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ACCIDENT PREVENTION & BEHAVIOUR BASED SAFETY

WHY SAFETY IS OUR FIRST JOB


To protect human life
To protect company property

To

protect

surrounding

environment/

community To efficiently run the business & reduce Losses To enhance productivity To build up morale & team spirit To enhance corporate image

Special Risks Associated with Petroleum Refining


Highly flammable material High Temperature/Pressure

Modern Technologies extensively

use

Hydrogen

Harmful Chemicals/Solvents/Catalysts used in the Process Corrosivity /Reactivity Self Ignition on Leakage from System Uncontrolled Process Reactions Loss of Containment/Accidental Releases

Safety Management
In the early stage of industrialization safety was managed through training and following safe procedures, compliance of rules and regulations, etc. Next stage witnessed enhanced safety feature through technological up-gradation safe processes, safety features in built in design and prescriptive statutory rules. Finally safety is managed through systems approach. The Cullen Report, 1990 on Piper Alpha Disaster stressed the need for formal safety management system.

Safety Management System

An integrated approach of Management,


Leadership Commitment and Coordinated

Technical Interventions from concept to


commissioning to commercial operations

Employee Participation
Abide by safety rules/regulations To follow safe operating practices Actively participate in safety committees Feed back on unsafe practices and acts Train co-workers and assist them in

performing safely

Help in controlling safety and environmental


incidences Use Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Training
Employees, contractors, security personnel, Truck drivers/khalasis Core Safety training Skill training Refresher training

Use of modern training aids - simulators

NEED FOR SAFETY


ECONOMIC ASPECTS
LOSS OF PRODUCTION LOSS OF CAPITAL LOSS OF MANPOWER

LEGAL ASPECTS (STATUTORY OBLIGATION)

HUMAN ASPECTS
PHYSICAL INJURY REPARATION ON FAMILY MORAL LOSS

SOCIAL ASPECTS
GENETIC

ECOLOGICAL
LOSS TO NATION POLLUTION OF STREAM AND AIR

MEDICAL COMPENSATION
COST OF TRAINING

LOSS OF WAGES
BUSINESS INTERRUPTIONS

SAFETY BELIEFS
ALL INJURIES CAN BE PREVENTED. WORKING SAFELY IS A CONDITION OF EMPLOYMENT.

EMPLOYEES INVOLVEMENT IS ESSENTIAL.


ALL OPERATING EXPOSUIRES CAN BE SAEFGUARDED. TRAINING EMPLOYEES TO WORK SAFELY IS ESSENTIAL. PREVENTION OF PERSONAL INJURIES IS GOOD BUSINESS. MANAGEMENT AUDITS ARE A MUST.

MANAGEMENT IS RESPONSIBLE FOR PREVENTING INJURIES.

STEPS OF ACCIDENTS PREVENTION


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Education Personnel Adjustment Placement Selection of remedy Instruction Persuasion & appeal Engineering Revision Analysis Causes Direct Underlying Major causes Fact finding Review of records Application of remedy Supervision Engineering Discipline As Last Resort

Frequency Severity Location Occupation Inspections Observations

Acc types Operation Tools & equip. Obstacles Inquiry Investigation Safety Engineer

Organization Management Support Systematic procedure Creating & marinating interest

Attitude Humanity

Basic Philosophy of Accident Occurrence & Prevention Ability Knowledge The desire to serve industry Country

PRINCIPLE OF ACCIDENT PREVENTION


BASIC PHILOSOPHY OF ACCIDENT PREVENTION IS ACCIDENTS DO NOT JUST HAPPEN, THEY ARE CAUSED. (i) DEFINITION OF ACCIDENT AN ACCIDENT IS AN UNPLANNED AND UNCONTROLLED EVENT IN WHICH THE ACTION OR REACTION OF AN OBJECT, SUBSTANCE,

PERSON, OR RADIATION RESULTS IN PERSONAL INJURY OR THE


PROBABILITY THEREOF. (ii) DEFINITION OF SAFETY A SUBJECT COMBINATION OF ARTS, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WHICH GIVES FREEDOM FROM A CONDITION WHICH MAY LEAD TO INJURY OR OTHER LOSS.

ACCIDENT RATIO STUDY


1 10

SERIOUS OR MAJOR INJURY MINOR INJURIES PROPERTY DAMAGE ACCIDENTS

30

600

INCIDENTS WITH NO VISIBLE INJURY OR DAMAGE(NEAR MISS INCIDENTS)

THOUGH IMMEDIATE CAUSES OF ACCIDENTS ARE DIFFERENT, BASIC CAUSES ARE THE SAME.

IT INDICATES THAT LOT OF EVENTS WHICH ARE INCIDENCES, PROPERTY DAMAGES OR MINOR ACCIDENTS TAKE PLACE BEFORE A MAJOR ACCIDENT OCCURS.

STUDY OF INCIDENTS PROVIDES OPPORTUNITIES TO CONTROL OF PROPERTY DAMAGE AND INJURIES (MINOR & MAJOR).

Problem Solving Model


Post contact Pre contact Contact

Lack of Control
Inadequate

Basic Causes
Personal Factors

Immediate Causes
Substandard Acts/Practices

Incident

Loss

System Standards Compliance

Event

Unintended Harm Or Damage

Job/System Factors

Substandard Conditions

Measurement of Control

Measurement of Causes

Measurement of Consequences

The DNV Loss Causation Model

COST OF ACCIDENTS
INJURY & ILLNESS COST MEDICAL

$1
$5 TO $50 Ledger Costs of Property Damage (Uninsured costs)

COMPENSATION COSTS (INSURED COSTS) BUILDING DAMAGE TOOLS & EQUIPMENT DAMAGE PRODUCT & MATERIAL DAMAGE EXPENSES ON EMERGENCY SUPPLIES & EQUIPMENTS REPAIR & REPLACEMENT COSTS INVESTIGATION TIME WAGES PAID FOR LOST TIME COST OF HIRING/TRAINING/REPLACEMENT OVERTIME EXTRA SUPERVISORY TIME CLERICAL TIME DECREASED OUTPUT OF INJURED PERSON ON RETURN LOSS OF BUSINESS

$1 to $3 Uninsured Miscellaneous Costs

UNSAFE ACTS OF PERSONS


1. OPERATING WITHOUT CLEARANCE, FAILURE TO SECURE OR WARN. 2. OPERATING OR WORKING AT UNSAFE SPEED. 3. MAKING SAFETY DEVICES INOPERATIVE. 4. USING UNSAFE EQUIPMENT, OR EQUIPMENT UNSAFELY 5. UNSAFE LOADING, PLACING, MIXING, COMBINING ETC. 6. TAKING UNSAFE POSITION OR POSTURE.
88%

7. WORKING OR MOVING OR DANGEROUS EQUIPMENT. 8. DISTRACTING,TEASING , ABUSING ETC. 9. FAILURE TO USE SAFE ATTIRE OR PERSONAL PROTECTIVE DEVICES. UNSAFE ACTVIOLATION FROM THE PROCEDURE OF WORK. COMMONLY ACCEPTED SAFE

UNSAFE MECHANICAL OR PHYSICAL CONDITIONS


1. INADEQUATELY GUARDED (GUARDS OF IMPROPER HEIGHT, STRENGTH, MESH ETC.) 2. UNGUARDED / ABSENCE OF REQUIRED GUARDS. 3. DEFECTIVE, ROUGH, SHARP, SLIPPERY DECAYED, CRACKED ETC. 4. UNSAFELY DESIGNED MACHINES, TOOLS, ETC. 5. UNSAFELY ARRANGED, POOR HOUSEKEEPING, CONGESTION, BLOCKED EXITS, ETC.

6. INADEQUATELY LIGHTED, SOURCES OF GLARE ETC.


7. INADEQUATELY CLOTHED, NO GOGGLES GLOVES OR MASKS, WEARING HIGH HEELS ETC. 8. UNSAFE PROCESSES, MECHANICAL, CHEMICAL, ELECTRICAL, NUCLEAR ETC. UNSAFE CONDITION OCCURS DUE TO WRONG PLANNING, DEFECTIVE DESIGNING, UNSAFE CONSTRUCTION OR COMMISSIONING OR DEFECTIVE MATERIALS..

10%

PERSONAL FACTORS
1. INADEQUATE PHYSICAL / PHYSIOLOGICAL CAPABILITY: 2. INADEQUATE MENTAL/PSYCHOLOGICAL CAPABILITY :

3. PHYSICAL OR PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS:

4. MENTAL OR PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS:


5. LACK OF KNOWLEDGE 6. LACK OF SKILL

7. IMPROPER MOTIVATION:

JOB FACTORS
1. INADEQUATE LEADERSHIP AND/OR SUPERVISION
2. INADEQUATE ENGINEERING 3. INADEQUACY IN PURCHASING 4. INADEQUATE MAINTENANCE 5. INADEQUATE TOOLS AND EQUIPMENTS 6. INADEQUATE WORK STANDARDS: 7. WEAR & TEAR (IMPROPER EXTENSION OF LIFE, USE FOR WRONG PURPOSE) 8. ABUSE OR MISUSE:

SUPERVISORS ROLE IN SAFETY

DUTIES OF SUPERVISORS IN PROMOTING SAFETY


EACH SUPERVISOR SHALL EXERCISE CLOSE SUPERVISION OVER HIS MANPOWER..

SHALL ENSURE THAT PERSONS WORKING UNDER COMPETENT TO PERFORM THEIR WORK SAFELY.

HIM

ARE

HE MUST TAKE IMMEDIATE CORRECTIVE ACTION WHENEVER UNSAFE CONDITIONS / PRACTICES ARE OBSERVED. SUPERVISOR SHALL EXPLAIN IN DETAIL THE PARTICULAR HAZARDS WHERE THE EMPLOYEE IS WORKING AND THE PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN TO ENSURE SAFETY.

HE SHALL DEVELOP SAFETY AWARENESS IN THE MINDS OF ALL EMPLOYEES.


SUPERVISORS SHALL ENSURE THAT THE SAFETY REGULATIONS ARE UNDERSTOOD, THAT ALL HAZARDS ARE ELIMINATED WHEREVER POSSIBLE AND ALL MEANS OF EGRESS/EXIT, STAIRWAYS AND SIMILAR MEANS OF ESCAPE ARE CLEAR, WORKABLE AND THOROUGHLY KNOWN TO ALL HIS MEN.

DUTIES OF SUPERVISORS IN PROMOTING SAFETY


HE MUST SET A GOOD EXAMPLE IN KNOWING AND OBSERVING ALL SAFETY RULES AND PRECAUTIONS. SUPERVISORS SHALL INVESTIGATE AND REPORT THE ROOT CAUSES OF ACCIDENTS THAT TAKE PLACE IN THEIR AREAS. SUPERVISORS ARE REQUIRED TO MAKE CONTACTS WITH PERSONS WORKING IN ISOLATED PLACES. BY REGULAR AND SYSTEMATIC INSPECTION, SUPERVISOR SHALL ENSURE THAT ALL TOOLS, EQUIPMENT, MACHINERIES AND PREMISES ARE IN SAFE AND OPERATIVE CONDITIONS.

SUPERVISORS MUST TAKE CORRECTIVE ACTION WHENEVER RULES


ARE NOT OBSERVED BECAUSE A SINGLE VIOLATION MAY BECOME A SOURCE OF MAJOR ACCIDENT AND MAY PUT THE SAFETY OF AN

INDIVIDUAL OR A GROUP IN JEOPARDY.

Behavior Based Safety

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Why Safety Programs Do Not Work:


Safety is a priority, not a value! Safety is not managed in the same manner as production, quality, and cost issues! Safety is not driven through continuous improvement!
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Fallacies or Realities in Safety Fables?


Conditions cause accidents! Enforcing rules improves safety! Safety professionals can keep workers safe! Low accident rates indicate safety programs are working well! Investigating to find the root cause of accidents will improve safety! Awareness training improves safety! Rewards improve safety!
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Core Elements in Successful Safety programs


A culture that says safety is important around here! A tight accountability system!

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Behavior Based Safety: What Is It?


An excellent tool for collecting data on the quality of a companys safety management system A scientific way to understand why people behave the way they do when it comes to safety Properly applied, an effective next step towards creating a truly pro-active safety culture where loss prevention is a core value Conceptually easy to understand but often hard to implement and sustain
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Behavior Based Safety:What It Is Not!


Only about observation and feedback Concerned only about the behaviors of line employees A substitution for traditional risk management techniques

About cheating & manipulating people & aversive control


A focus on incident rates without a focus on behavior A process that does not need employee involvement

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Interventions: Always Consider These 3 Components

Engineering Controls
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Traditional Hierarchy of Safety Interventions Included:


Attempts to eliminate the hazard Having employees work around the hazard Guarding or warning employees about the hazard Training employees to deal safely with the hazard

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Safety Management System Interventions 7 components


Management leadership vision, values, commitment safety goals & objectives costs of safety performance Responsibility & accountability defined for management & employees accountable for performance Safety organization safety committees safety staff resource safety budget
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Safety Management System Interventions 7 components (continued)


Safe work practices & procedures general & job specific housekeeping contractors emergency Safety review & improvement a Plan / Do / Check / Act process accident investigation process safety audit / inspection process

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Safety Management System Interventions 7 components (continued)


Safety training Based on needs assessments Designed & presented effectively For both management & employees Results in observable changes in behavior on the job Safety communications Internal & external Appropriate for audience Effectiveness of communication methods
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If Safety Interventions are Effective You Will See:


% of safe behaviors increasing and the % at-risk behaviors decreasing Reporting of near misses / hits increasing Both the number of observations and level of participation increasing Frequency & severity of injuries decreasing Increasing acceptance of responsibility and accountability for personal behavior

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A business succeeds or fails through the performance of all of its employees

Business is Behavior
Success = Good performance Failure = Bad performance

Performance = the combined results of a series of behaviors


* Aubrey Daniels, author and behavioral psychologist
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Obstacles To Success:

Poorly Maintained Facilities Top-down Management Practices Poor Planning/Execution Inadequate Training

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Keys to Success: Meaningful Employee Empowerment Designing a Well Planned and Supported BBS Process Managing BBS Process with Integrity

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Human Behavior is a function of :

Activators (what needs to be done)


Competencies (how it needs to be done)

Consequences (what happens if it is done)

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Human behavior is both:


Observable Measurable

therefore

Behavior can be managed !


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Attitudes

are inside a persons head -therefore they are not observable or measurable
however

Attitudes can be changed by changing behaviors


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ABC Model

Antecedents
(trigger behavior)

Behavior
(human performance)

Consequences
(either reinforce or punish behavior)
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Some examples of activators

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Definitions:

Activators: A person, place,


thing or event that happens before a behavior takes place that encourages you to perform that behavior.

Activators only set the stage for behavior or performance - they dont control it.

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Definitions:

Behavior: Any directly measurable thing that a person does, including speaking, acting, and performing physical functions.

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Definitions:
Consequences: Events that follow behaviors. Consequences increase or decrease the probability that the behaviors will occur again in the future.
Oh please let it be Bob!

If you dont send in that payment well take you to court

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Only 4 Types of Consequences:


Positive Reinforcement (R+)
("Do this & you'll be rewarded")

Behavior:

Negative Reinforcement (R-)


("Do this or else you'll be penalized")

Punishment (P)
("If you do this, you'll be penalized")

Extinction (E)
("Ignore it and it'll go away")
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Both Positive (R+) & Negative (R-) Reinforcement Can Increase Behavior
R+ : any consequence that follows a
behavior and increases the probability that the behavior will occur more often in the future - You get something you want

R- : a consequence that strengthens any


behavior that reduces or terminates the consequence - You escape or avoid something you dont want
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R+

Good safety suggestion Joe! Keep bringing em up!

One more report like this and youre out here!!

R51

Both Punishment & Extinction Decrease Behavior


P: a procedure in which a punisher
(consequence that decreases the frequency of the behavior it follows) is presented - You may get something you dont want

E: withholding or non-delivery of positive


reinforcement for previously reinforced behavior - You dont get what you want
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You bonehead!! You can kiss that bonus for this year good-bye.... and take a few days off without pay!!!

Let him cry honey. If we get up every night when he cries hell never learn to go to sleep peacefully.

E
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P e r f o r m a n c e

R+

The effects of positive reinforcement

Time

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P e r f o r m a n c e

P
The effects of punishment

Time

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P e r f o r m a n c e

E
The effects of extinction

Time

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P e r f o r m a n c e

If you see this type of performance curve, you can bet management by negative reinforcement is the predominant management style

Time

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What Employees Want:

A Safe Workplace A Positive Workplace To Take Care of One Another To Stop the Hurt!
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What Management Wants:


An Accident Free Workplace Empowered Employees Pro-active rather than Re-active Work Process Minimize Direct and Indirect Costs & Threat of Liability From Accidents
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Why is one sign often ignored, the other one often followed?

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If you want to know what people find to be reinforcing....

observe what they do when they have the freedom to choose.

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The Behavior Based Safety Challenge:

To create conditions that encourage people to collaborate because they want to


Lets do it!!

not because they have to


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A Values-Based Process

Focus on the process .not results they will come later!

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Why Do We Need to Change?

If you do what youve always done, youll get what you always got!

W. Edwards Deming

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Employee Learning Model


- Result + Behavior

Habit
Belief

Experience

Outcomes

Behavior Based Safety Safety Activities

Fewer at-risk Behaviors


Fewer Accidents

Summary
Cultural Change that will take time Never ending process

Must be employee driven

DESIGN

PROCEDURE

TRAINING

EMENGENCY PREPARENDNESS

SAFETY

PARTICIPATION

CERTIFICATION/ ACCREDITITION

GOOD ENGG. PRACTICES

INSPECTION/ AUDIT