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DIRECT SPEECH

Saying exactly what someone has said is called direct speech (sometimes called quoted speech) Here what a person says appears within quotation marks ("...") and should be word for word. For example: "I'm going to the cinema", he said.

Indirect speech is also called as reported speech because it is used by a person to report someones speech in his/her own words.

Indirect Speech

For example:
He said he was going to the cinema.

CHANGING SPEECH
GRAMMAR GRANNY TELLS YOU THE RULES !!

RULE 1

Check the tense of the reporting verb to decide whether the corresponding tenses will change or not.

When reporting speech, the tense usually changes. This is because when we use reported speech, we are usually talking about a time in the past (because obviously the person who spoke originally spoke in the past). The verbs, therefore, usually have to be in the past too.

RULE 2 If the reporting verb is in the present tense, the tenses of the Direct Speech do not change. Thus, Example: He says he is unwell.

RULE 3
When the reporting verb is in the past tense, all present tenses of the Direct Speech are changed into the corresponding past tenses.

Direct speech
Present simple She said, "It's cold. Present continuous She said, "I'm teaching English online." Present perfect She said, "I've been on the web since 1999."

Indirect speech
Past simple She said it was cold. Past continuous She said she was teaching English online. Past perfect She said she had been on the web since 1999.

Direct speech
Past simple She said, "I taught online yesterday. Past continuous She said, "I was teaching earlier." Past perfect She said, "The lesson had already started when he arrived."

Indirect speech
Past perfect She said she had taught online yesterday. Past perfect continuous She said she had been teaching earlier. Past perfect NO CHANGE

RULE 4
Words expressing nearness in time or place are generally changed into words expressing distance in case of both rule 2 and rule 3.

Direct speech Indirect speech


this (evening) today these (days) now (a week) ago last weekend here next (week) tomorrow that (evening) That day those (days) then (a week) before the previous weekend there the following (week) the next/following day

REPORTING QUESTIONS
The Indirect Speech is introduced by verbs such as asked, enquired, questioned etc. When the question is not introduced by an interrogative word, the reporting verb is followed by whether or if.

REPORTING COMMANDS AND REQUESTS


In reporting commands and requests, the Indirect Speech is introduced by some verb expressing command or request, and the imperative mood is changed into the Infinitive.

THANK YOU!