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POLYMER RESEARCH LABORATORY

SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION, AND PROPERTIES OF RUBBER LATICES; (A RVIEW)

POLYMER RESEARCH LABORATORY

Project Director: Prof. Dr. Tahir Jamil


Researcher (Chemical Engineer): Engr. Shahzad Maqsood Khan

POLYMER RESEARCH LABORATORY

INTRODUCTION LATEX

A stable dispersion of polymeric material in an essentially natural or synthetic colloidal suspension.

POLYMER RESEARCH LABORATORY

INTRODUCTION
phase system of Latices

disperse phase Consisting of small particles of polymeric in nature with diameter smaller than 5 microns.

Dispersion medium; contain aqueous, continues or external phase.

POLYMER RESEARCH LABORATORY

HISTORY

Europeans get Latex when Columbus came to the Americas in 1492 In 1770, English chemist Joseph Priestly gave the name rubber. Mesoamerican & Columbian civilizations get familiar with Latex in 1600 BC First emulsion polymerized SBR was in 1930 U. S. Government in 1940 established the Rubber Reserve Company Cold polymerized E-SBR was developed in 1947.

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CLASSIFICATION
CLASSIFICATION

According to Origin

According to chemical nature of the contained polymer

According to physical nature of the contained polymer

Natural latices

Synthetic latices

Artificial latices

Modified latices

Contain Polymer Of rubbery nature

Contain polymer Of resinous nature

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DIFFRENCE B/W LATICES & POLYMER SOLUTIONS


u Latices remain in the fluid from even at high concentrations. u Polymer deposited from latices have High molecular weight High modulus High resistance to deteriorative influences u latices need extra and slow drying than polymer solutions. u Latices thermodynamically unstable and variable.

POLYMER RESEARCH LABORATORY

DIFFRENCE B/W NATURAL & SYNTHETIC LATICES


Latices Have: u Complex geometrical forms. u Large particle size u High wet gel strength u Time of drying is also lower u Dry deposits of latices dont absorb water u Natural rubber latices are non resistant to coacervation by high speed stirring u Chemical composition of the natural rubber latices are complex u Spontaneous coagulation takes place

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Types of latices
Types of latices

Natural Latices

Synthetic Latices

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NATURAL LATEX SYNTHESIS

Latex is a milky sap found in the cells of certain plants (Hevea Brasiliensis) contains 30-45% rubber contents.

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NATURAL LATEX SYNTHESIS


Steps Included:

Planting Tapping Traditional tapping Preservation Fine tapping Producing liquid concentrate Final product through polymerization & ingredients preservatives, vulcanizing agents etc are added Drying sheets or stocks (by extrusion)

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SYNTHETIC LATEX SYNTHESIS


P-39 E-35 E-33 P-45 P-42 E-30 P-44 P-37 E-39 P-51 P-59 P-40 P-37 E-36 P-41 P-56 E-34 E-40 P-57 P-49 P-55 P-53 E-32 P-50 P-40 E-28 P-39 E-38 P-60 P-38

Synthetic Latex Production processes

E-42 P-58 P-47

P-52

P-46 E-41 E-31 P-43 E-25 E-29 E-24 E-23 E-22 E-37

P-35 P-36 P-48

P-26

P-25

P-24

P-23 E-20

E-19 P-30 E-27 P-33

P-34 E-21 E-43 P-32

P-27 P-29

P-31

E-18

P-28

Semi Batch Process

Batch Process

Continues process

Cold Process

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LATEX SYNTHESIS
Water Storage Tank P-272 Chiller P-273 E-104 P-220 Chilled Water in P-274

Hot Water out

E-112 P-236

P-233

P-277

Process Water

Drain P-277

P-274

P-212

Chilled Water in

Chilled Water in

E-111 Drain

P-275

P-212 Condenser

Hot Water out

P-282 Recycle streams

P-283

P-276 P-281 Recycle streams P-280 P-210 P-229 Condenser P-293 E-107

Process Water

Process Water

Process Water

P-206 E-108

P-271

P-291 P-288 Steam Generator E-106 Steam Stripper P-222 Flash Tank Drain P-278 Dosing Tank E-118 E-116 E-117 P-277

Hot Water out

Chilled Water in

E-120 Dosing Tank P-286 P-300

P-272 P-275

Storage Tank

P-296

E-122 Vacuum Distillation P-284

Dosing Tank E-125 P-260 P-206 P-260 Drain E-123 P-262 P-285 E-110 P-279

P-299

E-121 P-301 Vacuum Pump

E-113

P-290 P-216 Pre Emulsification Tank E-105 Reactor P-232 P-292

E-126 Storage Tank P-253


V-1

P-218

P-302

Drain

E-124 E-115 E-127 P-303 P-253 P-245 P-245 Drain P-248 E-114 P-239 E-109 E-103 Filter

P-224

E-102 Filter

Polymer Washing Tank E-119

Drain P-294

P-258

Drain Drain

Drain

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CONTRAST B/W LATEX & SOLID POLYMER TECHNIQUES

u Latices require relatively light and simple machinery so capital outlay is relatively low. u Less processing steps involved. u Solid articles of thick section difficult to make as latices shrink on drying.

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PROPERTIES OF LATICES
Properties

Observable properties

Colloidal properties

Polymeric properties

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OBERVABLE PROPERTIES OF LATICES


Observable properties

Stability

Rehology

Film properties

Interfacial Reactivity

Substrate Adhesion

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COLLOIDAL PROPERTIES OF LATICES


Colloidal properties

Stability

Ionic Charges

Particle Size

Morphology Distribution

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POLYMERIC PROPERTIES OF LATICES


Polymeric Properties

Molecular Weight Distribution

Monomer Sequence Distribution

Glass Transition Temperature

Degree Of Cross Linking

Crystalinity

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TECHNIQUES FOR DETRMINATION OF COLLOIDAL PROPERTIES


u

u
u u

Electron Micrograph Soap Titration Turbidity Centrifugation

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PROCEDURES TO DETERMINE QUALITY OF NATURAL LATEX


u u u u u u u u u u u u Determination of total solid contents (TSC) of latex. Determination of dry rubber contents (DRC) of latex. Measurement of surface tension. pH measurements. KOH number. Measurement of mechanical stability. Viscosity. Density. Coagulum concentration. Copper concentration. Manganese concentration. Pre vulcanization test.

POLYMER RESEARCH LABORATORY

STABILITY OF LATEX
u
u u u u

Latex stability has distinct aspects: Latices interaction with the aqueous phase. Polymeric particles interaction with each other. Reduction of the free energy. The presence of the electric charges. The presence of water molecules around the polymeric particles.

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DESTABILIZATION AND COASERVATION OF LATEX


Coaservation
A process which destabilizes the latex to such an extent that the particles agglomerate and coalesce in large numbers.

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DESTABILIZATION AND COASERVATION OF LATEX


Coaservation results in formation of:
u u u

Gel. Coagulum. Mass of Flocks

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COASERVANTS
Coaservants

Chemical Coaservants

Physical Coaservants

Direct or Contact Coaservants

HeatSensitizing Coaservants

DelayedAction Coaservants

Temperature

Heating

Mechanical agitation

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LATEX COMPOUNDING INGREDIENTS


Typical Formulation for Latex synthesis:
u
u u u u

20-60% monomer 18- 100% or more Water 2-10 wt % of emulsifier 0.1-1.0 wt % initiator 0.1-1.0 wt % chain transfer agent

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LATEX COMPOUNDING INGREDIENTS


u Buffers u Bacteria control agents u Viscosity modifiers and protective
collides or thickeners
u u u u u u u u u u u u

u u u u u u u

Pigments Softeners or stiffeners Micelle generators Antioxidants Surface active agents Modifiers Short stoppers

Accelerators Accelerators activators Antioxidant synergists Fillers Preservatives Antifoaming agents Tackifiers Deodorants Antiozonants Stabilizers Fire retardants Vulcanizing agents or cross linkers

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u u u u u u u u u u u u

APPLICATIONS Disposable gloves in medical


industry Adhesives Sealants and coatings Foam products Dipped goods Casting Rug Carpet backing Fabric back-coating Paper saturation Beater addition Paper coatings Paints Binders Leather finishes Floor polishes Waterproof clothing

u
u u u u

POLYMER RESEARCH LABORATORY

u u u u u u u u u u u u u

u
u u u u

Floccing Latex thread Can closure Thickeners Box toes and shoes counters Sealant and mastics Chewing gum Modifiers Extrusion Molding Protein reduction Enzyme treatment Finished product treatments Glove coating Peroxide vulcanization Cement and asphalt Bounded fibers Pigment printing

APPLICATIONS

POLYMER RESEARCH LABORATORY

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
u
u u

This work is supported by HEC, Pakistan. Miss Saba Bahzad (ICET PU LHR) Mr. Muhammad Aslam Butt of Reliance Polymer Industries Lahore Dr. Khurram Khawaja and Mr. Muhammad Tahir Butt of Anwar Khawaja Industries Sialkot Mr. Ibrar & Mr. Naveed of Shafi Reso Chem Lahore

THE END

WITH
THANKS TO ALL PARTICIPANTS