dynamics

teaching

Using Modern tools

Adult Learning

Task Oriented
Individual Learning
Teaching Methods

Group Learning

Objectives of the Session

Why study teaching Methods ? Who select teaching Methods ? What are Teaching Methods ? How T Methods Selected ?

1 Why Study Teaching Methods?

Methods used to achieve performance objectives of the contents of a Curriculum . It is important to know which method may help students to acquire desired skills, knowledge and attitudes

2 Who Select Teaching Methods?
•Teachers apply

Teachers

•How applied ? •Motivation •Liking •Efficient •Meet Objectives

3 What are Training Methods?
Lecture Discussions Demonstrations Practical Exercises Projects Role Play Business Games Ice-Breakers Case Studies On the Job Learning Work Site Visits Computer Assisted

3 What are Teaching Methods?
Methods

Procedures Techniques Processes

Class Room

Untrained teacher

Trained Teacher

4 How are T Methods Selected?
Analyzing components of Curriculum

Identifying characteristics of methods

Comparing curriculum with Methods

Analysing Contents of Curriculum

•Learning Principles
•Learning Objectives •Students •Teachers •Constraints

Analysing Curriculum’s Components

•Learning Principles
Learning is different for individuals Motivation is Essential to learning Learning should be relevant to students' understanding Feedback

Learning---Retention of information

Words

10%

Words & Pictures Words, Picture & Practice

50%

90%

-study by UNESCO

Learning---Retention of information

Tell me and I

forget……

Show me and I may

Remember……….

Involve me and I will

Understand
- UNESCO

Specify Objectives
Selection of appropriate teaching methods depends on clearly defined objectives .

With objectives identified, it is possible to define the methods or combination of methods , appropriate for each objective

Describing Students

If teaching methods are to be used effectively,there must be a match between the characteristics of students and the content of Learning material and its presentation

Describing Students- characteristics

General

Specific

Describing Trainees- characteristics

General

•Age •Gender •Education Level •Aptitude to learn •Cultural Factors •No. of Students

Describing Trainees- characteristics

•Prerequisites Skills •Target Skills •Study Skills •Attitudes

Specific

Describing Students

•Qualifications •Technical Know-how

•Skill Level
•Attitude towards Learning •Individual Initiative

Identify Constraints

•Budget Availability •Facilities Availability •Time Available

Identifying Characteristics of Methods

Lecture Method

It is a teacher centered Activity where students listen to and watch the teacher present a lesson

•One way •Notes taken by students •Serves Large Number •Less Costly •Little interaction •Little Retention •Don’t Promote individual learning •No Problem Solving Skills •No Opportunity to Manipulate, tools, machines or materials

Making Lecture Method Attractive

•Best Summary •Cross Word Puzzle •Questions Cards •Rapid Reflection •Short Quiz •Shouting Match -ve, +Ve & Neutral •Panel Discussion •True or False •Fill in the Blanks •Turn to your Neighbor •Four Questions-flip Chart

Discussion Method

•Takes more time •Effective with small groups • Improves Communication Skills

The teacher direct students discussions of topics. Students Discuss & sometimes initiate their Questions to the teacher

•Actively involve students •Good Learning

Demonstration Method

•Requires Skilled Teachers •Requires equipments…. •May be a Workshop, Lab It is another teacher centered Method where students get a chance to watch certain manual skills. Teacher shows students how to use a tool, machine or process •No Interaction of students with tools….

Practical Exercises
•Promote interest & Enthusiasm •Opportunity to work with tools, machines •Repetition may kill enthusiasm •May require tools, machines, materials….

It gives students a chance to practice certain observable skills. Students are guided by the teacher.

Job or assignment sheets give students specific instructions

Ice-Breakers
•Promote interest & Enthusiasm •Kill Monotony •Participation •Refreshing
An opening remark, action designed To ease tension or relieve formality..

•Learning

A mild joke could be a good ice Breaker

Business Games
•Problem Solving •Participative •Team Building •Decision Making •Time Constraints Technique in which participants, grouped into teams, consider a sequence of problems and organize themselves to make decisions

Projects

•Individual or Group projects •Promote team work

•Promote Communication Projects are student centered. Students collect data, design the Project and actually produce a Finished product may be under the guidance of teacher
•May be Costly •May require equipments •Cant be applied to Large No

Case Studies

•Examine Real Situation •Builds skills in •Communication •Problem solving •Creativity •Method is Costly •Time Consuming •Sometimes no solutions

It involve students in solution of a problem. Usually working in small groups, students study a Problem described in a case.

On the Job Training

•Costly •Supervisors loose interest

Used to develop job skills and Supplement class room training Teacher centered & students get Opportunity to feel real job Environment for learning

•Hard to schedule •Priorities may be different

•Good Learning Environment

Work Site Visits

•Check list to observe •Trainers observe learning Visitations to work sites offer students a good chance to see the application of skills and knowledge in real situations

•Costly
•Time Consuming •Observing Large Group

Role Play or Simulation
•Practice •Involvement •Interpersonal Skill •Time Consuming It is teaching technique where students assume an identity other than their own, to cope with the real or hypothetical problem in human relations and other ares •Can Fail too

Computer Assisted Online

•Teacher Validate Learning •Useful

•Time Consuming
•Updating Processors Students direct their own learning with the computer assisted method •Skilled Trainers

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