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Rules & Regulation
• Proper exercise attire to be worn
– To prevent injuries
• loose fitting t-shirt & shorts • Proper footwear (sports shoes)
– For hygiene purpose
• Water bottle
– To prevent dehydration
• Equipment usage
– Do not hog the equipment – Do not damage the equipment – Do not bring any equipment to your cabin
Factors which affect injury
•Fitness Level •Frequency of exercise (Overtraining?) •Proper form during exercise •Proper exercise surface •Proper Footwear •Foot Alignment Problems
1. 2. 3. 4. The Spine The Shoulder The Knee The Ankle and Foot
Prevention: - Avoid excessive hypertension exercises - Cue proper exercise technique - Strengthen abdominal muscles - Stretching
Prevention: - Avoid exercises with excessive forward flexion and flexion with rotation unless, given appropriate sports conditioning needs and physical level. - While stretching the lower back, be cautious about the degree of flexion.
• Spinal Compression
Prevention: - Avoid excessive high impact movements - Avoid percussive movement - Avoid excessive rotation and twisting motion.
• Shoulder Impingement
Prevention: - Strengthen the rotator cuff muscles - Avoid overtraining overhead arm movements. - Allow sufficient rest periods.
• Extreme of loaded flexion
Prevention: - Avoid excessive knee flexion with load. - Strengthen the quadriceps, hamstrings and gluteals muscles to support the knee in lower body exercises.
• Torsion or Twisting
Prevention: - Avoid rapid directional changes - Avoid stretches or exercises that involves torsion or twisting. - Keep knee aligned over toes. (knee cap do not go beyond the toes)
Prevention: - Keep knee joint “soft” in all movements.
4. Ankle and Foot
• Achilles tendonitis, Shin Splints, Impact.
Prevention: - Proper footwear - Strengthen tibialis anterior and posterior - Avoid high impact full squat exercises.
• Weight Belts are not recommended for the average client • The take away from the important stabilizer muscle groups of the abdominals and lower back •These muscle groups are normally the weak links in many strength training exercises and are best trained without the aid of a weight belt
• Knee wraps give minimal support to the knee and are normally used for psychological reasons • If too tightly wrapped, can cause pain in the front of knee
• Develop a weak link by neglecting grip strength
• Used by lifters who have poor ankle flexibility when performing squat exercise
• Ankle flexibility can be improved by the board as the squatting action stretches the achilles tendon
• • • • Heart Rate Intensity (THR, MaxMR, RHR) Talk Test RPE (Rate of Perceived Exertion) Physical signs : Breathless, face pale, sweating.
Obese Vs Overweight
• Clinical term to classify individuals who have abnormally proportion of body fat. • Overweight is the term used for people above the desired weight on the height and weight chart
• Overweight = over fat • Obesity Men > 25% Women > 34%
The obese client
• Aerobic guidelines
– Combined exercise and diet program – Low impact class, initially combined with non weight bearing
• Eg. Aquarobics, swimming, stationary cycling, recumbent cycling, rowing, etc
• Aerobic contraindication
– Avoid large intimidating classes initially – Discourage jarring, eg. Step, high impact aerobics
The obese client
• Resistance guideline
– Gradual progression of resistance training high intensity reps 15-20 reps 30-50% 1RM
• Resistance contraindication
– Should not be performed in the absence of aerobic exercise
• Resting heart may decrease or remain static • Maximal heart rate decrease because of decrease cardiac output (20-30%) • Decrease in VO2 Max • Decrease in muscle mass and strength (20%) • Decrease in BMR (Basal metabolic rate) • Decrease elasticity in tendons and ligaments leading to loss in joint mobility • Decrease in bone mass & strength • Decrease in bone density in post menopausal women • Decrease ling capacity • Slower reflexes
• Aerobic guidelines
– Begin with low intensity activities
• Eg. Walking, light cycling
– Avoid jarring, sudden changes in posture, etc – Long warm-ups and cool downs – Encourage stretching, pre & post exercise