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Maintenance Types & Tests

By. Dr. Attia El-Fergany Consultant & Trainer

Testing and Commissioning Methods

Test Classes
Type tests.

Routine tests.
Special tests. Acceptance tests - the routine tests are to be considered as acceptance tests.

Type Tests
They must be carried out on only one unit of each of the different equipment models. By means of the test carried out on it, it

will be possible to justify that the test is

valid for the rest of the equipments

manufactured of the same model.

Routine Tests
Also called individual tests. These have to be carried out on each and everyone of the units manufactured. They must comply with the minimum requirements which guarantee the fulfillment of the objective previously mentioned. (For which they must have at their disposal the

type tests carried out on an identical model).

Special Tests
Other tests which are considered

necessary by agreement of the clientmanufacturer. Generally speaking, they are derived from the conditions of service

differing from the usual ones.

Samples for Type Tests of LV CBs

Temperature rise limits. Short circuit making & breaking tests. Short time withstand current. Dielectric tests. Mechanical endurance test. Electrical endurance test.

Overload performance.

Samples for Routine Tests of LV CBs

Mechanical operation tests. Calibration of releases.

Dielectric tests.

Tests Classifications
Non-Destructive Test Destructive Test

Non-destructive testing (NDT)

Non-destructive testing (NDT) is an analysis technique used in scientific fields to determine the state or function of a system by comparing a known input with a measured output, without the use of invasive approaches like disassembly or failure testing. Because NDT does not require the disabling or sacrifice of the system of interest, it is a highly-valuable technique that saves both money and time in product evaluation, troubleshooting, and research.

Maintenance testing
Maintenance testing is that testing which

is performed to either identify equipment

problems, diagnose equipment problems

or to confirm that repair measures have

been effective. It can be performed at

either the system level, the equipment

level, or the component level.

Maintenance Categories
Breakdown or Run to Failure Maintenance Preventive or Time Based Maintenance Predictive or Condition

Maintenance Pro-Active or Prevention Maintenance

Breakdown Maintenance (BDM)

The basic philosophy is to allow the machinery to run to failure and only repair or replace damaged equipment

when obvious problems occur.

Advantages of BDM
The advantages of this approach are

that its works well if equipment

shutdowns don't affect production and if labor and material costs don't


Disadvantages of BDM
The disadvantages in are that / the 'crisis




management' maintenance activities with unexpected production interruptions and the plant must have a high inventory of spare parts to react quickly.

Notes about BDM

Without a doubt, it is the most inefficient way to maintain a facility. Futile attempts are made to reduce costs by purchasing "cheap" parts and hiring "cheap" labor further aggravating the problem. Frequently the personnel are overworked and understaffed arriving at work each day to be confronted with a long list of unfinished work and a half dozen new "emergency" jobs that occurred while they were at home in the evening.

Preventive or Time Based Maintenance (PM)

This philosophy consists of scheduling maintenance activities at predetermined time intervals where you repair or replace damaged equipment before obvious

problems occur.

Advantages of PM
The advantages of this approach is that it

works well for equipment that does not run

continuously and the personnel have enough knowledge, skill, and time to

perform the preventive maintenance work.

Disadvantages of PM
The disadvantages are that the scheduled maintenance may be done too early or too late. It is quite possible that reduced production could occur due to potentially unnecessary

maintenance. In many cases there is a possibility of diminished performance through incorrect repair methods.

Notes of PM
I have witnessed perfectly good machines disassembled, good parts removed and discarded, and then new parts improperly installed. For some, squirting grease into bearings every month is their idea of a preventive maintenance program.

Predictive or Condition Based Maintenance (CBM)

This philosophy consists of scheduling







mechanical or operational conditions warrant by periodically monitoring the equiment for:

- excessive vibration,
- excessive temperature, - lubrication degradation or - observing any other unhealthy trends that occur over time.

Advantages of CBM
The advantages of this approach is that it works very well if personnel have enough knowledge,








maintenance work. The repairs to equipment can be scheduled in an orderly fashion and it allows you some lead time to purchase materials for the necessary

repairs reducing the need for a high parts


Disadvantages of CBM
The disadvantages are that maintenance work may actually increase if the personnel improperly asses the level of degradation in the equipment.

To observe the unhealthy trends in vibration,

temperature, or lubrication, this approach requires the facility to procure equipment to monitor these parameters and provide training to in-house personnel.

Proactive or Prevention Maintenance (PrM)

This philosophy utilizes all of the predictive / preventive maintenance techniques discussed before in concert with root cause failure analysis to not only detect and pinpoint the precise problems that occur but to insure that advanced installation and repair techniques are performed including potential equipment redesign or modification to avoid or eliminate problems from occurring.

Advantages of PrM
The advantages of this approach is that it works extremely well if personnel have enough knowledge,

skill, and time to perform all of the required activities.

As in the predictive based program, repairs to equipment

can be scheduled in an orderly fashion but then

additional efforts are made to provide improvements to reduce or eliminate potential problems from repetitively occurring.

Disadvantages of PrM
The disadvantages are that this requires extremely knowledgeable employees in preventive, predictive, and prevention/pro-active

maintenance practices or to outsource this work to a knowledgeable

contractor who works closely with the maintenance personnel in the root cause failure analysis phase and then assist in the repairs or design modifications. This also requires procurement of equipment and properly training personnel to perform these duties.

The Key Elements in An Effective Preventive Maintenance Program

A properly designed system Properly installed, appropriate equipment Trained operating and maintenance staff Proper planning and scheduling

Define all load requirements Include a complete layout showing locations of all the loads on the system Establish a motor list Determine critical loads Define process line requirements Allow flexibility Determine lighting, air conditioning, compressor and other non-production load requirements Provide for future expansion Conform to all applicable codes and standards.

Effect of EPM Inspection Frequency on Overall Costs.

Common Causes of Electrical Failure

Dust and Dirt Accumulation.

Presence of Moisture.
Loose Connections. Friction.

Why Maintain and Test?

A well-organized and implemented

program minimizes accidents, reduces

unplanned shutdowns, and lengthens the

mean time between failures (MTBF) of

electrical equipment.

Benefits of EPM can be categorized as

Direct benefits are derived from reduced cost of repairs, reduced downtime of equipment, and improved safety of personnel and property. Indirect benefits can be related to improved morale of employees, better workmanship, increased productivity, and the discovery of deficiencies in the system that were either designed into the original system or caused by later changes made in the system.

Common applications of maintenance strategies of RCM

What is the Failure?

Failure defines as any unsatisfactory condition. It may be a loss of function, where a system or component stops running altogether, or it may be a loss of acceptable quality, where operation continues, but at a substandard or inadequate quality. A failure may be catastrophic or merely out of tolerance.

Steps in implementing an effective maintenance program:

1. Determine the objectives and long-range goals of the maintenance program. 2. Survey and consolidate data on equipment breakdowns.

3. Determine equipment criticalities.

4. Determine the risk and the amount of risk that you are willing to tolerate.

5. Establish metrics and key performance indicators (KPIs) to track and trend performance.

Steps in implementing an effective maintenance program:

6. Establish the best maintenance techniques within your resources to mitigate the risk. Determine the maintenance procedures and frequencies. 7. Schedule and implement the program, starting with the most critical systems and those with the fastest, most beneficial paybacks first. 8. Publicize successes; provide trends, metrics, and KPIs to top management to gain management support. 9. Repeat the cycle.

Key Factors in EPM Optimization Decisions

Safety impact of equipment failure. Productivity and profitability impact of equipment failure (including costs of lost production as well as failed equipment repair or replacement). Cost of PM.

Failure rate and/or anticipated life of equipment.

Key Factors in EPM Optimization Decisions

Predictability of failure (either from accumulated operating time or cycles or from discernible clues to impending failure). Likelihood of inducing equipment damage or system problems during maintenance and testing. Technical sophistication of the plant maintenance staff. Availability of equipment reliability data to support RCM.

Optimization of PM Intervals
Experience in a variety of industries demonstrates that performing PM on an absolutely fixed schedule rarely results in the optimum balance among the costs of preventive and corrective maintenance and the safety and productivity benefits of equipment reliability and availability. Given an adequate historical failure and maintenance database, reasonably straightforward methods can be used to optimize the PM cycle.

Optimization of PM Intervals
Also, several industry standards such as National Electrical Code (NEC) Standard 70B, National Electrical Testing Association (NETA) maintenance specifications, and others including




guidelines on the frequency of maintenance of electrical equipment which could be used to establish EPM cycle.

Planning an EPM Program

Maintenance Management



Maintenance Management Considerations

The planning of EPM programs should then include the advantages of a well-planned maintenance along with cost data for lost production due to equipment failure versus cost of budgeted PM. Any maintenance program should prove that it is cost effective and minimizes equipment failure. The planning of the program should include considerations for proper test equipment, tools, trained personnel to carry out maintenance tasks, and time required to perform inspections, tests, and maintenance routines. Also, consideration should be given to record keeping systems, which can range from fully computerized to manual file systems.

The responsibilities of the maintenance organization should be clearly defined by organization charts with

functional work statements for each unit. The functional

work statements must be established by management as a matter of policy. Every other department must be informed of the responsibilities assigned to maintenance organizations. The effectiveness of the maintenance departments will depend upon how well they are organized and how well personnel are utilized.

Inspection is the key to the success of any maintenance program. Sufficient time should be allocated for inspection to verify the condition of new and installed equipment. The purpose of inspection is to provide advance warning as to the condition of the equipment

under investigation. When inspection is performed on

definite cycles by qualified people, impending deterioration can be detected in advance so that repair

or replacement can be made before failure of the

equipment occurs.

To perform maintenance, a definite schedule of work to be performed must be established. Maintenance schedules must be based upon minimum downtime for the various operating segments. The schedule for inspection, routine maintenance, and other work may vary for different equipment and will depend upon many factors. These factors can be age of equipment, frequency of service, hours of operation, environmental conditions, damage due to abuse, and safety requirements. Frequency of scheduling of all tasks should be adjusted as data on various equipment are recorded and analyzed to provide a balance between cost of maintenance and replacement cost of the equipment.

Work Orders
Work orders are job requests that need action for completion. Work orders can be established for all inspection service and other work on equipment in terms of routines. Any of these routines should include information on when such work is to be performed, where it is to be performed, and exactly what has to be done. These routines can be generated by a computerbased maintenance system. The routines should include all the pertinent information concerning the equipment.

Plan to Perform EPM on Regular Frequency Several factors should be considered in

establishing the frequency with which

equipment is to be maintained:
Environmental conditions.
Load conditions. Duty requirements. Critical nature of the equipment.

Main Parts of an EPM Program

Responsible and qualified personnel Survey and analysis of electrical equipment and systems to determine maintenance requirements and priorities Programmed routine inspections and suitable tests Accurate analysis of inspection and test reports so that proper corrective measures can be prescribed Performance of necessary work Concise but complete records