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Ali Khalid M.Sc Avionics System University of Sheffield, United Kingdom.

Interests: Travelling, aerospace, books.

Office: Aviation Lab

Teaching style
Power point slides Study notes

Assessment
Assignments 3 each 5%

Quiz 2 each 5%

Course Work 25% Assignments 15% Quiz 10%

Mid Term 25%


Final exam 50%

Resource person Ali Khalid

Department of Aviation Management & Technology Superior University, Lahore.

Aviation is derived from avis, the Latin word for bird


Aviation is the design, development, production, operation, and use of aircraft, especially heavier-thanair aircraft. So its a very vast and diverse field.

We can divide aviation into


General aviation Civil aviation Military aviation

General aviation includes all non-scheduled civil flying, both private and commercial.
General aviation may include business flights, air charter, private aviation, flight training, ballooning, parachuting, gliding, hang gliding, aerial photography, foot-launched powered hang gliders, air ambulance, crop dusting, charter flights, traffic reporting, police air patrols and forest fire fighting.

Each country regulates aviation differently, but general aviation usually falls under different regulations depending on whether it is private or commercial and on the type of equipment involved.

The most important recent developments for small aircraft have been the introduction of advanced avionics (including GPS) that were formerly found only in large airliners, and the introduction of composite materials to make small aircraft lighter and faster.

Civil aviation includes all non-military flying, both general aviation and scheduled air transport.

Air transport

There are five major manufacturers of civil transport aircraft. Airbus, based in Europe Boeing, based in the United States Bombardier, based in Canada Embraer, based in Brazil United Aircraft Corporation, based in Russia

Boeing and airbus concentrate on wide-body and narrow-body jet airliners.


while Bombardier, Embraer concentrate on regional airliners. Large networks of specialized parts suppliers from around the world support these manufacturers, who sometimes provide only the initial design and final assembly in their own plants

Simple balloons were used as surveillance aircraft as early as the 18th century. Over the years, military aircraft have been built to meet ever increasing capability requirements. Manufacturers of military aircraft compete for contracts to supply their government's arsenal. Aircraft are selected based on factors like cost, performance, and the speed of production.

Fighter aircraft's primary function is to destroy other aircraft. (e.g.) F-16, F-15, Mig-29 and so on.... Ground attack aircraft are used against tactical earthbound targets. (e.g.) Stuka, A-10, Su-25 etc... Bombers are generally used against more strategic targets, such as factories and oil fields. (e.g) Mirage , Mig-23, B-52 etc..... Transport aircraft are used to transport hardware and personnel. (e.g.) C-130, C-5 galaxy, A400M etc.... Surveillance and reconnaissance aircraft obtain information about enemy forces. (e.g.) SR-71, Mig-35 etc...

4 forces acting on aircraft

The force produced by the mass of the airplane interacting with the earth's gravitational field
Weight is a force caused by the gravitational attraction of the earth.

An upward force that causes an object to rise


Lift is a mechanical force generated by a solid object moving through a fluid.

Drag is a mechanical force generated by a solid object moving through a fluid.


Greater the speed of the aircraft the greater the drag.

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