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Unit-1

Basic Electrical Circuits

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1.1 Electric Circuit Theory:-

• It emanates from following fundamental laws:

1. Coulomb's Law (1785) ► Capacitance (C)

2. Ohm’s Law (1827) ► Resistance (R)

3. Faraday’s Laws (1831) ► Inductance (L)

(Aug.,29,1831)

4. Kirchhoff’s Laws(1857) ► Basic laws to deal

with circuits.

(a) KCL : Restatement of conservation of charge.

(b) KVL : Restatement of conservation of energy.

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1.2 Classification of Electrical Components:-

All electrical components can be placed in one of two groups:

Active Element : It supplies energy to the circuit.

Passive Element : It receives energy and then

1) either converts it to heat, as in a resistance (R).

2) or stores it in

(a) Electric Field, as in a Capacitor (C).

(b) Magnetic Field, as in an Inductor (L).

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1.3 Properties and Characteristics of Circuit Elements:-

• There could be many viewpoints to look at a thing.

Different viewpoints are needed to have complete

picture.

• What could be different viewpoints to look at a person ?

• A circuit element can be looked upon from following

viewpoints :

1. Circuit Viewpoint ==> expressed in terms of v

and i.

2. Energy Viewpoint ==> expressed in terms of energy.

3. Geometrical Viewpoint ==> expressed in terms of

physical dimensions.

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1.3 (a) The Resistance Parameter :-

1. Circuit Viewpoint :

It is a linear algebraic equation. The proportionality

factor R is independent of current.

2. Energy Viewpoint :It has characteristic property of

converting electrical energy into heat.

It is Joule’s Law. Heat is stored and then dissipated. That

is why power dissipating capability of resistor is

important.

i v ·

O =

i

v

R

R

v

R i vi p

2

2

= = =

O =

= =

}

t I

W

R

t RI t Ri W

t

t

2

2 2

2

1

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3. Geometrical Viewpoint :

The resistance parameter is fundamentally a

geometric constant.

(S/m). y coductivit called is where

1

o

o

µ O = O =

A

L

R or

A

L

R

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Fixed Resistor

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9

10

Variable Resistor

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1.3 (b) The Inductance Parameter:-

• It exhibits the property of storing energy in a magnetic

field.

• Its influence is felt only when current changes.

• It plays significant role at the instants of switching on

and switching off.

• At the instant of switching on the circuit, the current is

zero and the inductor behaves as an open circuit.

• If a constant current is maintained through an

inductor, it behaves as a short circuit.

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1. Circuit Viewpoint:

Linear Inductor, if the

inductance parameter is

independent of current.

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) 0 (

1

) (

0

i dt v

L

t i

t

+ =

}

The current through an inductor cannot change

instantaneously.

2. Energy Viewpoint :

A constant current ==> zero voltage drop.

But, a constant current results in fixed energy storage.

Any attempt to alter this energy is firmly resisted. It reflects

the inertial aspect of an inductor.

2

2

2

2

1

i

W

L or Li W = =

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3. Geometrical Viewpoint :

where, S is the reluctance of the magnetic circuit.

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• Mmf is the magneto motive force which produces

the flux Φ.

Magnetic Reluctance:-

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where µ is the permeability, a physical property of the

magnetic material.

This gives the geometrical definition for Inductance. The

value of L can be varied by changing any of the following

quantities.

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1.3 (C) The Capacitance Parameter:-

• It exhibits the property of storing energy in an

electric field.

• Its influence is felt only when voltage changes.

• It plays significant role at the instants of switching

on and switching off.

• At the instant of switching on the circuit, the

capacitor-voltage is zero and it behaves as a short.

• If a constant voltage is maintained across a

capacitor, it behaves as an open circuit.

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1. Circuit Viewpoint :

dt dv

i

C

dt

dv

C i

dt

dv

C

dt

dq

Cv q

/

= ¬ =

= ¬ =

Note: The voltage across a capacitor cannot change

instantaneously.

2. Energy Viewpoint :

2

2

1

Cv W =

20

3. Geometrical Viewpoint :

ty permittivi relative

F/m 10 8.854

space free of ty permittivi , where

capacitor, plate parallel a For

12 -

0

0

=

× =

=

= =

r

r

d

A

d

A

C

c

c

c c c

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1.4 Fundamental Terminology:-

1.4 (a)Symbols:-

# Capital letters for the time independent quantities eg. R, C

.

# Small letters for the time-varying quantities eg. v. i.

1.4 (b) Nodes: A node in an electrical circuit is any

point where 2 or more components have a common

connection viz.

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1.4 (c) Branches: A branch is the part of a circuit which exists

between 2 nodes, viz.

1.4 (d) Loops: loop is any physical loop, open or closed which

can be described in a circuit.

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1.4 (e) Current & Voltage Sign Conventions:-

If an external circuit of a resistor is connected to the voltage source, then

the current flows into the resistor’s positive terminal. Note that the

polarity of its terminals is established by the voltage source. Thus:

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10-फरवरी-2013

Ch. 1 Introduction

What is the voltage V

AB

in following three

cases ?

(a)

Answer:

(a) Voltage V

AB

= 4 V.

(b) Voltage V

AB

= - 4 V.

(c) Voltage V

AB

= -(- 4) V = 4 V

(b)

(c)

Next

Click

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10-फरवरी-2013

Ch. 1 Introduction 25

(a) The element is absorbing energy

(a passive element)

(b) The element is delivering energy.

(an active element)

Next

Passive Sign Convention says that the current must

enter the plus-marked terminal of the element.

Energy

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•Unit of energy is joule (J).

•Unit of power is watt (W).

1 hp =746 W.

•Electrical energy is measured in kW h.

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1.4 (f) Open circuit Voltage & Short-Circuit Current :-

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Short Circuit and Open Circuit

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DUALITY:-

Two circuits are said to be dual of each other, if

the voltage equations for the one have the same

mathematical form as the current equations for the

other.

The form of equations remain the same, if

Current Voltage

Series Parallel

Resistance Conductance

Short circuit Open circuit

Closed switch Open switch