ALGAL PRODUCTS

ALGAE

• are a diverse group of photosynthetic eukaryotes that are used for various products.

2 TYPES OF ALGAE:

• 1. MICROALGAE

•green algae •cyanobacteria

•2. MACROALGAE •seaweeds .

Chlorophyta .brown .red • 3. Rhodophyta .green • 2.3 MAJOR GROUPS OF EUKARYOTIC MACROALGAE • 1. Phaeophyta .

•MACRO ALGAE .

•Algae are harvested in wild as well as produced in culture. .

•Brown algae or the Kelp is produced and harvested in California. .

• The CALIFORNIA KELP FOREST called MACROCYSTIS or also known as GIANT KELP can grow up to 30m. .

and acetone for the production of explosives. source of potash.KELP • was used as fertilizer. .

KELP • used as food supplement. an impoprtant source of potassium. carbohydrates and vitamins. . other essential minerals. iodine.

ALGINATES • are the main structural components of the cell wall and intercellular matrix of brown seaweeds. .

they can retain moisture. and uniform thawing of frozen foods.ALGINATES • they are used as food thickeners and stabilizers bec. . assure smooth texture.

. cake mixes.ALGINATES • added to desserts. salad dressing. dairy products. and in beer for foam stabilization. canned foods.

pill coating.ALGINATES • used in paper coating and textile printing. • used in pharmaceuticals like antacids. and capsules • used in cosmetics .

•FOOD AND INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF ALGINATES .

WATER HOLDING • maintains smooth and soft texture • controls puring consistency • provides heat-shock protection .

.GELLING • produces clear. stable quick setting colloids that provides unique binding system under a wide range of conditions. firm.

EMULSIFYING •stabilizes various types of dressing •provides viscosity .

STABILIZING • prevents freezethaw breakdown • thickens. . controls and provides smooth creamy body.

•CULTURING ALGAE .

• The RED ALGAE Phorphyra or known as NORI has been a food source in Japan for over 400 yrs.

RED ALGAE

• It is cultured by collecting reproductive spores and allowing them to grow on horizontal nets and the algae is harvested, dried, and processed.

BROWN ALGAE

• The BROWN ALGAE Undaria or known as WAKAME and Laminaria or known as KOMBU are grown off the coast of Japan and China.

. placing the ropes in tanks and allowing the algae to grow before they are harvested and dried.BROWN ALGAE • Wakame and Kombu are grown by seeding the ropes with spores.

BROWN ALGAE •Undaria and Laminaria are used in noodles. and meats . soups. salads.

fertilizers and anergy production.• Alginic acids (alginates) from brown algae • Phycocolloid polysaccharides ( agar and carageenans ) from red algae --are used in food. industrial products. .

ALGINATES • textile industry • foods • pharmaceuticals • paper .

ice cream. . toothpaste and in cosmetics.CARAGEENANS •food extenders such as evapoprated milk.

AGARS • used in pharmaceuticals as a component in capsules holding medications. . • used in scientific laboratories for making gels like gel electrophoresis and solidified culture media.

ALGAL CELL CULTURE •is being examined as a way to increase the yield of products such as agar. .

•MICRO ALGAE .

• comprise a diverse group of both eukaryotic algae like green algae and prokaryotic photosynthetic bacteria like the blue-green algae or the cyanobacteria. .

MICROALGAE • are a source of pigments such as : • PHYCOERYTHRIN • PHYCOCYANIN • β.CAROTENE • ZEAXANTHIN .

• 5.FIVE TYPES OF MICROALGAE • 1. • 4. • 3. Dunaliella Scenedesmus Spirulina Porphyridium Chlorella . • 2.

MASS CULTURING • allows large quantities of microalgae to be grown and harvested in outdoor ponds. .

.ARACHIDONIC ACID • is an essential dietary fatty acid and precursor to prostaglandins and other important compounds.

.Porphyridium • a natural source which has the highest concentration of arachidonic acid. • an excellent source of Phycobiliproteins.

.• PHYCOBILIPROTEINS are pigments involve in algal photosynthesis and can be used as Phycofluors.

.• PHYCOFLOURS are used to label or tag biologically active molecules such as IMMUNOGLOBIN. PROTEIN A. and BIOTIN.

Pharmacological potential • 2. Agricultural fertilizer • 3.USES OF ALGAE: • 1. Algal cell culture . Energy biomass • 4.

• also found in unicellular green algae Dunaliella salina. .ß.carotene • found in green plants.

FUELS FROM ALGAE .

.COAL • major source of air pollutants contributing to 66% of total sulfur dioxide emission and 36% of greenhouse gases.

NON-RENWEABLE FOSSIL FUELS •provides most of the world's energy amonting to 78%. .

PHOTOSYNTHETICALLY GENERATED BIOMASS • an alternative to fossil fuel and a resource that is renweable and will not damage the environment. .

PHOTOSYNTHETIC ORGANISMS • these are small algae and cyanobacteria that takes up carbon dioxide and uses energy from the sun to produce sugars and oxygen. .

seaweeds •2.examples: •1. seagrasses . phytoplankton •3.

Bacteria that can ferment glycerol from Dunaliella biomass to higher energy: • Klebsiella sp. . • Clostridium pasteurianum • Bacillus sp.

3 Propanediol .Non-viscous compound that can be used as liquid fuels and have higher energy content than glycerol: * Ethanol * Butanol * 1.

• GASOHOL .a gasoline with an ethanol additive produced from the bacterial fermentation of corn. .

.GENETICALLY MODIFIED ALGAE • can synthesize gasoline type fuels such as a cyclic hydrocarbon like Alkene and Alkanes.

GENETICALLY MODIFIED ALGAE Examples: • Brown Algae .macrocystis • Cyanobacteria .can already synthesize small amounts of fuels from fatty acids.Anacystis nidulans • -. .

ALGAL CELL CULTURE .

.•used to generate biomass from which cells and metabolites can be isolated.

.•used to maximize the production of high cost or rare compounds.

.• culturing often takes place in large ponds or raceways in a fermenter or bioreactor.

.are used in research and diagnostic laboratories.Macroalgae : • red algal cell like the valuable agar and agarose ( polysaccharide-containing polymers) • -.

CHLORELLA • are green algae that produce a large quantity of amino acid that gives 30% more PROLINE. .

CHLAMYDOMONAS •green algae that can produce rare amino acid OCTAPAMINE. .

hydrogen and acetic acid. .IMMOBILIZED MICROALGAL CELLS • produces industrial compounds like dihydroxyacetone. gluconic acid.

•THAT'S ALL..... THANK YOU FOR LISTENING. .....

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