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**3 Network Analysis- Part II 1
**

Topics to be Discussed

Loop-current Analysis.

Counting Independent

Loops.

Mesh Analysis.

Supermesh Method.

Limitations of Mesh

Analysis.

Planar Network.

Procedure for Mesh

Analysis.

Node Voltages Analysis.

Supernode.

Counting Independent

Nodes.

Nodal Analysis.

Choice Between the

TWO.

Next

2

2.1 KIRCHHOFFS CURRENT LAW (KCL):-

It states that the algebraic sum of all currents

entering a node is zero. Mathematically:

Currents are positive if entering a node

Currents are negative if leaving a node.

Example:

3

Applying Kirchhoff's current law:

I

1

+ I

2

+ I

3

+ I

4

= 0

(the negative sign in I

2

indicates that I

2

has a

magnitude of 3A and is flowing in the direction

opposite to that indicated by the arrow)

Substituting:

5 - 3 + I

3

+ 2 = 0 Therefore, I

3

= - 4A (ie 4A

leaving node)

4

2.2 KIRCHHOFFS VOLTAGE LAW (KVL):-

It states that the algebraic sum of the voltage drops

around any loop, open or closed, is zero.

Mathematically

Example:

Going round the loop in the direction of the current, I,

Kirchhoff's Voltage Law gives:

10- 2I - 3I = 0

5

- 2I and - 3I are negative, since they are voltage drops

i.e. represent a decrease in potential on proceeding

round the loop in the direction of I. For the same

reason + 10V is positive as it is a voltage rise or increase

in potential.

Concluding:

5 I = 10 Therefore, I = 2A

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 6

Loop-current Analysis

Loop analysis is systematic method of network

analysis.

It is a general method and can be applied to any

electrical network, howsoever complicated it may

be.

It is based on writing KVL equations for

independent loops.

A loop is a closed path in a network.

A node or a junction is a point in the network

where three or more elements have a common

connection.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 7

Before the loop analysis can be applied to a

network, we must first check that it has only

voltage sources (independent or dependent).

Any current source must be transformed into its

equivalent voltage source.

Sometimes, it is a difficult task to identify

independent loops in a network.

The method of loop analysis can be best understood

by considering some examples.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 8

Example 1

Find the voltage across the 2-Ω resistance.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 9

Recognize the independent loops (which does not pass

through a current source), and mark the loop currents.

This choice reduces labour, as only one current I

1

is

to be calculated.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 10

Write KVL equations and solve for I

1

.

A 0.435 = ¬

÷ + = ÷ + +

÷ + = + ÷

1

1 2 2 2

1 2 1

7 9 ) 1 )( ( ) 3 ( ) 4 (

6 7 ) 2 ( ) 1 )( (

I

I I I I

I I I

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 11

Counting Independent Loops

• It appears to have two loops.

• But, these two loops are not independent.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 12

• Suppose that we had marked the two loop currents I

1

and I

2

in the standard way,

2 1

2A I I ÷ =

• The values of these two currents are constrained by

the above relation.

Then,

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 13

We identify independent loops by turning off all

sources. We are, then, left with one loop containing

two resistances.

Hence, we have only one independent loop

requiring only one KVL equation.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 14

For determining the current through 5-Ω resistance,

we should choose

Thus, the single KVL equation is

A 0.462 ÷ = ¬

= + ÷ ÷

1

1 1

0 ) 2 ( 8 5 10

I

I I

Next

Click

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 15

In case, we are to determine the current through 8-Ω

resistance, we should choose

A 1.538 = ¬

= ÷ ÷ ÷

1

1 1

0 8 ) 2 ( 5 10

I

I I

The single KVL equation then becomes

Next

Click

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 16

Benchmark Example 1

Consider the benchmark example, and solve it

by using loop-current analysis.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 17

Solution :

• We note that the given circuit has one independent

loop and two constrained loops.

• Our aim is to determine the voltage across 3-Ω

resistance.

• So, we should select the unknown loop current I

passing through 3-Ω resistance (but not through any

current source).

•The two known loop currents of 4 A and 5 A are

marked to flow in the two loops as shown.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 18

•Writing KVL equation around the loop of I, we get

A

6

5

0 ) 4 5 ( 1 6 3 2 = ¬ = ÷ + × ÷ + ÷ ÷ I I I I

Therefore, the unknown voltage, v = 3I = 2.5 V.

Next

Click

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 19

Example 2

Find the currents i

1

and i

2

in the circuit given

below.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 20

Solution : Applying KVL to the two loops,

2

2

3 2

or 2 3

i

i

+ =

= ÷ = ÷1A

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 21

MESH ANALYSIS

In circuit terminology, a loop is any closed

path.

A mesh is a special loop, namely, the

smallest loop one can have.

In other words, a mesh is a loop that

contains no other loops.

Mesh analysis is applicable only to a planar

network.

However, most of the networks we shall need

to analyze are planar.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 22

Once a circuit has been drawn in planar form,

it often looks like a multi-paned window.

Each pane is a mesh.

Meshes provide a set of independent

equations.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 23

By definition, a mesh-current is that current

which flows around the perimeter of a mesh. It is

indicated by a curved arrow that almost closes on

itself.

Branch-currents have a physical identity. They

can be measured.

Mesh-currents are fictitious.

The mesh analysis not only tells us the minimum

number of unknown currents, but it also ensures

that the KVL equations obtained are independent.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 24

Loop (Mesh) Analysis

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 25

Example 2

Let us consider a simple network having only two

meshes.

Although the directions of the mesh currents are

arbitrary, we shall always choose clockwise mesh

currents.

This results in a certain error-minimizing

symmetry.

Note that by taking mesh currents, the KCL is

automatically satisfied.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 26

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 27

Resistance Matrix

Mesh current matrix

Source matrix

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 28

Applying Crammer’s rule :

The current in 3-ohm resistor is I

1

– I

2

= 6 – 4 = 2A

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 29

Three-mesh Network

Write the three equations for the three meshes and

put them in a matrix form.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 30

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 31

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 32

Self-resistance of mesh 1

Mutual resistance

between mesh 1 and 2.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 33

The Resistance Matrix

It is symmetrical about the major diagonal, as

R

12

= R

21

, R

13

= R

31

, etc.

All the elements on the major diagonal have

positive values.

The off-diagonal elements have negative values.

The mutual resistance between two meshes will

be zero, if there is no resistance common to them.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 34

Mesh Analysis Limitations

It is applicable only to those planar networks

which contain only independent voltage sources.

If there is a practical current source, it can be

converted to an equivalent practical voltage

source.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 35

Planar Network

If a network can be drawn on sheet of paper

without crossing lines, it is said to be planar.

• Is it a planar network ?

• Yes, it is. Because it can be drawn in a plane,

as shown in the next figure.

Next

Click

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 36

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 37

• This is definitely non-planar.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 38

Procedure for Mesh Analysis

1. Make sure that the network is planar.

2. Make sure that it contains only independent

voltage sources.

3. Assign clockwise mesh currents.

4. Write mesh equations in matrix form by

inspection. An element on the principal diagonal

is the self-resistance of the mesh. These

elements are all positive. An element off the

major diagonal is negative (or zero), and

represents the mutual resistance.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 39

5. Check the symmetry of resistance matrix about

the major diagonal.

6. An element of the voltage source column matrix

on the right side represents the algebraic sum of

the voltage sources that produce current in the

same direction as the assumed mesh current.

7. Solve the equations to determine the unknown

mesh currents, using Calculator.

8. Determine the branch currents and voltages.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 40

Example 3

Determine the currents in various resistances of

the network shown.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 41

Writing the mesh equations by inspection,

Solving,

Next

Solution :

Click

we get I

1

= 2.55 A, I

2

= 3.167 A

Click

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 42

Example 4

Find the current drawn from the source in the

network, using mesh analysis.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 43

Next

Using Calculator, we get

Click

1

I = 6 A

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 44

How to Handle Current Sources

If a circuit has current sources, a modest

extension of the standard procedure is

needed.

There are three possible methods.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 45

First Method

If possible, transform the current sources into

voltage sources.

This reduces the number of meshes by 1 for

each current source.

Apply the standard procedure of mesh

analysis to determine the assumed mesh

currents.

Go back to the original circuit, and get

additional equations, one for each current

source,

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 46

Example 5

Solve the following circuit for the three mesh

currents.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 47

Solution :

• We convert the 13-A current source in parallel with 5-

Ω resistor into an equivalent 65-V voltage source in

series with 5-Ω resistor.

• This reduces the number of meshes to two.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 48

• We can write the mesh equations in the matrix form just

by inspection,

1

2

9 5 10

5 11 52

I

I

÷

( ( (

=

( ( (

÷

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

1 2

and I I ¬ = = 5A 7A

We now go back to the original circuit. Obviously, the

current through the current source is

2 3 3 2

13A 13 7 13 I I I I ÷ = ¬ = ÷ = ÷ = ÷6A

Next

Click

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 49

Second Method

We can assign unknown voltages to each

current source.

Apply KVL around each mesh, and

Relate the source currents to the assumed

mesh currents.

This is generally a difficult approach.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 50

Third Method

(Supermesh Method)

Create a supermesh from two meshes that

have a current source as a common element.

The current source is in the interior of the

supermesh.

Thus, the number of meshes is reduced by 1

for each current source present.

If the current source lies on the perimeter of

the circuit, then ignore the single mesh in

which it is found.

Apply KVL to the meshes and supermeshes.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 51

Example 6

Solve the circuit of Example 5, using

supermesh method.

Solution :

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 52

Going along the dotted arrow, the KVL equation for

this supermesh is

3 1 2

1 2 3

5( ) 6 13 0

or 5 6 5 13

I I I

I I I

÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ =

÷ ÷ =

The KVL equation for mesh 1 is

1 2 3

9 0 5 75 I I I + ÷ =

• We have only two equations for three unknowns.

• The third equation is obtained by applying KCL to

either node of the current source

Next

Click

Click

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 53

Thus, we have

1 2 3

0 13 I I I + ÷ =

These three equations can be put in the matrix form,

1

2

3

5 6 5 13

9 0 5 75

0 1 1 13

I

I

I

÷ ÷

( ( (

( ( (

÷ =

( ( (

( ( (

÷

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

Using Casio fx-991ES, we directly get

1 2 3

, and . I I I = = = 5A 7 A -6A

Which is same result as obtained in Example 5.

Next

Click

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 54

Example 7

Apply mesh analysis to determine current

through 7-Ω resistance in the given network.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 55

Solution :

• The given network is a planar network having

independent voltage sources.

• It has three meshes for which the mesh currents I

1

, I

2

,

and I

3

are marked all with clockwise directions.

•By inspection, the matrix equation is written as

1

2

3

3 4 4 0 42 25

4 4 5 6 6 25 57 70

0 6 6 7 70 4

I

I

I

+ ÷ +

( ( (

( ( (

÷ + + ÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷

( ( (

( ( (

÷ + +

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

Next

Click

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 56

1

2

3

7 4 0 67

or 4 15 6 152

0 6 13 74

I

I

I

÷

( ( (

( ( (

÷ ÷ = ÷

( ( (

( ( (

÷

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

7 3

I I

O

= = 2 A

Solving the above equation for I

3

,

Next

Click

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 57

Node-Voltage Analysis

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 58

Node Voltages Analysis

It is dual of the Mesh Analysis.

It involves the application of KCL

equations, instead of KVL.

One of the nodes is taken as reference or

datum or ground node. It is better to select

the one that has maximum number of

branches connected.

The reference node is assumed to be at

ground or zero potential.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 59

The potentials of all other nodes are defined

w.r.t. the reference node.

KCL equations are written, one for each

node, except the reference node.

The equations are solved to give node

voltages.

Current through any branch and voltage at

any point of the network can be calculated.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 60

Example 8

Solve the circuit given, using the node voltage

method.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 61

Solution : It has only two nodes. Node 2 has been

taken as reference node. The currents in various

branches have been assumed. Writing the KCL

equations,

A

V

6

7

60

, Now

18

0

4 7

60

12

0

1

2

1

1 1 1

3 2 1

÷ =

÷

=

=

= +

÷

+

= + +

V

I

V

V V V

I I I

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 62

How to Handle Voltage Sources

If one terminal of a voltage source with a

series resistance is grounded (as in the

Example 8), the KCL equation can be

written in terms of this voltage.

Difficulty arises, if a circuit contains

floating voltage sources.

A voltage source is floating if its neither

terminal is connected to ground.

If possible, first transform the voltage

sources into current sources.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 63

Constrained Node or SUPERNODE

There is another way which uses the concept of

constrained node or supernode.

This method is especially suitable for the circuits having

a floating voltage source with no series resistance.

The two ends of a voltage source cannot make two

independent nodes.

Hence, we treat these end nodes together as a

‘supernode’.

The supernode is usually indicated by the region

enclosed by a dotted line.

The KCL is then applied to both nodes at the same

time.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 64

Counting Independent Nodes

It is a node whose voltage cannot be derived

from the voltage of another node.

First turn off all sources, and then counting all

the nodes separated by resistors.

The number of independent nodes is one

less than this number.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 65

Example 9

Determine the current through 4-Ω resistor in the

circuit given below.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 66

Solution :

• Here, the voltages at nodes a and b are not independent.

• The two node voltages are related as

a b a b c

6 or 0 6 v v v v v ÷ = ÷ + =

• We can treat the two constrained nodes a and b, as a

supernode.

• Now, writing KCL for this supernode, we get

a b c

a b c

2

3 4

or 0.33 0.25 0.25 2

v v v

v v v

÷

+ =

+ ÷ =

Next

Click

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 67

Applying KCL to node c

c c b

a b c

7

5 4

or 0 0.25 0.45 7

v v v

v v v

÷

+ = ÷

÷ + = ÷

Above equations can be written in the matrix form,

a

b

c

1 1 0 6

0.33 0.25 0.25 2

0 0.25 0.45 7

v

v

v

÷

( ( (

( ( (

÷ =

( ( (

( ( (

÷ ÷

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

Solve the above equation

Next

Click

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 68

We solve the above equations using calculator to get

b c

8.77V and 20.43V v v = ÷ = ÷

Finally, the current through 4-Ω resistor is

b c

8.77 ( 20.42)

4 4

v v ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷

= = 2.9125A

Next

Click

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 69

Benchmark Example 10

Consider the benchmark example and solve it

by using node-voltage analysis.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 70

Solution :

• Nodes c and d are constrained to one another.

• To find the number of independent nodes, we turn off

the sources to get the circuit,

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 71

• There are three nodes, two of which are independent.

• However, if we add the two series resistors to make a 5-

Ω resistor we will have only one independent node (node

a).

• Hence we will have to solve only one equation.

• The unknown voltage across 3-Ω resistor can then be

determined by applying voltage divider rule.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 72

Writing KCL equation for node a,

a a

a

(6) (0)

4 5

1 5

6 1

4.17V

1.2

v v

v

÷ ÷

+ = + ÷

÷

¬ = =

Using the voltage divider, the voltage across 3-Ω

resistor is

3

4.17

2 3

v = × =

+

2.5 V

Next

Click

Click

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 73

Example 11

Apply KCL to determine current I

S

in the circuit

shown. Take V

o

= 16 V.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 74

Solution : Applying KCL at nodes 1 and 2,

Next

Click

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 75

Therefore, the current,

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 76

Example 12

Using nodal analysis, determine the current

through the 2-Ω resistor in the network given.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 77

• Solution : It is much simpler to write the KCL

equations, if the conductance (and not the

resistances) of the branches are given.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 78

• It has 3 nodes. So, we have to write KCL

equations for only 2 nodes.

• We just equate the total current leaving the node

through several conductances to the total

source-current entering the node.

• At node 1,

• At node 2,

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 79

• Writing the above equations in matrix form,

Next

V 5

1

= V

(

¸

(

¸

=

(

¸

(

¸

(

¸

(

¸

÷

÷

2

3

2 . 1 2 . 0

2 . 0 7 . 0

2

1

V

V

Solving for V

1

, using Calculator, we get

Click

Finally, the current in the 2-Ω resistor,

A 2.5 = = =

2

5

2

1

V

I

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 80

Nodal Analysis

The above examples suggests that it is

possible to write the nodal analysis

equations just by inspection of the network.

Such technique is possible if the network

has only independent current sources.

All passive elements are shown as

conductances, in siemens (S).

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 81

In case a network contains a practical

voltage source, first convert it into an

equivalent practical current source.

Write the Conductance Matrix, Node-

Voltage Matrix and the Node-Current

Source Matrix, in the same way as in the

Mesh Analysis.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 82

Example 13

Let us again tackle Example 12, by writing the

matrix equations just by inspection.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 83

Conductance matrix.

G

11

= Self-conductance

of node 1.

G

12

= Mutual conductance

between node 1 and 2.

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 84

• Node-voltage Matrix.

• Node current-source Matrix.

• Note that all the elements on the major diagonal

of matrix G are positive.

All off-diagonal elements are negative or zero.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 85

Example 14

Solve the following network using the nodal

analysis, and determine the current through the 2-S

resistor.

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 86

Solution :

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 87

We can write the nodal voltage equation in matrix

form, directly by inspection :

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

÷

=

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

÷ ÷

÷ ÷

÷ ÷

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

÷ ÷

÷ ÷

÷ + ÷

=

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

+ + ÷ ÷

÷ + + ÷

÷ ÷ +

25

3

11

11 2 4

2 6 3

4 3 7

or

) 25 (

) 3 (

) 8 ( ) 3 (

) 5 2 4 ( 2 4

2 ) 1 2 3 ( 3

4 3 ) 3 4 (

3

2

1

3

2

1

V

V

V

V

V

V

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 88

• Finally, the current through 2-S resistor is

Next

Using Calculator, we get

V 3 and V 2

3 2

= = V V

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 89

Example 15

• Find the node voltages in the circuit shown .

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 90

Solution :

First Method

Transform the 13-V source and series 5-S resistor to

an equivalent current source of 65 A and a parallel

resistor of 5 S

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 91

Now, we can write the nodal equations in

matrix form for the two nodes just by

inspection,

1

2

9 5 10

5 11 52

V

V

÷

( ( (

=

( ( (

÷

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

1 2

and V V ¬ = = 5V 7V

Now, from the original circuit shown, we get

3 2

13 7 13 V V = ÷ = ÷ = ÷6 V

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 92

Second Method

We use the concept of supernode. The voltage source is

enclosed in a region by a dotted line, as shown in figure.

The KCL is then applied to this closed surface:

2 3 1

6 5( ) 13 V V V + ÷ = ÷

The KCL equation for node 1 is

1 3

9 5 75 V V ÷ =

For three unknowns, we need another independent

equation. This is obtained from the voltage drop across

the voltage source,

2 3

13 V V ÷ =

Next

Writing the above equations in matrix form,

Click

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 93

Solving, we get

1 2 3

, , and V V V = = = ÷ 5V 7V 6V

Which are the same as obtained by first method.

In general, for the supernode approach, the KCL

equations must be augmented with KVL equations the

number of which is equal to the number of the floating

voltage sources.

Next

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

÷

=

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

÷

÷

÷

13

75

13

1 1 0

5 0 9

5 6 5

3

2

1

V

V

V

Click

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 94

Choice Between the TWO

We select a method in which the number of

equations to be solved is less.

The number of equations to be solved in

mesh analysis is

b – (n – 1)

The number of equations to be solved in

nodal analysis is

(n – 1)

Next

रवििार, 10 फरिरी 2013 Ch. 3 Network Analysis- Part II 95

Review

Loop-current Analysis.

Counting Independent

Loops.

Mesh Analysis.

Supermesh Method.

Limitations of Mesh

Analysis.

Planar Network.

Procedure for Mesh

Analysis.

Node Voltages Analysis.

Supernode.

Counting Independent

Nodes.

Nodal Analysis.

Choice Between the

TWO.

Next

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