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Unit-1
Basic Electrical Circuits
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1.1 Electric Circuit Theory:-
• It emanates from following fundamental laws:
1. Coulomb's Law (1785) ► Capacitance (C)
2. Ohm’s Law (1827) ► Resistance (R)
3. Faraday’s Laws (1831) ► Inductance (L)
(Aug.,29,1831)
4. Kirchhoff’s Laws(1857) ► Basic laws to deal
with circuits.
(a) KCL : Restatement of conservation of charge.
(b) KVL : Restatement of conservation of energy.
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1.2 Classification of Electrical Components:-

All electrical components can be placed in one of two groups:

Active Element : It supplies energy to the circuit.
Passive Element : It receives energy and then
1) either converts it to heat, as in a resistance (R).
2) or stores it in
(a) Electric Field, as in a Capacitor (C).
(b) Magnetic Field, as in an Inductor (L).
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1.3 Properties and Characteristics of Circuit Elements:-
• There could be many viewpoints to look at a thing.
Different viewpoints are needed to have complete
picture.
• What could be different viewpoints to look at a person ?
• A circuit element can be looked upon from following
viewpoints :
1. Circuit Viewpoint ==> expressed in terms of v
and i.
2. Energy Viewpoint ==> expressed in terms of energy.
3. Geometrical Viewpoint ==> expressed in terms of
physical dimensions.
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1.3 (a) The Resistance Parameter :-
1. Circuit Viewpoint :

It is a linear algebraic equation. The proportionality
factor R is independent of current.
2. Energy Viewpoint :It has characteristic property of
converting electrical energy into heat.

It is Joule’s Law. Heat is stored and then dissipated. That
is why power dissipating capability of resistor is
important.
i v ·
O =
i
v
R
R
v
R i vi p
2
2
= = =
O =
= =
}
t I
W
R
t RI t Ri W
t
t
2
2 2
2
1
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3. Geometrical Viewpoint :
The resistance parameter is fundamentally a
geometric constant.

(S/m). y coductivit called is where
1
o
o
µ O = O =
A
L
R or
A
L
R
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Fixed Resistor
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9
10
Variable Resistor
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1.3 (b) The Inductance Parameter:-
• It exhibits the property of storing energy in a magnetic
field.
• Its influence is felt only when current changes.
• It plays significant role at the instants of switching on
and switching off.
• At the instant of switching on the circuit, the current is
zero and the inductor behaves as an open circuit.
• If a constant current is maintained through an
inductor, it behaves as a short circuit.
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1. Circuit Viewpoint:
Linear Inductor, if the
inductance parameter is
independent of current.
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) 0 (
1
) (
0
i dt v
L
t i
t
+ =
}
The current through an inductor cannot change
instantaneously.
2. Energy Viewpoint :

A constant current ==> zero voltage drop.
But, a constant current results in fixed energy storage.
Any attempt to alter this energy is firmly resisted. It reflects
the inertial aspect of an inductor.

2
2
2
2
1
i
W
L or Li W = =
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3. Geometrical Viewpoint :
where, S is the reluctance of the magnetic circuit.
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• Mmf is the magneto motive force which produces
the flux Φ.
Magnetic Reluctance:-
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where µ is the permeability, a physical property of the
magnetic material.
This gives the geometrical definition for Inductance. The
value of L can be varied by changing any of the following
quantities.
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1.3 (C) The Capacitance Parameter:-
• It exhibits the property of storing energy in an
electric field.
• Its influence is felt only when voltage changes.
• It plays significant role at the instants of switching
on and switching off.
• At the instant of switching on the circuit, the
capacitor-voltage is zero and it behaves as a short.
• If a constant voltage is maintained across a
capacitor, it behaves as an open circuit.
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1. Circuit Viewpoint :
dt dv
i
C
dt
dv
C i
dt
dv
C
dt
dq
Cv q
/
= ¬ =
= ¬ =
Note: The voltage across a capacitor cannot change
instantaneously.
2. Energy Viewpoint :
2
2
1
Cv W =
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3. Geometrical Viewpoint :
ty permittivi relative
F/m 10 8.854
space free of ty permittivi , where
capacitor, plate parallel a For
12 -
0
0
=
× =
=
= =
r
r
d
A
d
A
C
c
c
c c c
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1.4 Fundamental Terminology:-
1.4 (a)Symbols:-
# Capital letters for the time independent quantities eg. R, C
.
# Small letters for the time-varying quantities eg. v. i.

1.4 (b) Nodes: A node in an electrical circuit is any
point where 2 or more components have a common
connection viz.

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1.4 (c) Branches: A branch is the part of a circuit which exists
between 2 nodes, viz.

1.4 (d) Loops: loop is any physical loop, open or closed which
can be described in a circuit.

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1.4 (e) Current & Voltage Sign Conventions:-
If an external circuit of a resistor is connected to the voltage source, then
the current flows into the resistor’s positive terminal. Note that the
polarity of its terminals is established by the voltage source. Thus:
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10-फरवरी-2013
Ch. 1 Introduction
What is the voltage V
AB
in following three
cases ?
(a)
(a) Voltage V
AB
= 4 V.
(b) Voltage V
AB
= - 4 V.
(c) Voltage V
AB
= -(- 4) V = 4 V
(b)
(c)
Next
Click
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10-फरवरी-2013
Ch. 1 Introduction 25
(a) The element is absorbing energy
(a passive element)
(b) The element is delivering energy.
(an active element)
Next
Passive Sign Convention says that the current must
enter the plus-marked terminal of the element.
Energy
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•Unit of energy is joule (J).
•Unit of power is watt (W).
1 hp =746 W.
•Electrical energy is measured in kW h.
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1.4 (f) Open circuit Voltage & Short-Circuit Current :-
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Short Circuit and Open Circuit
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DUALITY:-
Two circuits are said to be dual of each other, if
the voltage equations for the one have the same
mathematical form as the current equations for the
other.
The form of equations remain the same, if
Current Voltage
Series Parallel
Resistance Conductance
Short circuit Open circuit
Closed switch Open switch