Chapter 1 Introduction

Topics to be Discussed
• • • • • • Electric Current. Types of Electric Current. Defining a Current. EMF or Voltage or Potential. Energy. Passive Sign Convention .


Ch. 1 Introduction


1 Introduction 3 . or random way. Electric Current 10-फरवरी-2013 Ch. zigzag.• Free electrons in a conductor move in a haphazard.

1 Introduction 4 . 10-फरवरी-2013 Ch. in addition to the random movement. • When a voltage is applied. the number n1 of electrons crossing from left to right is the same as the number n2 of electrons crossing from right to left.• There is no flow of electric current due to random motion of electrons. • At any instant. the electrons drift towards positive terminal.

called drift current. 10-फरवरी-2013 Ch. the electron takes a curved path and reaches B’. 1 Introduction 5 . electrons) results in an electric current.• Instead of going straight from A to B. •This drift of charge carriers (here.

how is it that when you switch on a light.• The average velocity of the charge carriers moving under the influence of an applied electric field is called drift velocity (vd). it glows almost instantly ? 10-फरवरी-2013 Ch. 1 Introduction 6 . • It is of the order of mm/s. • Then.

(b) Square-wave ac current. (b) Pulsating current. 1 Introduction 7 .Types of Electric Current Unidirectional current. (a) DC current. Ch. Alternating current. 10-फरवरी-2013 (a) Sinusoidal ac current.

etc. 10-फरवरी-2013 Ch. ‘ac current’ or ‘dc voltage’.•Note that the abbreviations ‘dc’ for ‘direct current’ and ‘ac’ for ‘alternating current’ have been taken as adjectives. it is perfectly alright to say. 1 Introduction 8 . •Hence.

1 Introduction 9 . 10-फरवरी-2013 Ch.Defining a Current Two methods of representation for the same current.

Electromotive force (emf) • It is the external work expended per unit of charge to produce an electric potential difference across two open-circuited terminals. 10 फरवरी 2013 Circuit Elements-1 10 . Or it is the force that makes electrons move in a certain direction within a conductor. • Examples of such sources are: – batteries – generators – thermocouples – photo-voltaic cells रवववार. • The electric potential difference is created by separating positive and negative charges. thereby generating an electric field.

10 फरवरी 2013 Source is not connected to external world. E emf --In equilibrium: E E emf  E  0 रवववार. • This field moves positive charge to the upper plate. Circuit Elements-1 11 . and negative charge to the lower plate.Electromotive force (emf) +++ • Eemf is the electric field established by the energy conversion. • These charges establish an electrostatic field E.

Electromotive Force (Cont’d) • Define the electromotive force (emf) or “voltage” of the battery as Vemf   E emf  d l   रवववार. 10 फरवरी 2013 Circuit Elements-1 12 .

Electromotive Force (Cont’d) Faraday's law of induction • The induced electromotive force or EMF in any closed circuit is equal to the time rate of change of the magnetic flux through the circuit where ε is the electromotive force (emf) in volts. 10 फरवरी 2013 Circuit Elements-1 13 . N is the number of turns of wire ΦB is the magnetic flux in webers through a single loop. रवववार.

• 1 volt (V) = 1 joule / 1 coulomb = 1 J/C. and not in absolute potential. • It is simply the voltage rise from B to A. 10-फरवरी-2013 Ch. we are interested in potential difference (pd) also called voltage.Voltage or Potential • Mostly. 1 Introduction 14 . • The notation VAB denotes the voltage of point A with respect to point B. • It is same thing as the voltage drop from A to B.

. when carrying a current of one ampere.• The unit of electric potential is the volt (V) where one volt is one joule per coulomb. dissipates a power of one watt. One volt is defined as the difference in potential between two points in a conductor which.e. i.

4 V.What is the voltage VAB in following three cases ? (a) (b) (c) Answer: (a) Voltage VAB = 4 V. 1 Introduction 16 Click .4) V = 4 V 10-फरवरी-2013 Ch. (b) Voltage VAB = . (c) Voltage VAB = -(.

10-फरवरी-2013 Ch. 1 Introduction 17 .

(an active element) Passive Sign Convention says that the current must enter the plus-marked terminal of the element.Energy (a) The element is absorbing energy (a passive element) (b) The element is delivering energy. 1 Introduction 18 . 10-फरवरी-2013 Ch.

1 Introduction 19 .• Unit of energy is joule (J). • 1 hp =746 W. • Unit of power is watt (W). 10-फरवरी-2013 Ch. • Electrical energy is measured in kW h.









Passive Sign Convention . Types of Electric Current. Defining a Current. Voltage or Potential.Review • • • • • • Electric Current. 1 Introduction 28 . Energy. 10-फरवरी-2013 Ch.

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