Multi Access

NC 101
2
Performance Comparison of FDMA
and TDMA
• Let the total number of bits that can be transmitted over a channel
be R bps. Let the number of users be M.

• In FDMA, the system bandwidth W (which allows for capacity for R
bps) is divided into M orthogonal frequency bands. Each one of the
M sources is allocated a bandwidth of W/M Hz.

• In TDMA, the frame is divided into M orthogonal time slots. Each of
the M sources bursts its transmission at R bps, M times faster than
the equivalent FDMA user for (1/M)
th
the time.

• Overall in both cases, the source transmits information at an
average rate of R/M bits/s
3
Packet Rate and Average Packet
Delay
• Let the information generated by each one of the sources be
organized into b-bit packets. The time taken to transmit one
packet (containing b bits) is T seconds for FDMA. Or T is the
time taken to transmit M packets over the entire channel. One
such packet is transmitted over each one of the M orthogonal
channels. Therefore, the total bit rate required is
• R
FD
= M (b/T) bits/s

• In case of TDMA, the same b bits are transmitted in T/M
seconds from each source. Therefore the bit rate required is
• R
TD
= b/(T/M) bits/s

• It can be seen that both rates are identical and packet rate in
TDMA and FDMA system is identical.
4
Average Packet Delay
• Would either one of the techniques have an advantage
over the other as far as the average packet delay is
concerned?

• For simplicity, it is assumed that the data source is
deterministic, the CR is 100% utilized in TDMA and
FDMA case and there are no overhead costs such as
guard bands or guard times.
• The packet delay can be defined as:
• D=e+t
• Where e is the average packet waiting time (prior to
transmission) and t is the packet transmission time.

5
FDMA
• In the case of FDMA, each packet is sent over a
T second interval, so the packet transmission
time for FDMA is
t
FD
= T
• Since the FDMA channel is continuously
available and packets are sent as soon as they
are generated, the waiting time
e
FD
= 0
• The average delay time for FDMA is therefore
• D
FD
= T
6
TDMA
• In the case of TDMA, each packet is sent in slots of T/M
seconds, so the packet transmission time for TDMA is
t
TD
= T/M = b/R
• It can be seen that each slot begins at a different point in the T
second frame, i.e. each packet S
mk
will start at (m-1)T/M
seconds.
• Therefore, the average waiting time that a TDMA packets
undergoes before transmission is

( )
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=
M
T
M
T
m
M
M
m
TD
1
1
2
1
1
1
e
7
TDMA
• The average delay in TDMA system is






• This result indicates that TDMA is inherently
superior from a message delay point of view.

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÷ ÷ =
+
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.
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÷ =
M
T
D
M
T
T D
M
T
M
T
D
FD TD
TD
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
2
8
What is CDMA?
• Does not attempt to allocate disjoint frequency or time
slot resources
– Instead, this approach allocates all resources to simultaneous
users, controlling the power transmitted by each user to the
minimum required to maintain a given SNR

• Each user employs a noise-like wideband signal
occupying the entire frequency allocation

• Each user contributes to the background noise affecting
all users, but to the least extent possible.
9
CDMA
• CDMA falls under a broader class of Spread-Spectrum
communication. In general, Spread Spectrum
communications is distinguished by three key elements:
– The signal occupies a bandwidth much greater than that which is
necessary to send the information. This results in many benefits,
such as immunity to interference and jamming and multi-user
access
– The bandwidth is spread by means of a code which is
independent of the data.
– The receiver synchronizes to the code to recover the data. The
use of an independent code and synchronous reception allows
multiple users to access the same frequency band at the same
time.
10
Spread Spectrum Communication
• There are three ways to spread the bandwidth of the
signal:
– Frequency hopping: The signal is rapidly switched between
different frequencies within the hopping bandwidth pseudo-
randomly, and the receiver knows before hand where to find the
signal at any given time.
– Time hopping: The signal is transmitted in short bursts pseudo-
randomly, and the receiver knows beforehand when to expect
the burst.
– Direct sequence: The digital data is directly coded at a much
higher frequency. The code is generated pseudo-randomly, the
receiver knows how to generate the same code, and correlates
the received signal with that code to extract the data. CDMA is a
DS spread spectrum communication system.

11
Important Advantages of CDMA
• Many users of CDMA use the same frequency.
Either TDD or FDD may be used.

• Large signal bandwidth provided significant
protection against impulse noise. Equalizer is not
needed instead a RAKE receiver is used which can
combine multiple copies of the received signal.

• There is no absolute limit on the number of users in
CDMA. The system performance gradually
degrades for all users as the number of users is
increased.
12
Drawbacks of CDMA
• Self-jamming is a problem in a CDMA system. Self-
jamming arise because the PN sequence are not
exactly orthogonal, non-zero contributions from
other users in the system arise


• The near- far problem occurs at a CDMA receiver if
an undesired user has high detected power as
compared to the desired user.
13
Case Study: GSM
• GSM uses TDMA within a FDMA structure. As a result,
different users can transmit using the same frequency,
but they can't transmit at the same time.

• A 25MHz frequency band is divided using an FDMA
scheme into 124 one-way carrier frequencies. Each base
station is assigned one or more carriers to use in its cell.

• A 200kHz frequency band separates the carrier
frequencies from each other. In GSM the 1st carrier
frequency is used as a guard band between GSM and
other services that might be working on lower
frequencies.
14
Case Study: GSM
Case Study: GSM
• Frequency allocation
• Two frequency bands, of 25 MHz each, are allocated for the GSM
system:
• 890-915 MHz for the uplink (MN to BTS).
• 935-960 MHz for the downlink (BTS to M).
• However, for reasons related to the military as well as the existence
of past analog systems (that use part of the two frequency bands),
not all the countries can use the whole GSM frequency bands.

• GSM employs a mix of Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)
and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), combined with
frequency hopping.

15
16
GSM
• Each carrier frequency is then divided according to time using a
TDMA scheme. Each of the carrier frequencies is divided into a
120ms multi-frame. A multi-frame is made up of 26 frames. Two of
these frames are used for control purposes, while the remaining 24
frames are used for traffic.
17
GSM
• Each frame can in turn be divided into 8 bursts, and each of the 8
bursts is assigned to a single user. In a TDMA system, a burst is the
unit of time, and each burst lasts for approximately 0.577 ms.





• There are 4 different types of bursts. A normal burst is used to carry
speech and data information. Each burst consists of 3 tail bits at
each end, 2 data sequences of 57-bits, a 26-bit training sequence
for equalization, and 8.25 guard bits.
Frame Structure
18
Frame Structure
• The tail bits (T) are a group of 3 bits set to zero and placed at the
beginning and the end of a burst. They cover the periods of ramping
up and down of the mobile's power.
• The coded data bits corresponds to two groups, of 57 bits each,
containing signalling or user data. The stealing flags (S) indicate, to
the receiver, whether the data bits are data or signalling traffic.
• The training sequence has a length of 26 bits. It synchronizes the
receiver, thus masking out multi-path propagation effects. The guard
period (GP), with a length of 8.25 bits, is used to avoid a possible
overlap of two mobiles during the ramping time.

19
Frequency Hopping
• Propagation effects and thus, multi-path fading depend on the radio
frequency. To eliminate significant differences in channel quality,
slow frequency hopping is introduced; it changes the frequency with
every TDMA frame (fast frequency hopping changes the frequency
many times per frame but it is not used in GSM).

• The frequency hopping also reduces the effects of co-channel
interference. There are different types of frequency hopping
algorithms. The algorithm selected is sent through control channel.

20
21
Example
Example: The GSM System uses a frame structure where
each frame consist of 8 time slots, and each time slot
contains 156.25 bits, and data is transmitted at
270.833 kbps in the channel. Find: ……
1.Time duration of a bit
2.Time duration of a slot
3.Time duration of a frame and
4.How long must a user occupying a single slot must
wait between two simultaneous transmissions?

Frame Structure
22
23
Solution
• Time duration of a bit



• Time duration of a slot


b
3
1 1
=T= 3.692s
bit-rate270.83310
= =µ
×
slot b
T 156.25T0.577s = = ´ = m ms
24
…Solution
• Time duration of a frame



• A user has to wait 4.615 ms before next
transmission

slot
8T 4.615ms = ´ =
25
Example
If a normal GSM timeslot consists of 6 trailing bits, 8.25
guard bits, 26 training bits, and 2 traffic bursts of 57 bits of
data and 1 bit flag, find the frame efficiency

26
…Example
Solution
–Time slots have 6 + 8.25 + 26 + 2(58) = 156.25 bits.
–A frame has 8 * 156.25 = 1250 bits / frame.
The number of overhead bits per frame is given by

• b
OH
= 8(6+8.25+26) = 322 bits
• Frame efficiency = (1250 – 322 ) / 1250
= 74.24 %