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Binary Search Trees vs.

Binary Heaps

Binary Search Tree Condition


Given a node i
i.value is the stored object i.left and i.right point to other nodes

All of is left children and grand-children are less than i.value All of is right children and grand-children are greater than i.value

Binary Search Trees


Binary search trees can be easily implemented using arrays.
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Binary Search Trees


Root is at index 1 (i = 1) Left(i) { return i*2; } Right(i) { return i*2 + 1; }

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Binary Search Trees


bool Find_rec(int x, int i) { if (a[i] == -1 ) return false; else if (x == a[i]) return true; else if (x < a[i]) Find_rec(x, i*2); else Find_rec(x, i*2+1); } bool Find(int x) { return Find_rec(x, 1); }

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Binary Search Tree Features


Find O(log N) on average Insert in proper order O(log N) on average
O(log N) to find the correct location + O(1) to perform insertion

Return Min O(log N) on average


Keep moving left until you see a -1

Return Max O(log N) on average


Keep moving left until you see a -1

Print in-order O(N) all the time


See in-order traversal in book

Priority Queue (Min)


Three functions
push(x) pushes the value x into the queue min() return the minimum value in the queue delete() removes the minimum value in the queue

Tons of applications:
OS process queues, Transaction Processing, Packet routing in advanced networks, used in various other algoriothms

Priority Queue (Min)


Consider using an un-order Array
push(x) O(1) just add it to the end of the array. min() O(N) sequential search for min value delete() O(N) might have to shift entire array

Priority Queue (Min)


Consider using an Ordered Array
push(x) O(N) to find correct location and shift array appropriately min() O(1) return the first value delete() O(N) might have to shift entire array Recall using an un-order Array
push(x) O(1) just add it to the end of the array. min() O(N) sequential search for min value delete() O(N) might have to shift entire array

Priority Queue (Min)


Why are simple array implementation bad? O(N) is not a problem, right? Consider this application:
A private network router has 10 million packets coming in every minute (mostly junk, spam, etc.) and I only want to let through the top 1 million (#1 is top priority min)

Priority Queue (Min)


N = 10 million in-coming packets M = 1 million out-going packets (top priority priority #1) Consider using an Ordered Array push(x) O(N) Must do this N times N*N min() O(1) delete() O(1) Must do this M times M Recall using an un-order Array push(x) O(1) Must do this N time (not a problem) min() O(N) Must do this M times N*M delete() O(N) Must do this M times N*M

N*M
N all the packets 10 million M 1 million top priority packets Must be processed in one minute. Assume your computer can do 10 billion operation per second 600 billion operation in one minute. Unfortunately, N*M is 10 trillion operations.

Priority Queue (Min)


Consider using an BST
push(x) O(log N) add to the correct position Log(n) * n, n = 10,000,000 min() O(log N) return the left-most node delete() O(log N) Recall using an un-order Array
push(x) O(1) just add it to the end of the array. min() O(N) sequential search for min value delete() O(N) might have to shift entire array

Priority Queue (Min)


Is this possible?
push(x) O(1) to find correct location an shift array appropriately min() O(1) return the first value delete() O(log N)

Binary Heaps (Min Heap)


Given a node i
i.value is the stored object i.left and i.right point to other nodes

All of is left children and grand-children are greater than i.value All of is right children and grand-children are greater than i.value

Binary Heaps (Min Heap)


Binary heaps can be easily implemented using arrays.
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Binary Heap Features


Find O(N) requires sequential search Insert in proper order O(1) on average
Amazing Heap Property

Return Min O(log N) on average


O(1) to return min O(log N) to restore the heap property

Print in-order O(N log N) requires progressively deleting the min.

Priority Queue (Min)


N = 10 million in-coming packets M = 1 million out-going packets (top priority priority #1) Consider using an Heap push(x) O(1) Must do this N times (not a problem) min() O(1) delete() O(log N) Must do this M times log(N)*M Recall using an un-order Array push(x) O(1) Must do this N time (not a problem) min() O(N) Must do this M times N*M delete() O(N) Must do this M times N*M

log(N)*M
N all the packets 10 million M 1 million top priority packets Must be processed in one minute. Assume your computer can do 1 billion operation per second 60 billion operation in one minute. What is log(N)*M?

Summary: Priority Queue Implementations


BST Implementation
Push: O(log N) Find Min: O(log N) Remove Min: O(log N)
Pushing N = 10,000,000 230 million operations Removing M minimums M = 1,000,000 20 million operations

Binary Heap Implement.


Push: O(1) Find Min: O(1) Remove Min: O(log N)
Pushing N = 10,000,000 10 million operations Removing M minimums M = 1,000,000 20 million operations