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R.N. Meroney C.W. Letchford P.P. Sarkar
Domes are commonly used to enclose large spaces because of their structural efficiency and economic benefit. Domes are excellent at resisting symmetric loading, but Asymmetric loading may cause structural distress and failure.
Fukui. Min Houston Astrodome Little Sports Palace. Rome Sun Dome. Denver Hubert H. Japan 7 .Domed Sports Halls & Stadiums Pepsi Center. Humphrey Metro-Dome.
U. of Illinois Urbana/Champ 8 .Assembly Hall Dome Assembly Hall.
Barlow Planetarium. London.000 sq m floor space ^ 9 Museums and Halls. CA . 80.Domed Public Buildings ^ Public Exhibition Halls Millennium Dome. 320 m diameter.
Atlanta Silverdome. MI 10 . Osaka Exposition 1970 RCA (Hoosier) Dome Indianapolis. IN Carrier Stadium. Syracuse University Georgia Dome.Inflated Domes US Pavilion. Pontiac.
Tokyo. Japan 11 .Inflated Domes (contd) Tokyo Dome “Big Egg” Stadium.
Water and Wastewater Treatment Covers Temcor Aluminum Domes Triangulated space truss system with triangulated panels 13 .Bulk Storage: Dust Supression.
Shotcrete applied to interior of inflated airform mounted on footer and stem wall 14 . CA Export Terminal Coke Storage Domes Construction Two 73 m (240 ft) diameter hemispheres.Bulk Storage: Coke Piles Pittsburgh. CA Marine Terminal Coke Storage Domes Three 55 m (180 ft) diameter hemispheres Los Angeles.
Rough Surface Hemispheres Sometimes construction technique leaves surface texture rough! 15 .
WIND RESEARCH & DESIGN .
CFD Validation Using Physical Modeling VERIFICATION BEFORE PROGNOSTICATION 19 .
Internal pressures must not be too large or excessive membrane or tensile forces occur. and membrane tears.Wind Effects on Hemispherical Domes Inflated domes require internal pressures exceeding external pressures to avoid buckling. 24 .
25.5. H/=0.12-0.Wind-tunnel Study of Inflated Domes 1 2 3 Newman.13. 25 . 0.5 m/s.44 of the dynamic pressure at the dome top. Ganguli and Shrivastava (1984) studied pressure distributions on three inflatable domes in a boundary layer.7-0. H/D = 0.000 FEM calculations show buckling occurs on plane of symmetry and upwind when the internal inflation pressures < 0. Re=UD/=226. U=7.37 & 0.
CSU WEFL Wind Tunnel Experiment CSU WEFL Industrial Aerodynamics Wind Tunnel Hot Film Anemometer Postprocess Software PC-NT Computer Pressure Transducer Pressure Scanner 26 .
8 m ASCE 7-98C Windtunnel Velocity Contours: Umax = 15 m/s 27 .Wind-Tunnel Initial Conditions Grid: 86.000 cells Z = 1m Z = 0.
400 Cells 43.000 Cells 16.Grid Systems: One and Two Domes 18.000 Cells 33.000 Cells 28 .
Hemisphere Grids Boundary layer & Hex Grid Boundary layer & Tet Grid 30 .
Velocity & Turbulence Profiles: Single Dome Comparisons 31 .
Single Dome Comparisons: Pressure Profiles 32 .
440.Single Dome Comparisons: Reynolds Number Variation Reynolds Number = (U H/) = 185.000 Conclusion: No significant difference 33 .000 Reynolds Number = (U H/) = 1.
Single Dome Comparisons: Turbulence Models Standard kappaepsilon model (2 equations) Reynolds stress model (7 equations) Spalart Allmaras model (1 equation) Conclusion: No significant difference 34 .
Single Dome Comparisons: Pressure Profiles 35 .
Single Dome Comparisons: Smooth vs Rough 36 .
Double Dome Comparisons Approach wind at 90o 37 .
Double Dome Comparisons Approach wind at 90o 38 .
45o & 90o 39 .Surface Pressures: Angles 0o.
Pressure Coefficient Contours: Experimental vs Numerical: Approach wind at 0o Cp Contours: numerical Cp Contours: experimental 39 40 .
Double Dome Comparisons Approach wind at 0o 41 .
Double Dome Comparisons Approach wind at 45o 43 .
Pressure Coefficient Contours: Experimental vs Numerical: Approach wind at 90o Cp Contours: numerical Cp Contours: experimental 46 .
Double Dome Comparisons Approach wind at 90o 47 .
Conclusions CFD calculations reproduced mean Cp behavior over smooth. and Rey turbulence models gave similar results. rough and paired domes. 48 . CFD calculations using k-. CFD calculations at high and low Reynolds numbers gave similar results. RNG.
Approaching the End WHALE WATCHING IS NOT AN EMERGENCY KEEP DRIVING GOOD LUCK 49 .
The End 50 .