Resource person Ali Khalid
Department of Aviation Management & Technology Superior University, Lahore.
By the end of this session , you will be able to:
Understand the basic fundamental of aviation industry . Understand the concept of system and sub-systems. Understand the principle of flight Understand different propulsion systems and their applications in aviation.
Aeronautics: is the science involved with the study, design, and manufacturing of air flight-capable machines, or the techniques of operating aircraft and rocketry within the atmosphere. Or you can say involves researching, designing, manufacturing and repairing flying machines that are limited to flying within the earth's atmosphere.
Example: aircrafts, missiles, hot-air balloons' etc
Aerodynamics is the way air moves around things. The rules of aerodynamics explain how an airplane is able to fly. Anything that moves through air reacts to aerodynamics. A rocket blasting off the launch pad and a kite in the sky react to aerodynamics. Aerodynamics even acts on cars, since air flows around cars.
Astronautics : is the theory and practice of navigation beyond the Earth's atmosphere. In other words, it is the science and technology of space flight. As with aeronautics, the restrictions of mass, temperatures, and external forces require that applications in space survive extreme conditions: Space launch vehicles must withstand titanic forces, while satellites can experience huge variations in temperature in very brief periods.
Aerospace: comprises the atmosphere of Earth and surrounding space. Typically, aerospace industries combine aeronautics and astronautics to research, design, manufacture, operate, or maintain vehicles moving through air and space.
Aerospace is a very diverse field, with a multitude of commercial, industrial and military applications.
The field of aerospace is wide ranging and covers a variety of products, disciplines and domains, not merely in engineering but in many related supporting activities.
These combine to enable the aerospace industry to produce exciting and technologically challenging products.
The development of basic aircraft systems has not stood still. We can check this simple fact by looking at the wing size of a modern passenger aircraft and see that its size is reducing while the lifting power of the wing is still increasing.
This is a measure of improvements now capable of being made in wing design which in turn are dependent on ‘Systems’ capable of developing the maximum performance from the minimum of weight, hence fly by wire.
Aircraft design begins with dreams and design requirements, and eventually proceeds to detailed drawings of every part of the aircraft being fabricated.
To the outside world, the disciplines of aerodynamics and structures often seem most important – they lead to the overall shaping of the aircraft and to the design of the parts that, when fabricated and assembled, comprise the physical geometry of the aircraft. These are obviously important, but without some other things inside, the aircraft could never fly.
These ‘other things’ – more properly known as ‘aircraft subsystems’ or just ‘systems’ – play a crucial role in aircraft design and operation.
Systems turn an aerodynamically shaped structure into a living, breathing, flying machine.
Systems include flight control, hydraulics, electrical, pneumatic, fuel, environmental control, landing gear, and the evermore-capable avionics.
Avionics is universally associated with those aeronautical and aviation electronics systems connected with flight deck systems, flight control, systems management, navigation, communications, radar, and electronic warfare.
These are the systems that provide the aircraft with the capabilities in order to fulfil a particular operational role.
Aircraft systems that are required to enable the aircraft to fly and function – the ‘general’ or ‘utilities’ systems.
These are less glamorous than the classical avionics systems, but are nevertheless essential for the aircraft to operate, since without them the aircraft will not leave the ground
The systems have, in recent years, increasingly adopted electronics technologies in order to improve system control and diagnostics. Therefore, without exception, we can say that aircraft systems are today also ‘avionic’ in nature.
Check out the system integration
All aircraft are governed by the same basic principles of flight control, whether the vehicle is the most sophisticated highperformance fighter or the simplest model aircraft. The motion of an aircraft is defined in relation to translational motion and rotational motion around a fixed set of defined axes. The system provides control surfaces that allow the aircraft to manoeuvre in pitch, roll and yaw.
The system has also to be designed so that it provides stable control for all parts of the aircraft flight envelope;
Primary flight control in pitch, roll and yaw is provided by the control surfaces described below.
The control of these high-lift devices during combat may occur automatically under the control of an active flight control system. The penalty for using these high-lift devices is increased drag, but the high levels of thrust generated by a fighter aircraft usually minimizes this drawback.
An example of flight control surfaces of a typical commercial airliner is shown in Fig.
Pitch control is exercised by four elevators located on the trailing edge of the tailplane or horizontal stabilizer. Each elevator section is independently powered by a dedicated flight control actuator. Roll control is provided by two aileron sections located on the outboard third of the trailing edge of each wing. Each aileron section is powered by a dedicated actuator powered in turn from one of the aircraft hydraulic systems. Yaw control is provided by three independent rudder sections located on the trailing edge of the fin (or vertical stabilizer).
On a civil airliner these controls are associated with the aircraft yaw dampers. These damp out unpleasant ‘dutch roll’ oscillations which can occur during flight and which can be extremely uncomfortable for the passengers, particularly those seated at the rear of the aircraft.
Flap control is effected by several flap sections located on the inboard two-thirds of the wing trailing edges. Deployment of the flaps during take-off or landing extends the flap sections rearwards and downwards to increase wing area and camber, thereby greatly increasing lift for a given speed. Slat control is provided by several leading-edge slats, which extend forwards and outwards from the wing leading edge. In a similar fashion to the flaps described above, this has the effect of increasing wing area and camber and therefore overall lift.
Speed brakes are deployed when all of the over wing spoilers are extended together which has the effect of reducing lift as well as increasing drag.
What is Thrust? “Thrust is the force which moves an aircraft through the air”.
Why we need thrust? Thrust is used to overcome the drag of an airplane, and to overcome the weight of aircraft.
Thrust is generated by the engines of the aircraft through some kind of propulsion system.
Thrust is a mechanical force, so the propulsion system must be in physical contact with a working fluid to produce thrust.
Thrust is generated most often through the reaction of accelerating a mass of gas, Since thrust is a force, it is a vector quantity having both a magnitude and a direction.
An aircraft engine is the component of the propulsion system for an aircraft that generates mechanical power.
Aircraft engines are almost always either lightweight piston engines or gas turbines. So there are basically two types of engines that are in operation in modern aviation industry .
There are many types of piston engines, lets have a brief look on them:
Straight or In-Line Piston Engines As the name indicates, straight or in-line aircraft piston engines have cylinders in a line, much like automobile engines, which is why they were popular in early aircraft.
The main advantage to an in-line piston engine in an aircraft is that the engine is narrow, allowing the plane to have a more narrow front fuselage that reduces drag. However, because the airflow around the engine is poor, this type of piston engine must be water-cooled, which increases the weight-to-power ratio of the aircraft.
Rotary Piston Engines In this type of aircraft piston engine, the entire engine rotated with the prop, which created additional airflow for cooling. These types of engines were bulky and awkward, and found not to be practical for commercial use.
V-Type Piston Engine Basically two in-line engines welded together. The V-type piston engine has also been used in the automotive industry. Most of the these aircraft piston engines are water-cooled.
Radial Piston Engine Far more complex than the V-type piston engine. the radial piston engine produced smooth and efficient running. this type of aircraft piston engine had a much better power to weight ratio than v-type engines. The engines cool evenly and run smoothly due to the cylinder arrangement’s exposure to air.
Horizontally Opposed Piston Engine These aircraft piston engines have two banks of cylinders on opposite sides of a central crankcase. These engines can be air or liquid cooled, but are most often air cooled. Reliability, simplicity and easy maintenance have made this type of piston engine the most popular aircraft engine for more than half a decade
A gas turbine engine is a reaction engine that discharges a fast moving jet which generates thrust by jet propulsion in accordance with Newton's laws of motion.
Gas turbine engines typically consist of an engine with a rotary (rotating) air compressor powered by a turbine ("Brayton cycle"), with the leftover power providing thrust via a propelling nozzle. These types of jet engines are primarily used by jet aircraft for long distance travel.
the gas turbine cycle is named after american engineer, George Brayton, who first proposed the basic elements for an reciprocating fuel burning engine in the 1870.
Jet engines are usually used as aircraft engines for jet aircraft. They are also used for cruise missiles and unmanned aerial vehicles. Jet engines have also been used to propel high speed cars, particularly drag racers, with the all-time record held by a rocket car
Turbo jet A turbojet engine is a gas turbine engine that works by compressing air with an inlet and a compressor (axial, centrifugal, or both), mixing fuel with the compressed air, burning the mixture in the combustor, and then passing the hot, high pressure air through a turbine and a nozzle
The engine converts internal energy in the fuel to kinetic energy in the exhaust, producing thrust. All the air ingested by the inlet is passed through the compressor, combustor, and turbine.
Turbo fan A turbofan engine is a gas turbine engine that is very similar to a turbojet, unlike the turbojet, some of the
flow accelerated by the fan bypasses the main engine and is exhausted through a nozzle. The bypassed flow is at lower velocities, but a higher mass, making thrust produced by the fan more efficient than thrust produced by the core.
Turbofans are generally more efficient than turbojets at subsonic speeds, but they have a larger frontal area which generates more drag.
There are two general types of turbofan engines, low bypass and high bypass. Low bypass turbofans have a bypass ratio of around 2:1 or less, meaning that for each kilogram of air that passes through the core of the engine, two kilograms or less of air bypass the core
Turboprop Turboprop engines are jet engine derivatives, While not strictly jet engines in that they rely on an auxiliary mechanism to produce thrust. In turboprop engines, a portion of the engines' thrust is produced by spinning a propeller, rather than relying solely on high-speed jet exhaust.
Turboshaft Turboshaft engines are very similar to turboprops, differing in that nearly all energy in the exhaust is extracted to spin the rotating shaft, which is used to power machinery rather than a propeller, they therefore generate little to no jet thrust and are often used to power helicopters.
Ramjet Ramjets are the most basic type of ram powered jet engines. They consist of three sections; an inlet to compress incoming air, a combustor to inject and combust fuel, and a nozzle to expel the hot gases and produce thrust.
Ramjets require a relatively high speed to efficiently compress the oncoming air, so ramjets cannot operate at a standstill and they are most efficient at supersonic speeds. A key trait of ramjet engines is that combustion is done at subsonic speeds. The faster the incoming air is, however, the less efficient it becomes to slow it to subsonic speeds. Therefore ramjet engines are limited to approximately Mach 5
Scramjet Scramjets are mechanically very similar to ramjets. The primary difference between ramjets and scramjets is that scramjets do not slow the oncoming airflow to subsonic speeds for combustion, they use supersonic combustion instead.
Since scramjets use supersonic combustion they can operate at speeds above Mach 6 where traditional ramjets are too inefficient.
Very few scramjet engines have ever been built and flown. In May 2010 the Boeing X-51 set the endurance record for the longest scramjet burn at over 200 seconds