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Comparative analysis of national forest policies 1984,1952,1988

N.Kanagaraj
BSF-06-007
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FOREST POLICY 1894

Dr Voelcker -The improvement of Indian Agriculture [Chapter VIII ] It is mainly concentrate only agriculture growth. Supplying small timber for public benefits Diverting forest land to agricultural purposes
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Forest area divided in to

1. Protected forest- improvement of climatic


2. Commercial forest- supply of timber 3. Minor forests- collection of fire wood 4. Pasture lands- cattle raring
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Shifting cultivation; Large area of forest degraded No restriction for Shifting cultivation Loss of soil nutrients

Forest

used for supplying fuel and fodder or grazing for local consumption

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Forest was used;


small timber -building wood - fuel leaves - manure ,fodder thorns -fencing grass -grazing for cattle edible products -foods

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No mention about ;

Sciencetific management of forest Forest conservation Wild life conservation Women involument Tribal development Forestry Research and education

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FOREST POLICY1952

The First Forest Policy of 1894 was revised in 1952 . on the basis of six dominant needs of the country, essential national needs ; The need for balanced and complementary land-use. The need for checking of soil erosion

Denudation in the catchments areas for soil and water conservation


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Establishing treelands- public use

Ensuring increasing supplies of grazing, small wood for agricultural implements,

sustained supply of timber - defense, communications and industry.

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Functional classification of forests; (A) Protection forests- Physical, climatic


considerations

(B) National forests-Defence, communications, industry, (C) Village forest-Local requirements (D) Tree lands- Public use

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The duty of the Forest Departments concerned

Establishment of tree lands;

The need extreme species of commercial importance:


To establish nurseries and seed stores To supervise the planting of trees, may be necessary for the development treelands.

Tree awareness among the people by publicity, by celebrating the VanaMahotsava,

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Control of private forests; Excessive exploitation of forests for personal use. In order to arrest such destruction of forests,

Proportion of forest areas; Maintaining one-third of its total land area under forests.
60 % forests in the Himalayas, the Deccan, and other mountainous 20% forests-In the plains.

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Wild Life: A Central Board for Wild life has been constituted by the Government of India in the Ministry of Food and Agriculture at 4th April, 1952. Grazing: Grazing should be regulated.

Continuous grazing in the same area should controlled. Grazing rate should be kept at a minimum in 'Protection Forests'.
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Shifting cultivation shifting cultivation converted to Taungya


Sustained yields Afforestation schemes to replace inferior tree. sustained forest operations such as replacement of what is removed annually Forest education Forestry courses are conducted for Forest Rangers,Superior Officers at the FRI, Dehradun.

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cooperation with industry; Contact between the Forest department and industries utilization of the results of research in industrial benefit. Forest budgets Forestry is a long range enterprise Income from supply of large timber for defense and industry Supply of large-sized timber is greater importance to the general economy of the country
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No mention about;
Women

involument

Tribal

development forestry,agroforestry

Social

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National Forest Policy, 1988


Basic Objectives;

To ensure environmental stability and maintenance of ecological balance Conserving the natural heritage of the country by preserving the remaining natural forests Checking soil erosion and denudation in the catchment areas of rivers
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Increasing substantially through afforestation and social forestry programmes,


Meeting the requirements of fuel-wood, fodder, of the rural and tribal populations. Increasing the productivity of forests to meet essential national needs. Creating a people's movement with the involvement of women, for achieving these objectives.

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Forest area divided in to 1.reserved forest 2.protected forest 3.unclass forest Area under Forests: A minimum of 1/3 rd of the total land area of the country under forest or tree cover. Afforestation, Social Forestry: programme of afforestation and tree planting for fuel wood and fodder

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Tribal development; symbiotic relationship between the tribal people and forests. Forest development corporations should be to associate the tribal people. Employment to people living in and around the forest. Diversion of Forest Lands for Non-forest purposes; Construction of dams and reservoirs, mining and industrial development compensatory by afforestation.

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Wildlife Conservation; Forest Management should take special care of the needs of wildlife conservation.
Necessary

to provide for "corridors" linking the protected areas genetic continuity between artificially separated sub-sections of migrant wildlife.
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Maintain

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Special Attention In Forestry Programmes;


Contractors should be replaced by tribal cooperatives Protection, regeneration and optimum collection of minor forest produce . Family oriented schemes for improving the tribal status . Development programmes to meet the needs of the tribal, economy in and around the forest areas.

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Shifting Cultivation Shifting cultivation is affecting the environment .and productivity of land. It should be rehabilitated through social forestry and energy plantations. Grazing; Grazing and browsing in forest areas need to be controlled. Grazing is stop in forest areas. It is regulated with the involvement of the local people.
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Forest-based Industries

forest-based industry should raise the raw material. provide employment to local people in raising trees and raw-material. Industry should be encouraged to use alternative raw materials.

It is reduced the pressure on nature forest.

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Forestry Research; Increasing the productivity of wood and other forest produce per unit of area per unit time

Research related to social forestry for rural/ tribal development.

Development of substitutes to replace wood and wood products Research related to wildlife and management of national parks and sanctuaries.
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S.NO

CONTENT

1894

1952

1988

1.

objective

Agriculture

Industries

Ecological balance

2.

Wild life conservation No mention

Central Board for Wild life No mention

special care of the needs of wildlife conservation Corporations with tribal Energy plantation

3.

Tribal development

No mention

4.

Shifting cultivation

permitted

Taungya system

5.

Women involvment

No mention

No mention

Women involving in conservation Increasing the productivity through research


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6.

Forestry research and education

No mention

Not much concentrate

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Reference; www.nlsenlaw.org/forest/law-policy/oldforest-policy-october-1894 forest.ap.nic.in/Forest%20Policy-1952.htm envfor.nic.in/divisions/fp/nfp india.gov.in/sectors/environment/forest policy.

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