Chapter 2

Communicating Over The Network

CCNA1-1

Chapter 2

Note for Instructors
• These presentations are the result of a collaboration among the instructors at St. Clair College in Windsor, Ontario. • Thanks must go out to Rick Graziani of Cabrillo College. His material and additional information was used as a reference in their creation. • If anyone finds any errors or omissions, please let me know at: • tdame@stclaircollege.ca.

CCNA1-2

Chapter 2

Communicating Over the Network

The Platform for Communications

CCNA1-3

Chapter 2

CCNA1-4 Chapter 2 . body language… • All of the methods have three things in common. • There is a destination for the message or a receiver.Elements of Communication • People communicate in many different ways. a hand signal. a look. • There is a channel that consists of the media that provides the pathway for the message. • There is source for the message or a sender. • Vocal.

CCNA1-5 Chapter 2 .Elements of Communication • Devices communicate in exactly the same way.

• No other device would be able to send or receive messages on the same network. a network communication could be sent as one continuous stream of 1’s and 0’s. CCNA1-6 Chapter 2 . • Significant delays • Inefficient use of the channel • A lost message entirely retransmitted.Communicating the Messages • In theory.

• Reliability CCNA1-7 Chapter 2 . • The data stream is divided into smaller. more manageable segments.Communicating the Messages • A better approach is called Segmentation. • Segmentation has two benefits: • Multiplexing: • Different transmissions can be interleaved on the network.

alternate path can be used.Communicating the Messages In a packet switched network like the Internet. • Separate pieces of each message can travel across different paths to destination. • Path fails or congested. • Part of the message fails to make it to the destination. • Segmentation and Reliability: • Increases the reliability of network communications. CCNA1-8 Chapter 2 . only the missing parts need to be retransmitted.

• Handled by protocols that format and address the message. • The label is a unique sequence number.Communicating the Messages • Segmentation Disadvantage: Added level of complexity. CCNA1-9 Chapter 2 .

Components of the Network CCNA1-10 Chapter 2 .

. • Any device that allows us to interface with the network. Security Cameras. VoIP Phones... • End devices are referred to as hosts and are either the source or destination of a message.. Printers.End Devices • Work Stations. CCNA1-11 Chapter 2 . PDAs.. Laptops. Servers.

• Servers: • Software that enables them to provide information and services (E-mail.End Devices • End Devices: Clients • A host can be a client. • The software installed on the device determines its role. a server or both. CCNA1-12 Chapter 2 Servers . Web Pages) to other hosts on the network. • Client: • Software installed that enables them to request and display the information obtained from the server.

Hubs. Security Devices.Intermediary Devices • Routers. Switches. CCNA1-13 Chapter 2 . Communication Servers. • Any device that provides connectivity to the network. Wireless Access Points. connectivity to other networks or links between network segments.

• Some use the destination host address and network interconnection information to find the best path through the network. Switches Routers Firewalls Access Points Hubs Multiplexers CCNA1-14 Chapter 2 .Intermediary Devices • Manage data as it flows through the network.

CCNA1-15 Chapter 2 . • Classify and direct messages according to QoS priorities. • Direct data along alternate pathways when there is a link failure. • Maintain information about what pathways exist through the network and internetwork. • Notify other devices of errors and communication failures. based on security settings. • Permit or deny the flow of data.Intermediary Devices • Regenerate and retransmit data signals.

Media • The medium provides the channel over which the messages travel from source to destination. Glass or plastic fibers Metallic wires within cables Wireless Transmission CCNA1-16 Chapter 2 .

Media • The signal encoding that must occur is different for each type of media. Electrical impulses with specific patterns Pulses of light in the infrared or visible ranges Patterns of electromagnetic waves CCNA1-17 Chapter 2 .

• You must make the appropriate choice to provide the proper channel. • Not all network media are appropriate for the same purpose.Media • Different network media have different features and benefits. • Distance it can carry the signal • Environment • Bandwidth • Cost of the media • Installation costs • Cost of connectors and devices CCNA1-18 Chapter 2 .

Communicating Over the Network LANs. WANs and Internetworks CCNA1-19 Chapter 2 .

Local Area Networks • An individual network usually spans a single geographical area. such as a single business. campus or region. providing services and applications to people within a common organizational structure. CCNA1-20 Chapter 2 .

Now. DS3. HDLC. providers are offering converged network services. ISDN. • A TSP traditionally transports voice and data on different networks. PPP. Frame Relay CCNA1-21 Chapter 2 . OC3. T1.Wide Area Networks • Networks that connect LANs in geographically separated locations. Usually implemented with leased connections through a telecommunications service provider (TSP) network.

The Internet : A Network of Networks

• Internet Service Providers (ISPs) connect their customers to the Internet through their network infrastructure. • The Internet, then, is a collection of ISPs co-operating with each other to form one large converged internetwork.
CCNA1-22 Chapter 2

Network Representations

• Specialized terminology is used to describe how these devices and media connect to one another.
CCNA1-23 Chapter 2

Network Representations
• Network Interface Card (NIC): • Provides the physical connection to the network at the PC or other host device.

• Physical Port: • A connector or outlet on a networking device where the media is connected to a host or other networking device.
CCNA1-24 Chapter 2

• Because routers are used to interconnect networks.Network Representations • Interface: • Specialized ports on an internetworking device that connect to individual networks. the ports on a router are referred to as network interfaces. CCNA1-25 Chapter 2 .

Communicating Over the Network Protocols CCNA1-26 Chapter 2 .

The setup and termination of data transfer sessions. How and when error and system messages are passed between devices. The method by which networking devices share information about pathways with other networks. CCNA1-27 Chapter 2 .Rules That Govern Communications • Protocols: • Are the rules that govern communications. The format or structure of the message.

802. • Cannot function without a set of standards that network vendors can follow.Protocol Suites • Protocol Suite: • A group of inter-related protocols that are necessary to perform a communication function.3 (Ethernet). IP.11 (WLAN) • Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) • Internet standards. information technology and power generation. FTP CCNA1-28 Chapter 2 . HTTP. • Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE): • Develops standards in telecommunications. RFCs (Request for Comments) • Example: TCP. • Examples: 802.

Interaction of Protocols Each protocol at each layer of the protocol suite work together to make sure messages are received and understood by both devices. CCNA1-29 Chapter 2 .

CCNA1-30 Chapter 2 .Technology Independent Protocols • Protocols are not dependent upon any specific technology. • They describe what must be done to communicate but not how its is to be carried out.

Communicating Over the Network Using Layered Models CCNA1-31 Chapter 2 .

CCNA1-32 Chapter 2 .Layered Models • Layered models separate the functions of specific protocols.

• Prevents technology or capability changes in one layer from affecting other layers above and below. • Provides a common language to describe networking functions and capabilities.Benefits of a Layered Model • Benefits of a Layered Model: • Have defined information that they act upon and a defined interface to the layers above and below. CCNA1-33 Chapter 2 . • Fosters competition because products from different vendors can work together.

• The set of related protocols in a suite typically represents all the functionality required to interface the human network with the data network.Protocol and Reference Models • Protocol Model: • Closely matches the structure of a particular protocol suite. • The TCP/IP model is a protocol model because it describes the functions that occur at each layer of protocols only within the TCP/IP suite. CCNA1-34 Chapter 2 .

• Not intended to be an implementation specification. CCNA1-35 Chapter 2 .Protocol and Reference Models • Reference Model: • Provides a common reference for maintaining consistency within all types of network protocols and services. • Primary purpose is to aid in clearer understanding of the functions and process involved.

CCNA1-36 Chapter 2 .TCP/IP Model • Open Standard • No one company controls it. • Governed by IETF Working Groups • Standards proposed using Request for Comments (RFCs).

Request For Comments RFC CCNA1-37 Chapter 2 .

The Communication Process Create Data Pass data to application Segment and Encapsulate Decapsulate and Reassemble Generate on to the media Receive from the media Transport through the segment CCNA1-38 Chapter 2 .

Protocol Data Units and Encapsulation Segmentation and Encapsulation Email Message Data Data Header Header Header Data Data Trailer Data Data 0010100111011001010000011111010100010101 CCNA1-39 Chapter 2 .

Protocol Data Units and Encapsulation Decapsulation and Reassembly Email Message Data Data Header Header Header Data Data Trailer Data Data 0010100111011001010000011111010100010101 CCNA1-40 Chapter 2 .

Protocol Data Units and Encapsulation Protocol Data Units Email Message Data Segment Packet Trailer Header Header Header Data Data Data Frame CCNA1-41 Chapter 2 .

This is the correct diagram.Protocol Data Units and Encapsulation The Diagram on Page 51 in the text is incorrect. CCNA1-42 Chapter 2 .

Communicating Over the Network The OSI Model CCNA1-43 Chapter 2 .

iso. • www.OSI Model • The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) released the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model in 1984.org for more information CCNA1-44 Chapter 2 .

• Prevents changes in one layer from affecting other layers. CCNA1-45 Chapter 2 . • Standardizes network components to allow multiple vendor development and support. • Makes learning it easier to understand. • It is a descriptive scheme. • Allows different types of network hardware and software to communicate with each other.OSI Model • Breaks network communication into smaller. more manageable parts.

Example .OSI Model .FYI • Descriptive Scheme: Can be used to describe the functionality and interaction of different protocol suites. Application SMB Presentation Session SNA NETBIOS Transport IBMNM IBM’s SNA Network DLSW Data Link SDLC LLC WAN LAN RPL Physical CCNA1-46 Chapter 2 .

TP1. TP4) NETBIOS IDRP RTSE FTAM X. VTP Application ROSE Presentation ACSE ISO-PP ISO-SP ISO-TP (TP0.500 ISO Session Transport Network Data Link Physical CCNA1-47 CLNP ES-IS IS-IS LLC Layer Type 1 and 2 Protocols LAN / Wan Physical Media Chapter 2 .OSI Model – Example . TP3.FYI • Descriptive Scheme: Can be used to describe the functionality and interaction of different protocol suites.400 X. TP2.

HTTP. SMTP. BOOTP. X-Windows SNMP. TFTP.FYI • Descriptive Scheme: Can be used to describe the functionality and interaction of different protocol suites. Telnet. DHCP TCP/IP Transport Network Data Link Physical CCNA1-48 LLC LAN / Wan Physical Media Chapter 2 .OSI Model – Example . Application Presentation Session NETBIOS DNS TCP IP UDP ICMP RIP IGMP ARP / RARP FTP. POP3. IMAP4.

OSI Model Usually referenced by layer number Layers 7 6 5 Application All CISCO MICROSOFT Away Pizza Sausage Throw Not Do Presentation People Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Seem To Need Data These two layers are not commonly referred to in most instances. 4 3 2 1 Processing Please Chapter 2 CCNA1-49 .

OSI Model Layers 7 Primary concern: Communications between applications 6 5 4 3 Primary concern: Moving raw data cross the network CCNA1-50 CISCO MICROSOFT Application All Away Pizza Sausage Throw Not Do Presentation People Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Seem To Need Data 2 1 Processing Please Chapter 2 .

Communicating Over the Network Network Addressing CCNA1-51 Chapter 2 .

OSI Model OSI Model Layer Addressing Encoded Application Data Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical (Usually referred to as the Upper Layers) Source and Destination: Process Address Source and Destination: Logical Network Address Source and Destination: Device Physical Address Timing and Synchronization Bits CCNA1-52 Chapter 2 .

6. 5. CCNA1-53 Header Data Physical Addressing always includes both the Source and Destination Addresses. 1. Chapter 2 . Header Header Encoded Data Data Data Process Logical Trailer 2. 4. 3.Getting Data to the End Device Encapsulation Process and Addressing Email Message 7.

• Codes placed on the NIC by the manufacturer. • Delivery on a single local network.Getting Data to the End Device Layer 2 Addressing 7. CCNA1-54 Source and Destination Physical or MAC Address Chapter 2 . 5. • Unique on the network and represents the device. 3. 1. 4. 6. • Referred to as the physical address or the MAC address. Header Data Trailer 2.

Getting Data to the End Device Layer 2 Header Destination Source MAC MAC Address Address Data CCNA1-55 Chapter 2 .

IPX. 3. • Used by routers to determine the best path to the destination host.Getting Data Through The Network Layer 3 Addressing 7.) Chapter 2 . • Addresses must identify both the network and the host on that network. 4. 5. etc. 6. • Move data from one local network to another local network. CCNA1-56 Source and Destination Logical Network Address (IP. Header Data 2. 1.

Getting Data Through the Network Layer 2 Header Destination Source Destination Source MAC MAC Logical Logical Address Address Address Address Data Layer 3 Header CCNA1-57 Chapter 2 .

5. 1. • Multiple. CCNA1-58 • Under TCP/IP. • Port 80: HTTP (Web Browser) • Port 25: SMTP (Email) • Port 194: IRC (Internet Relay Chat) Chapter 2 . 4. 3. • Identifies the specific process or service running on the destination host that will act on the data.Getting Data to the Right Application Layer 4 Addressing 7. 6. a port number to identify the application. simultaneous applications. Header Data Process 2.

Getting Data to the Right Application Layer 4 Header Layer 2 Header Destination Source Destination Source Destination Source MAC MAC Logical Logical Process Process Address Address Address Address Address Address Data Layer 3 Header CCNA1-59 Chapter 2 .

Putting It All Together MAC Logical Port MAC Destination Source Destination Source Destination Source MAC MAC Logical Logical Process Process Address Address Address Address Address Address CCNA1-60 Data Chapter 2 .

transfer and reassemble the data Network addressing and best path determination Methods for reliable frame exchange over a common media Describe physical characteristics to transmit bits over a common media Segment Packet Router Transport Internet Character Application Protocol Data Unit Device TCP/IP Model 2 1 Data Link Physical Frame Bit Switch Network Access Hub Chapter 2 CCNA1-61 .Comparing the OSI and TCP/IP Models OSI Model 7 6 5 4 3 Application Presentation Session Transport Network Layer Function User Functionality Character Representation Manage Data Exchange Services to segment.

• We are starting with the theory and concepts and will move on to the actual design and implementation of networks.Brain a little fuzzy? • You need to learn to crawl before you can walk and walk before you can run. CCNA1-62 Chapter 2 .

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