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INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC DRIVES - MODULE 1

Thermal considerations Unavoidable power losses causes temperature increase Insulation used in the windings are classified based on the temperature it can withstand. Motors must be operated within the allowable maximum temperature

Sources of power losses (hence temperature increase): - Conductor heat losses (i2R) - Core losses hysteresis and eddy current - Friction losses bearings, brush windage

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC DRIVES - MODULE 1

Thermal considerations Electrical machines can be overloaded as long their temperature does not exceed the temperature limit Accurate prediction of temperature distribution in machines is complex hetrogeneous materials, complex geometrical shapes Simplified assuming machine as homogeneous body
Ambient temperature, To

p1

Input heat power (losses)

Thermal capacity, C (Ws/oC) Surface A, (m2) Surface temperature, T (oC)

p2

Emitted heat power (convection)

Continuous duty Short time intermittent duty Periodic intermittent duty

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC DRIVES - MODULE 1

Thermal considerations The duration of overloading depends on the modes of operation: Continuous duty Load torque is constant over extended period multiple Steady state temperature reached Nominal output power chosen equals or exceeds continuous load

T p1n

p1n A

Losses due to continuous load

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC DRIVES - MODULE 1

Thermal considerations

Short time intermittent duty Operation considerably less than time constant, Motor allowed to cool before next cycle Motor can be overloaded until maximum temperature reached

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC DRIVES - MODULE 1

Thermal considerations Short time intermittent duty


p1 p1n p1s

p1s A

Tmax

p1n A

t1

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC DRIVES - MODULE 1

Thermal considerations

Periodic intermittent duty


Load cycles are repeated periodically Motors are not allowed to completely cooled Fluctuations in temperature until steady state temperature is reached

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC DRIVES - MODULE 1

Thermal considerations Periodic intermittent duty

p1 heating heating coolling heating coolling coolling

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC DRIVES - MODULE 1

4-quadrant operation

Te

Te

Direction of positive (forward) speed is arbitrary chosen Direction of positive torque will produce positive (forward) speed

Quadrant 2 Forward braking Quadrant 3 Reverse motoring

Quadrant 1 Forward motoring Quadrant 4 Reverse braking

T
Te m

Te

Regenerative Breaking Overview


Energy Flow: Acceleration Batteries Motor
Speed of Vehicle Ke= * M * V2

Kinetic Energy

Energy Flow: Traditional Braking Heat Loss Brakes Kinetic Energy

Energy Flow: Regenerative Braking Batteries Motor Kinetic Energy