rajeshwari Rayudu

COUNSELLING is a professional service and involves process of helping individuals to understand themselves and to overcome various problems that they face. Hence it is helping relationship in which counselor facilitates growth in clients.

Concept of counseling
As a helping relationship characterized in core conditions . As a set of activities and methods. As an area of special focus for the delivery of counseling services ,to the needs of more disturbed.

Core Conditions Of A Counselor

Empathy Understanding Respect for clients potentials. Genuineness and congruence.

Helping Relationship
People who use counseling skills are as follows:
Professional counselors and psychotherapist Para professional counselors. Voluntary counselors. Helpers using counseling skills as part of their jobs. Peer helpers Informal helpers.

Set of activities in counseling

Client-counselors relationship is important but not sufficient for the client to change. Counseling is a set of activities and methods including an empathetic relationship .


Hence counseling is a professional service of helping individuals and is offered by qualified counselor. Client counselor relation ship is basic. It is concerned with decision-making skills and problem-resolution. It involves the client learning new behavior or formulating new attitudes. It involves certain skills that facilitates the counselor-client relation ship . It is a mutual enterprise on the part of the counselor and client and is based on respect for

What is the purpose of counseling?

It is to provide help to the client in order to deal with a specific concern. Hence counseling is classified into following types: 1.Facilitative 2.Crisis 3.Preventive 4.Developmental

Facilitative counseling it clarifies the concerns of the clients trough understanding and acceptance. It is a process of helping a person from deficient stage to functional one.

The problems addressed are;

Improve study habits and skills Receive better marks Academics planning Academic weakness Select a career Know about aptitude and interests Improve peer relations Prepare for exams Plan a course of study Marriage or interpersonal relations Getting along with spouse/other family members

Crisis counseling : it deals with helping the clients in situations which are incapacitating . Crisis is a state of disorganization in which the person faces frustration and cannot cope with the stress.
Crisis situation: Suicide attempts Unwanted pregnancy Death of loved ones Divorce Hospitalization Imprisonment Drug addiction Infidelity Natural disasters ,earthquake ,floods.

Developmental counseling: it is an ongoing process that occurs through out the individuals life span. It includes the following:

Developing and maintaining a positive self-concept. Finding an appropriate lifestyle as it relates to use of working and leisure time . Learning and using decision- making skills. Clarifying ones current values and interests. Understanding and accepting changes. Developing a understanding of the life process from birth to death.

It is basically programmatic. Such

counseling could involve a school or college sex education program me in order to provide information safe sex and avoid illnesses such as HIV/AIDS . Drug awareness ,retirement options and communication skills are other areas that can be approached systematically by preventive counseling. The counselor may also continue to work individually with clients either in a group or on a one-to-one basis.


1.1850-1900: The first psychological laboratory was established at LEIPZIG by Wilhelm Wundt in 1879. 2.1895: Vocational programme in San Francisco by George Merill . 3.First psychological clinic was found by Lightner Witmer in 1896. 4.Free clinic in mental development was established by J.B.Miner in 1909. 5.The term for counseling was first used by J.B.Davis and

1900-1930 Period
Vocational Guidance movement grew in educational,civic,and ,social work. The guidance consisted of giving necessary occupational information. World war I gave an impetus to the psychology in general and guidance in particular. Army alpha and Army Beta tests in 1917 for screening the defense personnel. J.B.Miner developed the first questionnaire in 1908. R.S.Woodworth and F.L.Wells developed psychometric tests in

1930-1940 Period Vocational guidance movement and is different from vocational selection. Parsons launched his vocational bureau without psychological tests. Two world wars gave importance to psychological tests like C.L.Hulls Aptitude Testing and E.K.Strong Strong Interest Vocational Blank. Hoppocks work Job Satisfaction made Guidance movement psychologically oriented. D.Patterson and E.G. Williamsons provided individuals with adequate knowledge to make meaningful


Breakthrough in Counseling as a Science was achieved by Carl Rogers book Counseling and Psychotherapy. 1944- the Army separation and counseling program published General Aptitude Test Battery. American Psychological Association designated Counseling Psychology .


SUPPORTIVE THERAPIES: It restores the individuals adaptive capacities . How it is done: By teaching him new ways to maintain and control by strengthening the existing defenses against anxiety. It involves :persuasion ,pressure, environmental manipulation, suggestive hypnosis, muscular relaxation use of drugs. Behavior modification and learning approaches come under this category.

Ethical issues in counseling

Ethics : are rules of conduct of moral standards for different situations. The four areas to be addressed are Competence Client autonomy Confidentiality Client protection

Relationship competence offering good relationship. Technical competence the ability to assess clients and to deliver interventions. Readiness to practice counselor requires appropriate training an practice before they are ready to see client. Fitness to practice they have satisfactory counseling skills .

The right to make the choices that works best for them is principle underlying client autonomy. No unrealistic and unnecessary explanations by the counselors to the clients. Clients should be treated as intelligent participants . Cultural values and backgrounds of the client should be respected. Confidentiality ; clients have right to control the disclosure of personal information .