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It is the longest written constitution of any sovereign country in the world containing 395 articles in 22 parts, 12 schedules and

94 amendments for a total of 117,369 words in the English language version.

Passed by the Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949, it came into effect on 26 January 1950. The date 26 January was chosen to commemorate the declaration of independence of 1930. It declares the Union of India to be a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic, assuring its citizens of justice, equality, and liberty and, endeavors to promote among them all, fraternity.

The words "socialist", "secular", and "integrity" were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment.
India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on 26 January each year as Republic Day. After coming into effect, the Constitution replaced the Government of India Act 1935 as the governing document of India.

The Constitution, in its current form, consists of a Preamble 22 parts containing 395 articles 12 schedules, 2 appendices 94 amendments to date.

Preamble Part I- Union and its Territory Part II- Citizenship. Part III- Fundamental Rights Part IV- Directive Principles and Fundamental Duties. Part V- The Union. Part VI- The States. Part VII- States in the B part of the First schedule(Repealed). Part VIII- The Union Territories Part IX- Panchayat system and Municipalities. Part X- The scheduled and Tribal Areas Part XI- Relations between the Union and the States. Part XII- Finance, Property, Contracts and Suits Part XIII- Trade and Commerce within the territory of India Part XIV- Services Under the Union, the States and Tribunals Part XV- Elections Part XVI- Special Provisions Relating to certain Classes. Part XVII- Languages Part XVIII- Emergency Provisions Part XIX- Miscellaneous Part XX- Amendment of the Constitution Part XXI- Temporary, Transitional and Special Provisions Part XXII- Short title, date of commencement, Authoritative text in Hindi and Repeals

Framed By The People Of India The Constitution has been framed by the representatives of the people of India through a Constitution Assembly during 1946-49. Derived From Various Sources It has been derived from various sources. The various provisions derived are Fundamental Rights and Supreme Court from the USA, Directive Principles Of State Policy from Ireland, Emergency from Germany, Distribution of Legislative powers from Canada and Parliamentary Institutions from United Kingdom. Sovereignty Of The People The Constitution propagates the people of India to be the supreme authority. It means the people of India are not secondary to any other external agency. Republican Polity The Constitution proclaims India to be a republic. Secular Polity The Constitution declares India as a secular nation. It clearly specifies there should not be any discrimination on the basis of religion and all religion should be treated equally. Fundamental Rights And Duties The Constitution provides for Fundamental rights and duties. The fundamental duties were included into the constitution through an amendment in 1976.

Comprehensive Document The Constitution is a comprehensive document with 395 articles and twelve schedules. Parliamentary Democracy It advocates India to have a Parliamentary form of government. In parliamentary democracy, members are selected b the way of elections. Federal Form Of Polity It advocates a federal form of government. But even after the setting up of a federal form of government, some critics have expressed dissatisfaction, calling it a Unitary Constitution.

Fundamental Rights
Right to Equality

Right to Freedom
Right against Exploitation

Right to Freedom of Religion


Cultural and Educational Right

Right to Constitutional Remedies


Saving of Certain Laws

Fundamental Duties To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India. To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so. To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women. To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture. To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures. To develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of enquiry and reform To safeguard public property and to abjure violence To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity, so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavor and achievement.

Directive Principles of State Policy State to secure a social order for the promotion of welfare of the people. Organization of village panchayats. Right to work, to education and to public assistance in certain cases. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. Living wage, etc., for workers. Uniform civil code for the citizens. Provision of free and compulsory education for children. Promotion of education and economic interests of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. Duty of the State to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health; Organization of agriculture and animal husbandry. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. Separation of judiciary from executive. Promotion of international peace and security.

Impact of Constitution of INDIA on business