Resource person Ali Khalid

Department of Aviation Management & Technology Superior University, Lahore.

By the end of this session , you will be able to:
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Understand the basics of aircraft landing system . Understand the operation of retraction . Understand about the aircraft fuel system Understand about the aircraft instruments

The undercarriage or landing gear in aviation, is the structure that supports an aircraft on the ground and allows it to taxi, takeoff and land.
Typically wheels are used, but skids, skis, floats or a combination of these and other elements can be deployed, depending on the surface. Landing gear usually includes wheels equipped with shock absorbers for solid ground, but some aircraft are equipped with skis for snow or floats for water.

The undercarriage is a relatively heavy part of the vehicle, it can be as much as 7% of the takeoff weight, but more typically is 4-5%.

Three basic arrangements of landing gear are used: tail wheel type landing gear (also known as conventional gear), tandem landing gear, and tricycle-type landing gear.

Tail wheel-type landing gear is also known as conventional gear because many early aircraft use this type of arrangement.

The main gear are located forward of the center of gravity, causing the tail to require support from a third wheel assembly.

The increased clearance of the forward fuselage offered by tail wheel-type landing gear is also advantageous when operating in and out of non-paved runways.

Few aircraft are designed with tandem landing gear.
As the name implies, this type of landing gear has the main gear and tail gear aligned on the longitudinal axis of the aircraft. Sailplanes commonly use tandem gear, although many only have one actual gear forward on the fuselage with a skid under the tail.

A few military bombers, such as the B-47 and the B-52, have tandem gear, as does the U2 spy plane.

The VTOL Harrier has tandem gear but uses small outrigger gear under the wings for support.

The most commonly used landing gear arrangement is the tricycle-type landing gear. It is comprised of main gear and nose gear.

Tricycle-type landing gear is used on large and small aircraft with the following benefits:
Allows more forceful application of the brakes without nosing over when braking, which enables higher landing speeds.



Provides better visibility from the flight deck, especially during landing and ground manoeuvring.

The tricycle-type landing gear arrangement consists of many parts and assemblies. These include air/oil shock struts, gear alignment units, support units, retraction and safety devices, steering systems, wheel and brake assemblies, etc. > F-16 lg

Multiple wheels spread the weight of the aircraft over a larger area.
They also provide a safety margin should one tire fail. Heavy aircraft may use four or more wheel assemblies on each main gear. When more than two wheels are attached to a landing gear strut, the attaching mechanism is known as a bogie.

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In addition to supporting the aircraft for taxi, the forces of impact on an aircraft during landing must be controlled by the landing gear. This is done in two ways:
The shock energy is altered and transferred throughout the airframe at a different rate and time than the single strong pulse of impact. The shock is absorbed by converting the energy into heat energy.



259 faa

An aircraft fuel system allows the crew to pump and, manage, and deliver fuel to and the propulsion system of an aircraft.
At the onset of aviation aircraft fuel systems were remarkably simple affairs. Fuel was gravity fed to the engine in most cases though higher performance engines would have an enginemounted fuel pump. Higher performance gave rise to more complexity within
the fuel system.

Therefore the need for transfer and booster pumps accompanied the arrival of high-performance aircraft.
More complex tank configurations introduced the need for multi-valve systems such that the flight crew could move fuel around the fuel tanks according to the needs at the time. Fuel systems differ greatly due to different performance of the aircraft in which they are installed.

A single engine piston aircraft will and have a very simple fuel system, while a tanker (such as the KC-135) in addition of managing its own fuel can also provide fuel to other aircraft

 Jet A frz pt (-40 c)

 JP-4 similar to B

 Jet A-1 frz pt( -47 c)
 Jet B

 JP-5 used in carriers
 JP-8 similar to A1

( 30 %-70%,-60c)

The fuel system is designed to provide an uninterrupted flow of clean fuel from the fuel tanks to the engine.
The fuel must be available to the engine under all conditions of engine power, altitude, attitude, and during all approved flight manoeuvres. Two common classifications apply to fuel systems in small aircraft: gravity-feed and fuel-pump systems.

The gravity-feed system utilizes the force of gravity to transfer the fuel from the tanks to the engine.
For example, on high-wing airplanes, the fuel tanks are installed in the wings.

This places the fuel tanks above the carburettor, and the fuel is gravity fed through the system and into the carburettor. Carburettor is a device that blends air and fuel for an internal combustion engine.

If the design of the aircraft is such that gravity cannot be used to transfer fuel, fuel pumps are installed.
For example, on low-wing airplanes, the fuel tanks in the wings are located below the carburettor.

Aircraft with fuel-pump systems have two fuel pumps.
The main pump system is engine driven with an electrically driven auxiliary pump provided for use in engine starting and in the event the engine pump fails. The auxiliary pump, also known as a boost pump, provides added reliability to the fuel system.

A transport category aircraft fuel distribution subsystem consists of the pressure fuelling components, defueling components, transfer system, and fuel jettison or dump system. Single-point pressure fuelling at a fuelling station is done by refuelling truck allows all aircraft fuel tanks to be filled with one connection of the fuel hose.

Occasionally, defueling the aircraft is required for an inspection or repair. The same fuelling station is used, and the hose from the fuel truck is connected to same receptacle used to fuel the aircraft.

The fuel transfer system is a series of plumbing and valves that permits movement of fuel from one tank to another on board the aircraft. In-tank fuel boost pumps move the fuel into a manifold and, by opening the fuel valve (or refuelling valve) for the desired tank, the fuel is transferred

Some aircraft fuel subsystems allow for fuel:
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Jettison Heating Cross-Feeding

The fuel jettison system comprises a combination of fuel lines, valves, and pumps provided to dump fuel overboard during an in-flight emergency
This will reduce the weight of the aircraft so an emergency landing is possible

Military aircrafts jettison their extra fuel when they are in close combat ( dog fight).

Fuel heating is necessary for turbine engines to thaw ice particles in the fuel that would otherwise clog the filters
Fuel is routed through a heat exchanger that uses either engine oil or compressor bleed air to bring the fuel up to an acceptable temperature.

Cross feed systems allow the flow of fuel from any of the tanks to any of the engines.
Some reasons that this system might be used are:  Engine failure  Problem with one or more fuel tanks  Redistribute fuel for weight and balance purposes

Most civil aircraft have a fuel tank configuration as shown

The Fuel Management & Quantity Gauging System (FMQGS) for the Bombardier Global Express is typical of a family of systems which may be found fitted to regional aircraft and business jets.

The Global Express has a true intercontinental range capability approaching 6,000 mi and is cleared to 51,000 ft.

The heart of the system is the dual channel FMQCG which embraces the following functions.

The fuel management function provides the following:
Control, status and built-in test (BIT) of all system pumps, valves and pressure sensors. Fuel transfer – burn sequence and lateral balance.

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Flight crew and ground crew interface.
Automatic/manual refuel/defuel operation.

The Boeing 777 in contrast uses an integrated architecture based upon A429 and A629 data buses.
Fuel management system of boeing 777 emphasizing the refuel function which is controlled via the Electrical Load Management System (ELMS)

There are six refuelling valves, marked as R on the next slide

The P310 panel provides power to the FQPU, integrated refuelling panel and controls the operation of the refuelling valves.
This system permits the automatic refuelling of the aircraft to a preset value, as the FQPU senses the fuel tank quantities reaching their assigned value, messages are sent to the ELMS to shut off the refuelling valves until all three tanks have attained the correct level.

The FQPU is a multi-channel multi-processor controller which processes the fuel quantity information.
provided by a total of 52 tank units (probes), four water detectors and three densitometers located in the three fuel tanks. The Boeing 777 uses ultrasonic fuel probes, the first civil airliner to do so.

What is an instrument ???

A mechanical implement or tool, esp one used for precision work. In other words we can say that we use instruments (of any type) to measure something more accurately? Any example ?

Thermometer is an instrument?
Yes, because we measure temp through It more precisely

Similarly watch is also an instrument used For measuring time.

The use of instruments as an aid to flight enables the pilot to operate the airplane more precisely, and therefore, obtain maximum performance and enhanced safety.
This is particularly true when flying greater distances

Since the beginning of manned flight, it has been recognized that supplying the pilot with information about the aircraft and its operation could be useful and lead to safer flight.

The Wright Brothers had very few instruments on their Wright Flyer, but they did have an engine tachometer, an anemometer (wind meter), and a stop watch.

From that simple beginning, a wide variety of instruments have been developed to inform flight crews of different parameters. Such as altitude, heading etc

Instrument systems now exist to provide information on the condition of the aircraft, engine, components, the aircraft’s attitude in the sky, weather, cabin environment, navigation, and communication.

various instrument panels from the Wright Flyer to a modern jet airliner

There are usually two parts to any instrument or instrument system.
One part senses the situation and the other part displays it. In analog instruments, both of these functions often take place in a single unit or instrument. These are called direct-sensing instruments.

Remote-sensing requires the information to be sensed, or captured, and then sent to a separate display unit in the cockpit.

The relaying of important bits of information can be done in various ways :
Electricity is often used by way of wires that carry sensor information into the cockpit. pneumatic lines are used.

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