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Tunneling

When source & destination are on the same type of network but there is a different network inbetween, tunneling is used.

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Internetwork Routing
2 B 3

Gateway
D 1 C

Network
4 F 5

An Internetwork

A Graph of the Internetwork

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Difference between internetworking & intranetworking

Crossing international boundaries Cost QOS Time

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Fragmentation
Various causes for each network to imposes MAXSIZE on its packets Hardware Operating system Protocols Compliance with some (inter)national Standard Desire to reduce error induced retransmissions to some level. Desire to prevent one packet from occupying the channel too long.
5

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

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Need of Fragmentation?

When a large packet wants to travel through a network whose MAXSIZE is too small.

Avoid sending packets to those networks.

Destination network itself cant handle large packets.

Fragmentation.

The Gateways are allowed to break-up the packets into fragments, sending each packet as a separate internet packet.
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Recombining the Fragments

Transparent Fragmentation

Non- Transparent Fragmentation

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Transparent Fragmentation

Network 1 Packet
G1 G2

Network 2

G3

G4

G2 reassembles the packets

G4 reassembles again

G1 fragments a large packet G3 fragments again

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Drawbacks of Transparent Fragmentation


1.

2.

3.

Exit gateway must know when it has received all the fragmented packets. Performance loss, because all packets must exit via the same gateway. Overhead required to repeatedly reassemble & refragment large packet.

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Non Transparent Fragmentation


Stops recombining fragments at any intermediate gateways

Packet
G1 G2 G3 G4

G1 fragments a large packet

The fragments are not reassembled until the final destination is reached.

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Disadvantage of Non-transparent fragmentation

Increases overhead.

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Numbering Fragments

Tree

Elementary Packet Size

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Numbering fragments using TREES


0

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.0.0

0.0.1

0.1.0

0.1.1

0.2.0

0.2.1

0.3.0

0.3.1

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Elementary Fragment Size


Number of the first elementary fragment in this packet Packet number
27 0 1

End of packet bit


A B C D E F G

1 byte
H I J

a)
Header
27 0 0 A B C D E F G H 27 8 1 I J

Header

b)
Header
A B C D E 27 5 0 F G H 27 8 1 I J

27

c)
Header Header

Header

a) Fragmentation when elementary data size is 1 byte, b) Max packet size is 8 bytes c) Packet size is 5 bytes.
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Firewalls

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A Firewall Consisting of two Packet filtering routers & an Application Gateway Packet Filtering Router Application Gateway

Packet Filtering Router

Connections to Outside World

Inside LAN
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Outside LAN
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