This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Technology of Machine Tools
Krar • Gill • Smid
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
• Lathe forerunner of all machine tools • First application was potter's wheel
– Rotated clay and enabled it to be formed into cylindrical shape
• Very versatile (many attachments)
– Used for turning, tapering, form turning, screw cutting, facing, drilling, boring, spinning, grinding and polishing operations
• Cutting tool fed either parallel or right angles
Special Types of Lathes
• Engine lathe
– Not production lathe, found in school shops, toolrooms, and jobbing shops – Basic to all lathes
• Turret lathe
– Used when many duplicate parts required – Equipped with multisided toolpost (turret) to which several different cutting tools mounted
• Employed in given sequence
Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. .PowerPoint to accompany Technology of Machine Tools 6th Edition Krar • Gill • Smid Engine Lathe Parts Unit 45 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.
form turning. drilling. tapering. boring. facing. grinding. threading.Engine Lathe • Accurate and versatile machine • Operations – Turning. and polishing • Three common – Toolroom – Heavy-duty – Gap-bed .
in. swing. swing with capacity of 16 in.Lathe Size and Capacity • Designated by largest work diameter that can be swung over lathe ways and generally the maximum distance between centers • Manufactured in wide range of sizes – Most common: 9. 36 in. 6 ft long bed. – Average metric lathe: 230-330 mm swing and bed length of 500 – 3000 mm .to 30. to 12 feet between centers – Typical lathe: 13 in.
Lathe Size Indicated by the swing and the length of the bed Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display. Inc. .
Inc. . Permission required for reproduction or display.Parts of the Lathe Headstock Tailstock Quick Change Gearbox Bed Carriage Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. . Permission required for reproduction or display. Inc.
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. . Permission required for reproduction or display.
Setting Speeds on a Lathe • Speeds measured in revolutions per minute – Changed by stepped pulleys or gear levers • Belt-driven lathe Safety Note!! NEVER change speeds – Various speeds obtained by changing flat belt when and back gear drive lathe is running. – Speeds changed by moving speed levers into proper positions according to r/min chart fastened to headstock • Geared-head lathe .
Shear Pins and Slip Clutches • Prevents damage to feed mechanism from overload or sudden torque • Shear pins – Made of brass – Found on feed rod. shear pin will break or slip clutch will slip causing feed to stop . lead screw. and end gear train • Spring-loaded slip clutches – Found only on feed rods – When feed mechanism overloaded.
. Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.Shear pin in end gear train prevents damage to the gears in case of an overload Spring-ball clutch will slip when too much strain is applied to feed rod Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.
.PowerPoint to accompany Technology of Machine Tools 6th Edition Krar • Gill • Smid Lathe Accessories Unit 46 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display. Inc.
drive plates – Cutting-tool-holding devices • Straight and offset toolholders • Threading toolholders. chucks. faceplates • Mandrels.46-15 Lathe Accessories • Divided into two categories – Work-holding. and –driving devices • Lathe centers. -supporting. steady and follower rests • Lathe dogs. boring bars • Turret-type toolposts .
. Inc.46-16 Lathe Centers • Work to be turned between centers must have center hole drilled in each end – Provides bearing surface • Support during cutting • Most common have solid Morse taper shank 60º centers. steel with carbide tips • Care to adjust and lubricate occasionally Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display.
46-17 Chucks • Used extensively for holding work for machining operations – Work large or unusual shape • Most commonly used lathe chucks – Three-jaw universal – Four-jaw independent – Collet chuck .
. Permission required for reproduction or display. Inc.46-18 Three-jaw Universal Chuck • Holds round and hexagonal work • Grasps work quickly and accurate within few thousandths/inch • Three jaws move simultaneously when adjusted by chuck wrench – Caused by scroll plate into which all three jaws fit • Two sets of jaw: outside chucking and inside chucking Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.
and irregularly shaped workpieces • Has four jaws – Each can be adjusted independently by chuck wrench • Jaws can be reversed to hold work by inside diameter .46-19 Four-Jaw Independent Chuck • Used to hold round. hexagonal. square.
46-20 Headstock Spindles Universal and independent chuck fitted to three types of headstock spindles 1. Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. . Threaded spindle nose – Screws on in a clockwise direction Held by lock nut that tightens on chuck 2. Tapered spindle nose – Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.
Permission required for reproduction or display. Cam-lock spindle nose • • Held by tightening cam-locks using T-wrench Chuck aligned by taper on spindle nose Registration lines on spindle nose Registration lines on cam-lock Cam-locks Cam-lock mating stud on chuck or faceplate Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. .46-21 Headstock Spindles 3. Inc.
46-22 Collet Chuck • Most accurate chuck • Used for high-precision work • Spring collets available to hold round. or hexagon-shaped workpieces • Each collet has range of only few thousandths of an inch over or under size stamped on collet . square.
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.46-23 Collet Chuck | Special adapter fitted into taper of headstock spindle. Inc. . and hollow draw bar having internal thread inserted in opposite end of headstock spindle. It draws collet into tapered adapter causing collet to tighten on workpiece. Permission required for reproduction or display.
46-24 Types of Lathe Dogs • Standard bent-tail lathe dog – Most commonly used for round workpieces – Available with square-head setscrews of headless setscrews • Straight-tail lathe dog – Driven by stud in driveplate – Used in precision turning Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display. . Inc.
.46-25 Types of Lathe Dogs • Safety clamp lathe dog – Used to hold variety of work – Wide range of adjustment • Clamp lathe dog – Wider range than others – Used on all shapes Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display. Inc.
. Permission required for reproduction or display. Inc.46-26 Left-Hand Offset Toolholder • Offset to the right • Designed for machining work close to chuck or faceplate and cutting right to left • Designated by letter L Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.
46-27 Right-Hand Offset Toolholder • Offset to the left • Designed for machining work close to the tailstock and cutting left to right – Also for facing operations • Designated by letter R Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display. Inc. .
Inc. . Permission required for reproduction or display.46-28 Straight Toolholder • General-purpose type • Used for taking cuts in either direction and for general machining operations • Designated by letter S Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.
46-29 Toolholders for Indexable Carbide Inserts • Held in holder by cam action or clamps • Types available – Conventional – Turret-type – Heavy-duty toolposts .
thin cutting-off blade locked securely in toolholder by either cam lock or locking nut • Three types of parting toolholders – Left-hand – Right-hand – Straight .46-30 Cutting-Off (Parting) Tools • Used when work must be grooved or parted off • Long.
46-31 Threading Toolholder • Designed to hold special form-relieved thread-cutting tool • Has accurately ground 60º angle – Maintained throughout life of tool • Only top of cutting surface sharpened when becomes dull .
46-32 Super Quick-Change Toolpost Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. .
and Depth of Cut Unit 47 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display.PowerPoint to accompany Technology of Machine Tools 6th Edition Krar • Gill • Smid Cutting Speed. . Inc. Feed.
47-34 Cutting Speed • Rate at which point on work circumference travels past cutting tool • Always expressed in feet per minute (ft/min) or meters per minute (m/min) • Important to use correct speed for material – Too high: cutting-tool breaks down rapidly – Too low: time lost. low production rates .
Lathe Cutting Speeds in Feet and Meters per Minute Using High-Speed Steel Toolbit
Turning and Boring Rough Cut Finish Cut Material Tool steel Cast iron Bronze Machine steel 70 60 90 21 18 90 27 90 80 27 100 27 24 100 Threading 30 30 25 30 35 9 8 25 8 11 ft/min m/min ft/min m/min ft/min m/min
Calculating Lathe Spindle Speed
• Given in revolutions per minute • Cutting speed of metal and diameter of work must be known • Proper spindle speed set by dividing CS (in/min) by circumference of work (in)
CS x 12 CS x 4 r/min D D
Calculate r/min required to rough-turn 2 in. diameter piece of machine steel (CS 90):
CS x 4 r/min D 90 x 4 r/min 180 2 CS x 320 r/min Metric Formula D
47-38 Lathe Feed • Distance cutting tool advances along length of work for every revolution of the spindle • Feed of engine lathe dependent on speed of lead screw for feed rod – Speed controlled by change gears in quick-change gearbox .
012-mm) .003.47-39 Two Cuts Used to Bring Diameter to Size • Roughing cut – Purpose to remove excess material quickly – Coarse feed: surface finish not too important • .07.005-in (0.to 0. (0.010.25.to .to 0.015-in.4-mm) • Finishing cut – Used to bring diameter to size – Fine feed: Produce good finish • .to .
25–0.13–0.003–.65 .015–.5 .020 0.025 0.003–.005–.012 0.010 0.5 .4–0.65 .010 0.020 0.4–0.4–0.75 .13–0.015–.015–.010 0. Tool steel Cast iron Bronze . Finish Cuts mm .25–0.07–0.010–.2 .003–. mm in.010 0.2 .47-40 Feeds for Various Materials (using high-speed steel cutting tool) Rough Cuts Material Machine steel in.025 0. Aluminum .005–.030 0.010–.3 .
030 to . .040 in. (0.76 to 1 mm) of size required – Finishing cut should not be less than .005 in.47-41 Depth of Cut • Depth of chip taken by cutting tool and onehalf total amount removed from workpiece in one cut • Only one roughing and one finishing cut – Roughing cut should be deep as possible to reduce diameter to within .
Permission required for reproduction or display.47-42 Example: Depth of cut on a lathe Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. .
47-43 Factors Determining Depth of Rough-Turning Cut • Condition of machine • Type and shape of cutting tool used • Rigidity of workpiece. and cutting tool • Rate of feed . machine.
010 depth of cut taken from entire work circumference reducing diameter .47-44 Inch System • Circumference of crossfeed and compound rest screw collars divided into 100-125 equal divisions – Each has value of . toward work • Lathe revolves.001 in. so . • Turn crossfeed screw clockwise 10 graduations.010 in. cutting tool moved . • Check machine for its' graduations .020 in.
47-45 On machines where the workpiece revolves. Permission required for reproduction or display. the cutting tool should be set in for only half the amount to be removed from the diameter. Inc. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. .
Inc. . the cutting tool should be set in for the amount of material to be removed.47-46 On machines where the workpiece does not revolve. Permission required for reproduction or display. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.
Make sure collar is secure before setting a depth of cut 2. must be turned backward half-turn and fed into proper setting to remove backlash 4. Never hold graduated collar when setting depth of cut .47-47 Hints on Graduated Collar Use 1. If graduated collar turned past desired setting. All depths of cut must be made by feeding cutting tool toward workpiece 3.
47-48 5. Graduated collar on compound rest can be used for accurately setting depth of cut • Shoulder turning • • • Compound rest set at 90º to cross-slide Lock carriage in place Spacing of shoulders to within .001 in movement = . accuracy Compound rest swung to 30º. infeed movement .0001-in. amount removed from length of work = ½ amount of feed on collar • • Facing • Machining accurate diameters • • Set compound rest to 84º16' to the cross-slide .001 in.
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.47-49 The compound rest is set at 84º16' for making fine settings. . Permission required for reproduction or display. Inc.
Inc.PowerPoint to accompany Technology of Machine Tools 6th Edition Krar • Gill • Smid Lathe Safety Unit 48 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display. .
48-51 Safety • Be aware of safety requirements in any area of shop • Always attempt to observe safety rules • Failure results in: – Serious injury – Resultant loss of time and pay – Loss of production to company .
48-52 Safety Precautions • Lathe hazardous if not operated properly • Important to keep machine and surrounding area clean and tidy • Accidents usually caused by carelessness .
remove tie and tuck in loose clothing • Never wear ring or watch .48-53 Safety Precautions • Always wear approved safety glasses • Rollup sleeves.
48-54 Safety Precautions • Do not operate lathe until understand controls • Never operate machine if safety guards removed • Stop lathe before measure work or clean. oil or adjust machine • Do not use rag to clean work or machine when in operation – Rag can get caught and drag in hand .
• Never attempt to stop a lathe chuck or driveplate by hand • Be sure chuck or faceplate mounted securely before starting
– If loose, becomes dangerous missile
• Always remove chuck wrench after use
– Fly out and injure someone – Become jammed, damaging wrench or lathe
• Move carriage to farthest position of cut and revolve lathe spindle one turn by hand
– Ensure all parts clear without jamming – Prevent accident and damage to lathe
• Keep floor around machine free from grease, oil, metal cuttings, tools and workpieces
– Oil and grease can cause falls – Objects on floor become tripping hazards
• Avoid horseplay at all times • Always remove chips with brush
– Chips can cause cuts if use hands – Chips become embedded if use cloths
• Always remove sharp toolbit from toolholder when polishing, filing, cleaning, or making adjustments
Inc. and Aligning Lathe Centers Unit 49 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Removing.PowerPoint to accompany Technology of Machine Tools 6th Edition Krar • Gill • Smid Mounting. . Permission required for reproduction or display.
trial-cut.49-59 Objectives • Mount and/or remove lathe centers properly • Align lathe centers by visual. and dial-indicator methods .
and other end finished • Critical when machining work between centers that live center be absolutely true – Concentric work .49-60 Lathe Centers • Work machined between centers turned for some portion of length. then reversed.
49-61 To Mount Lathe Centers • Remove any burrs from lathe spindle. centers. or spindle sleeves • Clean tapers on lathe centers and in headstock and tailstock spindles • Partially insert cleaned center in lathe spindle • Force center into spindle • Follow same procedure when mounting tailstock center • Check trueness of center .
forcing it out of spindle .49-62 To Remove Lathe Centers • Live center – Use knockout bar pushed through headstock spindle (slight tap) – Use cloth over center and hold to prevent damage • Dead center – Turn tailstock handwheel to draw spindle back into tailstock • End of screw contacts end of dead center.
Inc.49-63 Alignment of Lathe Centers • • Parallel diameter produced when lathe center aligned Three common methods used to align 1. Aligning centerlines on back of tailstock with each other – Only a visual check and not too accurate Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. . Permission required for reproduction or display.
49-64 Alignment of Lathe Centers 2. . Using the trial-cut method where small cut taken from each end of work and diameters measured with a micrometer 3. Using parallel test bar and dial indicator • Fastest and most accurate method Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Make sure tailstock lines still aligned 5. depending on direction tailstock must be moved and tighten other until line on top aligns with line on bottom half 3. Loosen tailstock clamp nut or level 2.49-65 To Align Centers by Adjusting the Tailstock 1. Tighten screw to lock both halves in place 4. Loosen on of the adjusting screws. Lock tailstock clamp nut or lever .
Stop feed and note reading on graduated collar of crossfeed handle 3. long 2.005 in.) to true diameter from section A at tailstock end for .49-66 To Align Centers by Trial-Cut Method 1. Bring cutting tool close to headstock end . Take a light cut (~.250 in. Move cutting tool away from work with crossfeed handle 4.
500-in (13 mm) length at section B and stop lathe 7.49-67 To Align Centers by Trial-Cut Method 5. Cut a . Measure both diameters with micrometer . Return cutting tool to same graduated collar setting as at section A 6.
Take another light cut at A and B at same crossfeed graduated collar setting.49-68 To Align Centers by Trial-Cut Method 8. Measure diameters and adjust tailstock. . If both diameters not same size. adjust tailstock either toward or away from cutting tool ½ difference of two readings 9.
mount test bar 2.49-69 To Align Centers Using Dial Indicator and Test Bar 1. Clean lathe and work center. Mount dial indicator on toolpost or lathe carriage – Indicator plunger should be parallel to lathe bed and contact point set on center . Adjust test bar snugly between centers and tighten tailstock spindle clamp 3.
To Align Centers Using Dial Indicator and Test Bar
4. Adjust cross-slide
– Indicator registers approximately .025 in at tailstock, indicator bezel to 0
5. Move carriage by hand so indicator registers on diameter at headstock end and not indicator reading 6. If both indicator readings not same, adjust tailstock with adjusting screws until indicator registers same at both ends
To Align Centers Using Dial Indicator and Test Bar
7. Tighten adjusting screw that was loosened 8. Tighten tailstock clamp nut 9. Adjust tailstock spindle until test bar snug between lathe centers 10. Recheck indicator readings at both ends and adjust tailstock, if necessary
PowerPoint to accompany
Technology of Machine Tools
Krar • Gill • Smid
Grinding Lathe Cutting Tools
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
. Inc.50-73 Grinding Lathe Cutting Tool • Wide variety of cutting tools for lathe – All have certain angles and clearances regardless of shape Shape and Dimensions of General-purpose Lathe Toolbit Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Grip toolbit firmly. supporting hands on grinder toolrest 3. Permission required for reproduction or display. .50-74 To Grind a General-Purpose Toolbit 1. Dress face of grinding wheel 2. Hold toolbit at proper angel to grind cutting edge angle • Tilt bottom of toolbit toward wheel and grind 10º side relief or clearance angle Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.
Inc.50-75 Cutting edge ~ ½ In long and extend over ¼ width of toolbit 10º side relief or clearance angle Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. . Permission required for reproduction or display.
Toolbit must be cooled frequently during grinding • • • Never overheat toolbit! Never quench stellite or cemented-carbide tools Never grind carbides with aluminum oxide wheel . While grinding. move toolbit back and forth across face of wheel • Prevents grooving wheel 5.50-76 4.
Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Grind end cutting edge so it forms angle of a little less than 90º with side cutting edge – Hold tool so that end cutting edge angle and end relief angle of 15º ground at same time 70º to 80º Point Angle Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. .50-77 6.
. Inc.50-78 7. Using toolbit grinding gage. check amount of end relief when toolbit is in toolholder Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. .50-79 8. Hold top of toolbit approximately 45º to axis of wheel and grind side rake to approximately 14º – Do not grind below top of toolbit • Creates a chip trap Side rake ground the length of the cutting edge Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.
Grind slight radius on point of cutting tool.50-80 9. being sure to maintain same front and side clearance angle 10. With oilstone. hone cutting edge of toolbit slightly • • Lengthen life of toolbit Enable it to produce better surface finish on workpiece .
. Inc.PowerPoint to accompany Technology of Machine Tools 6th Edition Krar • Gill • Smid Machining Between Centers Unit 52 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display.
52-82 Machining Between Centers • Training programs (schools) – Remove and replace work in lathe many times before completed – Need assurance that machined diameter will run true with other diameters • Machining between centers saves time in setting up • Common operations – Facing. filing and polishing . shoulder turning. rough and finish-turning.
Mount toolholder in toolpost so setscrew in toolholder 1 in.52-83 Setting Up a Cutting Tool 1. Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. . beyond toolpost Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Move toolpost to the left-hand side of the T-slot in the compound rest 2.
.52-84 Heavy Cuts: Set toolholder at right angles to work Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
3.52-85 Setting Up a Cutting Tool: cont. Insert proper cutting tool into toolholder. Tighten toolpost securely to prevent it from moving during a cut . beyond toolholder and never more than twice its thickness 4.500 in. having tool extend . Set cutting-tool point to center height • Check it against lathe center point 5.
52-86 Purposes of a Trial Cut • • • Produce accurate turned diameter – Measured with micrometer Set cutting-tool point to the diameter Set crossfeed micrometer collar to the diameter .
Set proper speeds and feed to suit material 3. Start lathe and position toolbit over work approximately . Turn compound rest handle clockwise ¼ of a turn to remove any backlash .125 in. Set up workpiece and cutting tool as for turning 2. from end 4.52-87 Procedure to Take a Trial Cut 1.
010 in. 8. along length of work 9. feed toolbit into work by turning crossfeed handle clockwise until light ring appears around entire circumference of work 6. Turn crossfeed handle clockwise about . Disengage automatic feed and clear toolbit past end of work with carriage handwheel . Turn carriage handwheel until toolbit clears end of workpiece by about .52-88 5.060 in. and take trial cut . Do NOT move crossfeed handle setting 7.250 in.
Test accuracy of micrometer by cleaning and closing measuring faces and then measure trial-cut diameter 12.52-89 10. Stop the lathe 11. Turn crossfeed handle clockwise ½ amount of material to be removed . Calculate how much material must still be removed from diameter of work 13.
52-90 14. Take another trial cut . long and stop the lathe 15. Measure diameter and readjust crossfeed handle until diameter is correct 17. Clear toolbit over end of work with carriage handwheel 16. Machine diameter to length .250 in.
feed recommended • Work rough-turned to – Within .030-in.020. diameter – Within . of finished size when removing up to . when removing > .to .500 in.060 in.52-91 Rough Turning • Removes as much metal as possible in shortest length of time • Accuracy and surface finish are not important in this operation – .030 in. .500 in.
Move toolholder to left-hand side of compound rest and set toolbit height to center . feed • Depends on depth of cut and condition of machine 3.010to . Set lathe to correct speed for type and size of material being cut 2. Adjust quick-change gearbox for a .030-in.52-92 Procedure for Rough Turning 1.
250 in. Tighten toolpost securely to prevent toolholder from moving during machining 5..250 in. Cut along for . length 6. over finish size 8. stop lathe. Diameter . Measure work and adjust toolbit for proper depth of cut 7.52-93 4.030 in. Take light trial cut at right-hand end of work for a . Readjust depth of cut. if necessary . and check diameter for size 1.
52-94 Finish Turning • Follows rough turning • Produces smooth surface finish and cuts work to an accurate size • Factors affecting type of surface finish – Condition of cutting tool – Rigidity of machine and work – Lathe speeds and feeds .
etc. Set lathe to recommended speed and feed . 2.52-95 Procedure For Finish Turning 1. burrs. Make sure cutting edge of toolbit free from nicks. Set toolbit on center. check it against lathe center point 3.
Set depth of cut for half amount of material to be removed 7. Stop lathe and measure diameter 6. check 8. Readjust depth of cut and finish-turn . long at righthand end of work • • • Produce true diameter Set cutting tool to diameter Set graduated collar to diameter 5..250 in. Take light trial cut .52-96 4.250 in. Cut along for . stop lathe.
52-97 Filing in a Lathe • Only to remove small amount of stock. of size • For safety.002 to .003 in. remove burrs. file with left hand so arms and hands kept clear of revolving chuck • Remove toolbit from toolholder before filing • Cover lathe bed with paper before filing . or round off sharp corners • Work should be turned to within .
mill file or long-angle lathe file . Disengage lead screw and feed rod 5. Select 10. Set spindle speed to twice that for turning 2.or 12-in. lubricate. Move carriage as far to right as possible and remove toolpost 4. Mount work between centers.52-98 Procedure to File in a Lathe 1. and carefully adjust dead center in work 3.
52-99 6. . Permission required for reproduction or display. Grasp file handle in left hand and support file point with fingers of right hand Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Start lathe 7. Inc.
release pressure on return stroke 9.52-100 8. Move file about half width of file for each stroke and continue filing until finished • • • • • • Use 30-40 strokes per minute Roll sleeves above elbow Remove watches and rings Never use file without properly fitted handle Never apply too much pressure Clean file frequently with file brush 10. Apply light pressure and push file forward to its full length. Safety precautions .
Select correct type and grade of abrasive cloth for finish desired • • • Piece about 6 – 8 in.52-101 Procedure for Polishing in a Lathe 1. wide Use aluminum oxide abrasive cloth for ferrous metals Use silicon carbide abrasive cloth should be used for nonferrous metals 2. Disengage feed rod and lead screw . long and 1 in. Set lathe to run at high speed 3.
Roll sleeves up above elbows and tuck in any loose clothing 7. Start lathe 8. Remove toolpost and toolholder 5. press cloth firmly on work while tightly holding other end of abrasive cloth with left hand 10. Hold abrasive cloth on work 9.52-102 4. With right hand. Lubricate and adjust dead center 6. Move cloth slowly back and forth .
52-103 Shoulder • Shoulder: the change in diameters. Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. when turning more than one diameter on a piece of work • Three common types of shoulders – Square – Filleted – Angular or Tapered Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. or step. .
Inc.52-104 Three Types of Shoulders Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display. .
and Form Turning Unit 53 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. . Permission required for reproduction or display. Grooving.PowerPoint to accompany Technology of Machine Tools 6th Edition Krar • Gill • Smid Knurling. Inc.
53-106 Knurling • Process if impressing a diamond-shaped or straight-line patter into the surface of the workpiece – Improve its appearance – Provide better gripping surface – Increase workpiece diameter when press fit required .
53-107 Knurling • Diamond. Permission required for reproduction or display.and straight-pattern rolls available in three styles – Fine – Medium – Course Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. .
Permission required for reproduction or display.53-108 Knurling Tool • Toolpost-type toolholder on which pair of hardened-steel rolls mounted Knurling tool with one set of rolls in self-centering head Knurling tool with three sets of rolls in revolving head Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. . Inc.
53-109 Universal Knurling Tool System • Dovetailed shank and as many as seven interchangeable knurling heads that can produce wide range of knurling patterns • Combines in one tool – – – – Versatility Rigidity Ease of handling Simplicity .
.030 in. Set lathe to run at one-quarter speed required for turning 3.53-110 Procedure to Knurl in a Lathe 1. Mount work between centers and mark required length to be knurled • If work held in chuck for knurling. Set carriage feed to . right end of work should be supported with revolving tailstock center 2.015 to .
. Permission required for reproduction or display. Set center of floating head of knurling tool even with dead-center point 5. Set knurling tool at right angles to workpiece and tighten it securely Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.53-111 4.
Move knurling tool to end of work so only half the roll face bears against work 8. and start lathe OR Start lathe and then force knurling tool into work until diamond pattern come to point . Force knurling tool into work approximately .53-112 6. Start machine and lightly touch rolls against work to check tracking 7.025 in.
53-113 9. Once pattern correct. engage automatic carriage feed and apply cutting fluid to knurling rolls 11. rings will be formed on knurled pattern 12. If knurling pattern not to point after length has been knurled. Knurl to proper length and depth • Do not disengage feed until full length has been knurled. otherwise. Stop lathe and examine pattern 10. reverse lathe feed and take another pass across work .
undercutting.53-114 Grooving • Done at end of thread to permit full travel of nut up to a shoulder or at edge of Square shoulder for proper fit • Also called recessing. Permission required for reproduction or display. . Inc. or necking • Rounded grooves used Round where there is strain on part V-shaped Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.
Grind toolbit to desired size and shape of groove required 2. Lay out location of groove 3. Set toolbit to center height .53-115 Procedure to Cut a Groove 1. Set lathe to half the speed for turning 4. Mount workpiece in lathe 5.
Calculate how far crossfeed screw must be turned to cut groove to proper depth 10. Locate toolbit on work at position where groove is to be cut 7. Feed toolbit into work slowly using crossfeed handle . Start lathe and feed cutting tool toward work using crossfeed handle until toolbit marks work lightly 8. Hold crossfeed handle in position and set graduated collar to zero 9.53-116 6.
Apply cutting fluid to point of cutting tool • To ensure cutting tool will not bind in groove.53-117 11. move carriage slightly to left and to right while grooving Should chatter develop. Stop lathe and check depth of groove with outside calipers or knife-edge verniers Safety note: Always wear safety goggles when grooving on a lathe . reduce spindle speed • 12.
PowerPoint to accompany Technology of Machine Tools 6th Edition Krar • Gill • Smid Threads and Thread Cutting Unit 55 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display. . Inc.
55-119 Threads • Used for hundreds of years for holding parts together. thread rolling. thread milling. dies. making adjustments. and transmitting power and motion • Art of producing threads continually improved • Massed-produced by taps. and grinding .
bolts. studs. as in micrometer – Transmit motion – Increase force .55-120 Threads • Thread – Helical ridge of uniform section formed on inside or outside of cylinder or cone • Used for several purposes: – Fasten devices such as screws. and nuts – Provide accurate measurement.
Inc.55-121 Thread Terminology Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display. .
55-122 Thread Terminology • Screw thread – Helical ridge of uniform section formed on inside or outside of cylinder or cone • External thread – Cut on external surface or cone • Internal thread – Produced on inside of cylinder or cone .
55-123 • Major diameter – Largest diameter of external or internal thread • Minor diameter – Smallest diameter of external or internal thread • Pitch diameter – Diameter of imaginary cylinder that passes through thread at point where groove and thread widths are equal – Equal to major diameter minus single depth of thread – Tolerance and allowances given at pitch diameter line .
lead = pitch) . measured parallel to axis – Expressed in millimeters for metric threads • Lead – Distance screw thread advances axially in one revolution (single-start thread.55-124 • Number of threads per inch – Number of crests or roots per inch of threaded section (Does not apply to metric threads) • Pitch – Distance from point on one thread to corresponding point on next thread.
55-125 • Root – Bottom surface joining sides of two adjacent threads – External thread on minor diameter – Internal thread on major diameter • Crest – Top surface joining two sides of thread – External thread on major diameter – Internal thread on minor diameter • Flank – Thread surface that connects crest with root .
55-126 • Depth of thread – Distance between crest and root measured perpendicular to axis • Angle of thread – Included angle between sides of thread measured in axial plane • Helix angle – Angle that thread makes with plane perpendicular to thread axis .
toolbit advanced from left to right Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display. Inc. toolbit advanced from right to left • Left-hand thread – Helical ridge of uniform cross section onto which nut is threaded in counterclockwise direction – When cut on lathe.55-127 • Right-hand thread – Helical ridge of uniform cross section onto which nut is threaded in clockwise direction – When cut on lathe. .
nominal diameter.8 .55-128 Thread Forms • April.6 to 100 mm – Identified by letter M. 1975 ISO came to an agreement covering standard metric thread profile – Specifies sizes and pitches for various threads in new ISO Metric Thread Standard – Has 25 thread sizes. and pitch M 5 X 0. range in diameter from 1.
all having same shape and proportions – – – – National Coarse (NC) National Fine (NF) National Special (NS) National Pipe (NPT) • Has 60º angle with root and crest truncated to 1/8th the pitch • Used in fabrication. machine construction .55-129 American National Standard Thread • Divided into four main series.
55-130 American National Standard Thread .125 F .125 x P or N Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.6134 x P or N . . Inc.6134 D . Permission required for reproduction or display.
. Inc. Britain. and Canada for standardized thread system • Combination of British Standard Whitworth and American National Standard Thread Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.55-131 Unified Thread • Developed by U.S. Permission required for reproduction or display..
125 x P or N . .125 F (external thread) .6134 x P or Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.6134 N .250 F (internal thread) .55-132 .5413 x P or N .5413 D (internal thread) . Inc.250 x P or N D (external thread) . Permission required for reproduction or display.
Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.3707P C = ..500P = maximum .55-133 American National Acme Thread • Replacing square thread in many cases • Used for feed screws.0052 (for maximum depth) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. and vises D = minimum .500P + 0.010 F = .3707P . . jacks.
55-134 Brown & Sharpe Worm Thread • Used to mesh worm gears and transmit motion between two shafts at right angles to each other but not in same plane D = . Permission required for reproduction or display. .6866P F = .335P C = . Inc.310P Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.
Permission required for reproduction or display. .55-135 Square Thread • Being replaced by Acme thread because of difficulty in cutting it D = .500P • Often found on vises F = .002 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.500P and jack screws C = .500P + .
125P R = 0. .054P (minimum) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.55-136 International Metric thread • Standardized thread used in Europe D = 0.7035P (maximum) = 0. Inc.6855P (minimum) F = 0. Permission required for reproduction or display.0633P (maximum) = 0.
55-137 Thread Fits and Classifications • Fit – Relationship between two mating parts – Determined by amount of clearance or interference when they are assembled • Nominal size – Designation used to identify size of part • Actual size – Measured size of thread or part – Basic size: size from which tolerances are set .
Maximum pitch diameter of the external thread (2A) = . .002 in.9168 in.—8 UNC Class 2A and 2B fit is: Minimum pitch diameter of the internal thread (2B) = . Allowance = .55-138 Allowance • Permissible difference between largest external thread and smallest internal thread • Difference produces tightest fit acceptable for any given classification The allowance for a 1 in.9188 in.
.9100 in. Minimum pitch diameter of the external thread (2A) = .55-139 Tolerance • • • • Variation permitted in part size May be expressed as plus.—8 UNC Class 2A thread is: Maximum pitch diameter of the external thread (2A) = . Tolerance = . or both Total tolerance is sum of plus and minus tolerances In Unified and National systems. minus. tolerance is plus on external threads and minus on internal threads The tolerance for a 1 in.0068 in.9168 in.
. Minimum pitch diameter of the external thread (2A) = .—8 UNC Class 2A thread are: Maximum pitch diameter of the external thread (2A) = .9100 in.55-140 Limits • Maximum and minimum dimensions of part The limits for a 1 in.9168 in..
2A. and 3A and internal threads as 1B. 2B.55-141 Three Categories of Unified Thread Fits • External threads classified as 1A. 3B • Classes 1A and 1B – Threads for work that must be assembled – Loosest fit • Classes 2A and 2B – Used for most commercial fasteners – Medium or free fit • Classes 3A and 3B – Used where more accurate fit and lead required – No allowance provided .
D = single depth of thread P = pitch Minor dia Major dia .55-142 Thread Calculations: Example 1 To cut a correct thread on a lathe. .61343 x P 8 8 10 . and width of flat for a ¾—10 UNC thread.61343 x .061in.0125 in.628 in.( D D) . minor diameter.(. depth.061 . tpi 10 P 1 1 Width of flat x D . it is necessary first to make calculations so thread will have the proper dimensions.75 . 1 1 P .100 . Calculate pitch.061) .100 in. .
55-143 Thread Calculations: Example 2 What are the pitch.3 X 1 thread? P = pitch = 1 mm D = 0.125 x P 0. minor diameter.25 mm Minor dia Major dia . depth.125 x 1 0.22 mm Width of crest 0.25 x P 0.125 mm .(.25 x 1 0.3 .54127 x 1 = 0.( D D) 6.54) 5.54 .54 mm Width of root 0. width of crest and width of root for an M 6.
With lathe stopped. which is in line with the pitch 4. Check drawing for thread pitch required 2. Set top lever in proper position as indicated on chart . From chart on quick-change gearbox.55-144 Procedure to Set the QuickChange Gearbox for Threading 1. find whole number that represents pitch in threads per inch or in millimeters 3. engage tumbler lever in hole.
Recheck lever settings to avoid errors . Turn lathe spindle by hand to ensure that lead screw revolves 7.55-145 5. Engage sliding gear in or out as required 6.
Inc.55-146 Thread-Chasing dial • Lathe spindle and lead screw must be in same relative position for each cut – Thread-chasing dial attached to carriage for this purpose • Dial has eight divisions – Even threads use any division – Odd threads either numbered or unnumbered: not both Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display. .
55-147 Thread Cutting • Produces a helical ridge of uniform section on workpiece • Performed by taking successive cuts with threading toolbit of same shape as thread form required • Work may be held between centers or in chuck .
Set quick-change gearbox for required pitch in threads per inch or in millimeters 3. Engage lead screw 4. Set lathe speed to ¼ speed used for turning 2.55-148 Procedure to Set Up a Lathe for Threading (60º Thread) 1. set to left for left-hand thread . Secure 60º threading toolbit and check angle using thread center gage 5. Set compound rest at 29º to right.
Arrange apron controls to allow split-nut lever to be engaged . Set toolbit at right angles to work. Mount work between centers • • Make sure lathe dog is tight on work If work mounted in chuck.55-149 6. Set cutting tool to height of lathe center point 7. using thread center gage 9. it must be held tightly 8.
Check major diameter of work for size 2. Start lathe and chamfer end of workpiece with side of threading tool to just below minor diameter of thread 3.55-150 Thread-Cutting Operation Procedure to cut a 60º thread 1. Mark length to be threaded by cutting light groove at this point with threading tool while lathe revolving .
but stop when handle is at 3 o'clock position 6. Move carriage until point of threading tool near right-hand end of work 5. Turn crossfeed handle until threading tool close to diameter. Hold crossfeed handle in this position and set graduated collar to zero 7.55-151 4. Turn compound rest handle until threading tool lightly marks work .
8. Move carriage to right until toolbit clears end of work
9. Feed compound rest clockwise about .003 in.
10. Engage split-nut lever on correct line of thread-chasing dial and take trial cut along length to be threaded 11. At end of cut, turn crossfeed handle counterclockwise to move toolbit away from work and disengage split-nut lever
12. Stop lathe and check number of tpi with thread pitch gage, rule, or center gage
13. After each cut, turn carriage handwheel to bring toolbit to start of thread and return crossfeed handle to zero
14. Set depth of all threading cuts with compound rest handle
• See Table 55.2 and Table 55.3
When tool is fed in at 29º, most of the cutting is done by the leading edge of toolbit.
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
0525 13 Portion of.0308 .0537 .0405 .031 29° .036 30° .027 .068 .037 .0375 .0577 taken .057 from .041 .2 Depth settings for cutting 60° national form threads* Compound Rest Setting tpi 24 20 18 16 14 0° .0468 .0674 11 .059 textbook .55-155 Table 55.046 .050 table .0325 .0417 .0465 .
Apply cutting fluid and take successive cuts until top (crest) and bottom (root) of thread are same width 16. Remove burrs from top of thread with file 17. Check thread with master nut and take further cuts .55-156 15.
Thread roll or snap gage 5. Optical comparator . Thread micrometer 3. Master nut or screw 2. Three wires 4.55-157 Six Ways to Check Threads • Depends on accuracy required: 1. Thread ring or plug gage 6.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.