ACCIDENT PREVENTION & BEHAVIOUR BASED SAFETY
WHY SAFETY IS OUR FIRST JOB
To protect human life
To protect company property
community To efficiently run the business & reduce Losses To enhance productivity To build up morale & team spirit To enhance corporate image
Special Risks Associated with Petroleum Refining
Highly flammable material High Temperature/Pressure
Modern Technologies extensively
Harmful Chemicals/Solvents/Catalysts used in the Process Corrosivity /Reactivity Self Ignition on Leakage from System Uncontrolled Process Reactions Loss of Containment/Accidental Releases
Finally safety is managed through systems approach. Next stage witnessed enhanced safety feature through technological up-gradation safe processes. safety features in built in design and prescriptive statutory rules. The „Cullen Report‟. etc. 1990 on Piper Alpha Disaster stressed the need for formal safety management system. compliance of rules and regulations.Safety Management
In the early stage of industrialization safety was managed through training and following safe procedures.
Safety Management System
An integrated approach of Management.
Leadership Commitment and Coordinated
Technical Interventions from concept to
commissioning to commercial operations
Abide by safety rules/regulations To follow safe operating practices Actively participate in safety committees Feed back on unsafe practices and acts Train co-workers and assist them in
Help in controlling safety and environmental
incidences Use Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
security personnel. contractors.Training
. Truck drivers/khalasis Core Safety training Skill training Refresher training
Use of modern training aids .
NEED FOR SAFETY
• LOSS OF PRODUCTION • LOSS OF CAPITAL • LOSS OF MANPOWER
LEGAL ASPECTS (STATUTORY OBLIGATION)
• PHYSICAL INJURY • REPARATION ON FAMILY • MORAL LOSS
• LOSS TO NATION • POLLUTION OF STREAM AND AIR
• MEDICAL COMPENSATION
• COST OF TRAINING
• LOSS OF WAGES
• BUSINESS INTERRUPTIONS
• PREVENTION OF PERSONAL INJURIES IS GOOD BUSINESS.
• ALL OPERATING EXPOSUIRES CAN BE SAEFGUARDED.
• EMPLOYEES INVOLVEMENT IS ESSENTIAL. • WORKING SAFELY IS A CONDITION OF EMPLOYMENT.SAFETY BELIEFS
• ALL INJURIES CAN BE PREVENTED. • TRAINING EMPLOYEES TO WORK SAFELY IS ESSENTIAL. • MANAGEMENT AUDITS ARE A MUST.
• MANAGEMENT IS RESPONSIBLE FOR PREVENTING INJURIES.
Obstacles Inquiry Investigation Safety Engineer
Organization Management Support Systematic procedure Creating & marinating interest
Basic Philosophy of Accident Occurrence & Prevention Ability Knowledge The desire to serve industry Country
.STEPS OF ACCIDENTS PREVENTION
Education Personnel Adjustment Placement Selection of remedy Instruction Persuasion & appeal Engineering Revision Analysis Causes Direct Underlying Major causes Fact finding Review of records Application of remedy Supervision Engineering Discipline As Last Resort
Frequency Severity Location Occupation Inspections Observations
Acc types Operation Tools & equip.
OR RADIATION RESULTS IN PERSONAL INJURY OR THE
PROBABILITY THEREOF. THEY ARE CAUSED.
PERSON. SUBSTANCE. (ii) DEFINITION OF SAFETY A SUBJECT COMBINATION OF ARTS.
. (i) DEFINITION OF ACCIDENT AN ACCIDENT IS AN UNPLANNED AND UNCONTROLLED EVENT IN WHICH THE ACTION OR REACTION OF AN OBJECT.PRINCIPLE OF ACCIDENT PREVENTION
BASIC PHILOSOPHY OF ACCIDENT PREVENTION IS „ACCIDENTS DO NOT JUST HAPPEN. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WHICH GIVES FREEDOM FROM A CONDITION WHICH MAY LEAD TO INJURY OR OTHER LOSS.
ACCIDENT RATIO STUDY
SERIOUS OR MAJOR INJURY MINOR INJURIES PROPERTY DAMAGE ACCIDENTS
INCIDENTS WITH NO VISIBLE INJURY OR DAMAGE(NEAR MISS INCIDENTS)
THOUGH IMMEDIATE CAUSES OF ACCIDENTS ARE DIFFERENT.
IT INDICATES THAT LOT OF EVENTS WHICH ARE INCIDENCES.
STUDY OF INCIDENTS PROVIDES OPPORTUNITIES TO CONTROL OF PROPERTY DAMAGE AND INJURIES (MINOR & MAJOR).
. BASIC CAUSES ARE THE SAME. PROPERTY DAMAGES OR MINOR ACCIDENTS TAKE PLACE BEFORE A MAJOR ACCIDENT OCCURS.
Problem Solving Model
Post contact Pre contact Contact
Lack of Control
•System •Standards •Compliance
Unintended Harm Or Damage
Measurement of Control
Measurement of Causes
Measurement of Consequences
The DNV Loss Causation Model
COST OF ACCIDENTS
INJURY & ILLNESS COST • MEDICAL
$5 TO $50 Ledger Costs of Property Damage (Uninsured costs)
• COMPENSATION COSTS (INSURED COSTS) • • • • BUILDING DAMAGE TOOLS & EQUIPMENT DAMAGE PRODUCT & MATERIAL DAMAGE EXPENSES ON EMERGENCY SUPPLIES & EQUIPMENTS • REPAIR & REPLACEMENT COSTS • • • • • • • INVESTIGATION TIME WAGES PAID FOR LOST TIME COST OF HIRING/TRAINING/REPLACEMENT OVERTIME EXTRA SUPERVISORY TIME CLERICAL TIME DECREASED OUTPUT OF INJURED PERSON ON RETURN • LOSS OF BUSINESS
$1 to $3 Uninsured Miscellaneous Costs
FAILURE TO USE SAFE ATTIRE OR PERSONAL PROTECTIVE DEVICES. PLACING.UNSAFE ACTS OF PERSONS
1. 9. 2. OR EQUIPMENT UNSAFELY 5. TAKING UNSAFE POSITION OR POSTURE. 3. UNSAFE ACTVIOLATION FROM THE PROCEDURE OF WORK.
7. FAILURE TO SECURE OR WARN. OPERATING OR WORKING AT UNSAFE SPEED. COMBINING ETC. UNSAFE LOADING. 6. WORKING OR MOVING OR DANGEROUS EQUIPMENT. 8. OPERATING WITHOUT CLEARANCE. USING UNSAFE EQUIPMENT. 4. MIXING. COMMONLY ACCEPTED SAFE
. DISTRACTING. ABUSING ETC.TEASING . MAKING SAFETY DEVICES INOPERATIVE.
INADEQUATELY CLOTHED. BLOCKED EXITS. POOR HOUSEKEEPING. UNGUARDED / ABSENCE OF REQUIRED GUARDS. 8.
6. 3. ETC. TOOLS. NUCLEAR ETC. SHARP.
. INADEQUATELY LIGHTED.) 2. MECHANICAL.
7. STRENGTH. ETC. ELECTRICAL. INADEQUATELY GUARDED (GUARDS OF IMPROPER HEIGHT. UNSAFE CONSTRUCTION OR COMMISSIONING OR DEFECTIVE MATERIALS. CONGESTION. UNSAFELY DESIGNED MACHINES. UNSAFE PROCESSES. MESH ETC. UNSAFELY ARRANGED. SOURCES OF GLARE ETC.UNSAFE MECHANICAL OR PHYSICAL CONDITIONS
1. CHEMICAL. 4. CRACKED ETC. DEFECTIVE DESIGNING. ROUGH. SLIPPERY DECAYED. 5.. UNSAFE CONDITION OCCURS DUE TO WRONG PLANNING. NO GOGGLES GLOVES OR MASKS. WEARING HIGH HEELS ETC. DEFECTIVE.
INADEQUATE PHYSICAL / PHYSIOLOGICAL CAPABILITY: 2. INADEQUATE MENTAL/PSYCHOLOGICAL CAPABILITY :
3. IMPROPER MOTIVATION:
1. LACK OF KNOWLEDGE 6. LACK OF SKILL
7. MENTAL OR PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS:
5. PHYSICAL OR PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS:
INADEQUATE MAINTENANCE 5. INADEQUACY IN PURCHASING 4.JOB FACTORS
1. INADEQUATE TOOLS AND EQUIPMENTS 6. INADEQUATE WORK STANDARDS: 7. ABUSE OR MISUSE:
. USE FOR WRONG PURPOSE) 8. INADEQUATE LEADERSHIP AND/OR SUPERVISION
2. INADEQUATE ENGINEERING 3. WEAR & TEAR (IMPROPER EXTENSION OF LIFE.
SUPERVISORS ROLE IN SAFETY
WORKABLE AND THOROUGHLY KNOWN TO ALL HIS MEN.DUTIES OF SUPERVISORS IN PROMOTING SAFETY
• EACH SUPERVISOR SHALL EXERCISE CLOSE SUPERVISION OVER HIS MANPOWER.
• SHALL ENSURE THAT PERSONS WORKING UNDER COMPETENT TO PERFORM THEIR WORK SAFELY.
• HE SHALL DEVELOP SAFETY AWARENESS IN THE MINDS OF ALL EMPLOYEES. THAT ALL HAZARDS ARE ELIMINATED WHEREVER POSSIBLE AND ALL MEANS OF EGRESS/EXIT..
• SUPERVISORS SHALL ENSURE THAT THE SAFETY REGULATIONS ARE UNDERSTOOD. STAIRWAYS AND SIMILAR MEANS OF ESCAPE ARE CLEAR. • SUPERVISOR SHALL EXPLAIN IN DETAIL THE PARTICULAR HAZARDS WHERE THE EMPLOYEE IS WORKING AND THE PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN TO ENSURE SAFETY.
• HE MUST TAKE IMMEDIATE CORRECTIVE ACTION WHENEVER UNSAFE CONDITIONS / PRACTICES ARE OBSERVED.
• SUPERVISORS MUST TAKE CORRECTIVE ACTION WHENEVER RULES
ARE NOT OBSERVED BECAUSE A SINGLE VIOLATION MAY BECOME A SOURCE OF MAJOR ACCIDENT AND MAY PUT THE SAFETY OF AN
INDIVIDUAL OR A GROUP IN JEOPARDY. • SUPERVISORS SHALL INVESTIGATE AND REPORT THE ROOT CAUSES OF ACCIDENTS THAT TAKE PLACE IN THEIR AREAS. • BY REGULAR AND SYSTEMATIC INSPECTION.DUTIES OF SUPERVISORS IN PROMOTING SAFETY
• HE MUST SET A GOOD EXAMPLE IN KNOWING AND OBSERVING ALL SAFETY RULES AND PRECAUTIONS.
. EQUIPMENT. MACHINERIES AND PREMISES ARE IN SAFE AND OPERATIVE CONDITIONS. SUPERVISOR SHALL ENSURE THAT ALL TOOLS. • SUPERVISORS ARE REQUIRED TO MAKE CONTACTS WITH PERSONS WORKING IN ISOLATED PLACES.
Behavior Based Safety
quality. and cost issues! • Safety is not driven through continuous improvement!
. not a value! • Safety is not managed in the same manner as production.Why Safety Programs Do Not Work:
• Safety is a priority.
“Fallacies or Realities” in Safety Fables?
• Conditions cause accidents! • Enforcing rules improves safety! • Safety professionals can keep workers safe! • Low accident rates indicate safety programs are working well! • Investigating to find the root cause of accidents will improve safety! • Awareness training improves safety! • Rewards improve safety!
Core Elements in Successful Safety programs
• A culture that says “safety” is important around here! • A tight accountability system!
an effective next step towards creating a truly pro-active safety culture where loss prevention is a core value • Conceptually easy to understand but often hard to implement and sustain
.Behavior Based Safety: What Is It?
• An excellent tool for collecting data on the quality of a company’s safety management system • A scientific way to understand why people behave the way they do when it comes to safety • Properly applied.
Behavior Based Safety:What It Is Not!
• Only about observation and feedback • Concerned only about the behaviors of line employees • A substitution for traditional risk management techniques
• About cheating & manipulating people & aversive control
• A focus on incident rates without a focus on behavior • A process that does not need employee involvement
Interventions: Always Consider These 3 Components
Traditional Hierarchy of Safety Interventions Included:
• Attempts to eliminate the hazard • Having employees work around the hazard • Guarding or warning employees about the hazard • Training employees to deal safely with the hazard
commitment • safety goals & objectives • costs of safety performance • Responsibility & accountability • defined for management & employees • accountable for performance • Safety organization • safety committees • safety staff resource • safety budget
. values.Safety Management System Interventions 7 components
• Management leadership • vision.
Safety Management System Interventions 7 components (continued)
• Safe work practices & procedures • general & job specific • housekeeping • contractors • emergency • Safety review & improvement • a Plan / Do / Check / Act process • accident investigation process • safety audit / inspection process
Safety Management System Interventions 7 components (continued)
• Safety training • Based on needs assessments • Designed & presented effectively • For both management & employees • Results in observable changes in behavior on the job • Safety communications • Internal & external • Appropriate for audience • Effectiveness of communication methods
If Safety Interventions are Effective You Will See:
• % of safe behaviors increasing and the % at-risk behaviors decreasing • Reporting of near misses / hits increasing • Both the number of observations and level of participation increasing • Frequency & severity of injuries decreasing • Increasing acceptance of responsibility and accountability for personal behavior
author and behavioral psychologist
. A business succeeds or fails through the performance of all of its employees
“Business is Behavior”
Success = “Good” performance Failure = “Bad” performance
Performance = the combined results of a series of behaviors
* Aubrey Daniels.
Obstacles To Success:
• • • •
Poorly Maintained Facilities Top-down Management Practices Poor Planning/Execution Inadequate Training
Keys to Success: • Meaningful Employee Empowerment • Designing a Well Planned and Supported BBS Process • Managing BBS Process with Integrity
Human Behavior is a function of :
Activators (what needs to be done)
Competencies (how it needs to be done)
Consequences (what happens if it is done)
Human behavior is both:
Behavior can be managed !
are inside a person’s head -therefore they are not observable or measurable
Attitudes can be changed by changing behaviors
(either reinforce or punish behavior)
Some examples of activators
thing or event that happens before a behavior takes place that encourages you to perform that behavior. place.
Activators only set the stage for behavior or performance .
.they don’t control it.Definitions:
Activators: A person.
and performing physical functions. acting.Definitions:
Behavior: Any directly measurable thing that a person does. including speaking.
Consequences: Events that follow behaviors.
Oh please let it be Bob!
If you don’t send in that payment we’ll take you to court
. Consequences increase or decrease the probability that the behaviors will occur again in the future.
Only 4 Types of Consequences:
Positive Reinforcement (R+)
("Do this & you'll be rewarded")
Negative Reinforcement (R-)
("Do this or else you'll be penalized")
("If you do this. you'll be penalized")
("Ignore it and it'll go away")
You get something you want
R.You escape or avoid something you don’t want
.Both Positive (R+) & Negative (R-) Reinforcement Can Increase Behavior
R+ : any consequence that follows a
behavior and increases the probability that the behavior will occur more often in the future .: a consequence that strengthens any
behavior that reduces or terminates the consequence .
Good safety suggestion Joe! Keep bringing ‘em up!
One more report like this and you’re out here!!
You don’t get what you want
.You may get something you don’t want
E: withholding or non-delivery of positive
reinforcement for previously reinforced behavior .Both Punishment & Extinction Decrease Behavior
P: a procedure in which a punisher
(consequence that decreases the frequency of the behavior it follows) is presented .
You bonehead!! You can kiss that bonus for this year good-bye...
.. If we get up every night when he cries he’ll never learn to go to sleep peacefully. and take a few days off without pay!!!
Let him cry honey.
P e r f o r m a n c e
The effects of positive reinforcement
P e r f o r m a n c e
The effects of punishment
P e r f o r m a n c e
The effects of extinction
P e r f o r m a n c e
If you see this type of performance curve. you can bet management by negative reinforcement is the predominant management style
What Employees Want:
• • • •
A Safe Workplace A Positive Workplace To Take Care of One Another To Stop the Hurt!
What Management Wants:
• An Accident Free Workplace • Empowered Employees • Pro-active rather than Re-active Work Process • Minimize Direct and Indirect Costs & Threat of Liability From Accidents
Why is one sign often ignored. the other one often followed?
..If you want to know what people find to be reinforcing..
observe what they do when they have the freedom to choose.
The Behavior Based Safety Challenge:
To create conditions that encourage people to collaborate because they want to
Let’s do it!!
not because they have to
not results they will come later!”
.A Values-Based Process
“Focus on the process …………….
. you’ll get what you always got!”
W.Why Do We Need to Change?
“If you do what you’ve always done.
Result + Behavior
.Employee Learning Model
Behavior Based Safety Safety Activities
Fewer at-risk Behaviors
Cultural Change that will take time Never ending process
Must be employee driven