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CENTRE HIGH: PHYSICS 30

UNIT 1: CONSERVATION LAWS


Lesson 1: Newton's Laws (Review)

Reading:
Heath: Chapter 4 pp. 130 - 140 pp. 146 - 149

A. DYNAMICS (Review)
- explaining the physical world using forces

Force = a push or a pull


e.g. F Push Pull F

Net External force (Fnet )


Fnet = vector sum of all external forces on object = F1 + F2 + F3 + ...

Since it is a vector sum, you must acknowledge the direction of the forces when you add them

i.e. Consider

F1 = 500 N

F2 = 300 N

What would the net external force be?

F1 = 500 N

F2 = 300 N

What would the net external force be? First, establish a reference system: Let right be positive Then left is negative

F1 = 500 N

F2 = 300 N

What would the net external force be? Fnet = F1 + F2 = (+500 N) + (+300 N) = + 800 N 800 N towards the right

So,

Fnet =

i.e. Consider

F1 = 500 N

F2 = 300 N

What would the net external force be?

F1 = 500 N

F2 = 300 N

What would the net external force be? Let's use the same reference system: Let right be positive Then left is negative

F1 = 500 N

F2 = 300 N

What would the net external force be? Fnet = F1 + F2 = (+500 N) + (-300 N) = + 200 N 200 N towards the right

So,

Fnet =

Method for solving one-dimensional Fnet questions:


1. Draw a force diagram 2. Establish a reference system (positive direction) 3. Determine if each force is positive or negative 4. Add the vectors as numbers

5. Interpret your answer

Ex. 1 An object experiences 3 forces:


F1 = 250 N right F2 = 140 N left F3 ? If Fnet is 70 N left, then find F3 (mag and dir).

Solution Ref: Right is positive


F1 = 250 N

F2 = 140 N F3 ?

Solution Ref: Right is positive


F1 = 250 N

F2 = 140 N F3 ?

Fnet = F1 + F2 + F3 -70 N = (+250 N) + (-140 N) + F3 F3 = -180 N = 180 N left

Newton's 1st Law


If an object is moving at a constant velocity ( a = 0), then the forces are balanced i.e. Fnet = 0

If the forces are balanced on an object, why does it continue to move?

If the forces are balanced on an object, why does it continue to move?


This is called the property of Inertia i.e. Objects at rest tend to stay at rest Objects in motion tend to stay in motion

e.g. Consider a car moving forward at a constant speed


constant speed

What are the horizontal forces on the car? How are these forces related?

There are two horizontal forces on the car:


constant velocity

Fground

Fresistance

There are two horizontal forces on the car:


constant velocity

Fground

Fresistance

Since the car is moving at a constant velocity (no acceleration), the two forces must be equal and opposite i.e. Fground = - Fresistance

Ex. 2 A metal ball is falling through oil at a constant velocity of 7.0 m/s downward. If the oil exerts an upward force of 0.460 N, find: a) the mass of the ball (in grams) b) the distance it travels in 0.46 s.

Solution: a) 1st Law: (constant velocity) - forces are balanced


Fg = Foil

Fg

Foil = 0.460 N
Equal in magnitude (no arrows)

Solution: a) 1st Law: (constant velocity) - forces are balanced


Fg = Foil mg = Foil

Fg

Foil = 0.460 N
m = Foil g = 0.460 N 9.81 N/kg

= 0.04689 kg

Convert to grams:
Unit you want m = 0.04689 kg x 1000 g 1 kg Unit to cancel

Convert to grams:
m = 0.04689 kg x 1000 g 1 kg

= 46.9 g

b)
v = 7.0 m/s d = 3.20 m t? v = d t d = vt = (7.0 m/s) (0.46 s)

3.2 m

Newton's 2nd Law


If an object experiences unbalanced forces, then it will accelerate in the same direction as Fnet i.e. Fnet = m a

Fnet = m a where m is the mass of the object (in kg) a is the acceleration of the object (in m/s2) Fnet is the net external force on the object (in N) Recall Fnet = F1 + F2 + ...

e.g.
200 N 500 N

What is Fnet? Which direction will it accelerate?

200 N

500 N

is equivalent to a Fnet = 300 N

Notice that it accelerates in the same direction as Fnet

Ex. 3 A 1300 kg rocket is accelerating upward at 27.0 m/s2 off Earth's surface (from rest). Ignore air resistance. a) Find upward force due to thrusters. b) Find the time required to reach a speed of 150 km/h.

Solution: a) 2nd Law

Ref: Up is positive

Fg

27.0 m/s2

Always draw a force diagram

Solution: a) 2nd Law

Ref: Up is positive

Fg

27.0 m/s2 Find the weight of the object as a side calculation

F
Fg = m g = (1300) (-9.81 N/kg) = -12753 N

Ref: Up is positive
Fg = 12753 N Fnet = m a = (1300 kg) (+27.0 m/s2) = 35100 N 27.0 m/s2

Ref: Up is positive
Fg = 12753 N Fnet = m a = (1300 kg) (+27.0 m/s2) = 35100 N 27.0 m/s2 Fnet = Fg + F 35100 N = -12753 N + F F F = 4.79 x 104 N (upward)

Ref: Up is positive
b) List: vi = 0 a = +27.0 m/s2 vf = 150 x 1000 m 3600 s t?

= 41.667 m/s

Solution: b) List:

Ref: Up is positive
vi = 0 a = +27.0 m/s2 vf = 150 x 1000 m 3600 s t?

= 41.667 m/s

a = vf - vi t a t = vf t = vf = 41.667 m/s a 27.0 m/s2 = 1.54 s

Practice Problems:
Try: Heath p.140 #1 - 4

Newton's 3rd Law


If A exerts a force on B, then B exerts an equal but opposite reaction force on A. i.e. FA on B = - FB on A

"For every force, there is an equal but opposite reaction force"

e.g. Consider an object landing on the ground.

What is the action force? The reaction force?

Action force:
The object will hit the ground with a downward force

Fobject = 80 N

Action force:
The object will hit the ground with a downward force

Reaction force:
The ground will exert an equal but opposite force on the object

Fobject = 80 N

Fground = 80 N

SUMMARY 1. How should you always start a dynamics solution?


2. If an object is moving, what does it tend to do? What is this property called? 3. Describe the forces on an object if it is: a) moving at a constant velocity b) accelerating towards the right c) hitting a stationary tree

SUMMARY 1. How should you always start a dynamics solution? Draw a force diagram State a reference system
2. If an object is moving, what does it tend to do? What is this property called? It tends to continue moving (in same direction) Inertia

3. Describe the forces on an object if it is: a) moving at a constant velocity 1st law - forces are balanced (Fnet = 0)
b) accelerating towards the right 2nd Law - unbalanced forces - Fnet must act to the right

3. Describe the forces on an object if it is: c) hitting a stationary tree 3rd law - object hits the tree with an action force - tree exerts an equal but opposite reaction force on object

Fcar

Ftree

Ftree = - Fcar