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6.

2 White noise, thermal noise, band limited white noise, the PSDF and Ac function of white noise

White Noise
White noise is an ideal case of description of noise in communication system. A random process x(t) is said to be a white noise process if the PSDF is constant over all frequencies.

WN has a flat spectral density over < < and has zero mean value =
0 2

< <

Note: The factor is included to indicate power is associated with the positive frequency and half with negative frequency

Band limited white noise.


In many kinds of noise analysis, a type of random variable know as band limited white noise is used. Bandlimited white noise is simply the response of an ideal lowpass filter which is excited by white noise

The PSDF of bandlimited white noise is constant over a finite frequency range and zero outside that range Band limited white noise has a finite signal power ,a requirement that must be satisfied for any physical process.

The AC function for WN process is obtained by inverse Ft of its PSDF 0 = () 2

As = 0 0, two different samples of WN, no matter how close they are in time shift( 0), are always uncorrelated.

White Noise term comes form white light where all colour frequencies are present White noise has no physical significance, as it does not exist in nature.

Thermal Noise
Thermal noise is the name given to the electrical noise arising from the Random motion of electrons in a conductor. It is also known as Nyquist noise.

PSDF of thermal noise


=
2(

1)

h: Plancks constant : 6.63 x 10-34 k: Boltzmans constant: 1.38 x 10-23 T: Temperature in Kelvin

has its maximum value at =0 and is equal to

0 2

slowly declines and tent to 0 as the frequency tent to infinity 0 For all practical purposes, TN can be considered as WN with flat spectrum for the entire range of interest.
2

For Most applications, white noise is considered as zero mean 0 Gausian Process with PSDF equaling to
2

WHITE GAUSSIAN NOISE PROCESSES


Definition: A random process N(t) is a white gaussian noise

() is a WSSP satisfying
() = = 0 (zero mean)

For any time instants 1 < 2 < < (1 ), N(2 ) , , are Gaussian Random Variables.