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Achieving Higher Bandwidth
Install New Fiber Invest in new TDM technologies to achieve higher Bandwidth Deploy DWDM System
Expensive Very Expensive
Why DWDM Networking?
• Fibre Exhaust: Unlimited bandwidth on a fibre pair • Bit Rate Transparency • Format/Protocol Transparency : IP, ATM etc. • Efficient use. • Minimal Capital Expenditure : Capacity Expansions Demand • Simpler Operations.
Economics of WDM
• Saving of regeneration costs:
One optical amplifier can amplify many channels,
regeneration cost per channel drastically reduced • Saving of fibers/fiber shortage Cost effective compared to laying new fibers
• Bit Rate Transparency: Different wave lengths from different systems can be transmitted simultaneously and independently over the same fiber. • Economical: One optical amplifier is used for amplification of all the channels. . • Extremely high transport capacity at low cost • Multiple use of optical amplifiers yielding decreased investments and maintenance costs. per channel cost is drastically reduced as compared to providing regenerator for individual channels in SDH network.Advantages Capacity up-gradation: Capacity of the DWDM systems can be up-graded easily by deploying higher channel capacity systems without laying of new fibers. Hence.
Situation without WDM SDH NE SDH NE Optical Terminal MUX Optical Amplifier Optical Terminal MUX Fig.4 Situation without WDM .3.SDH NE Regenerators SDH NE Fig.
• Wave length Switching: Wave length Switching can be accomplished by using optical Add/Drop Multiplexers. it is possible to route any wave length to any station.Advantages • Quick Deployment: DWDM Systems can be deployed using existing fibers. Wave length converters. Optical cross connect. • Wave length Routing: By using wave length sensitive optical routing devices. .
• To keep the BER within limits. This implies that the signal to noise ratio worsens with distance. The signals are required to be 3r processed in electrical domain. • Fiber dispersion is another limitation.DWDM Limitations • DWDM transmission is analog. . • • The in line amplifiers are also analog.
• Single fiber is for transmitting more than one optical signal simultaneously. .DWDM • DWDM is a technology in which a number of optical wave lengths are combined and then transmitted in a single fiber.
DWDM Basics SINGLE FIBRE SDH OPTICAL SIGNALS .
.BLOCK SCHEMATIC OPTICAL SIGNALS. MUX W D M DEMUX Rx OFA 16 W D M TRANSPONDERS . . . STM-1 STM-4 STM-16 ATM IP Tx 1 2 .
BLOCK SCHEMATIC .
A post-amplifier boosts the strength of the optical signal as it leaves the system. 4. The Transponder accepts input in the form of standard single mode or multimode laser. The input can from different physical media . DWDM wave lengths from the transponder are multiplexed in to a single optical signal and launched in to the fiber. . 2. 3.The Following Steps Describes The Above System : 1. The wave length of each input signal is mapped to a DWDM wave length. different protocols and traffic types.
Optical amplifiers are used along the fiber span as needed. 6. The incoming signal is de-multiplexed into individual DWDM wave lengths. 7.5. A Pre-amplifier boosts the optical signal before it enters the end system. 8. The individual DWDM wave lengths are mapped to the required output type and sent out through the transponder. .
DWDM Components • Transponder • Multiplexers (Combiner) • De-multiplexers (Splitter) • Optical Fiber Amplifier (OFA) • Optical Add Drop Multiplexer (OADM) • Optical cross connector (OXC) • Optical supervisory channel (OSC) .
which generates the optical wave length as per ITU Grid.Transponder • Transmit Transponder : The function of Transmit transponder is to convert the incoming optical signal into pre-defined optical wave length. • The output from all the transponders is fed to the combiner in order to combine all optical channels in optical domain. • The electrical signal is then used to drive the LASER. Re-timing and Re-transmitting functions or (3R Functions). • The transponder first converts the optical signal to an electrical signal and performs Re-shaping. .
Transponder • Receive Transponder : • Individual wave lengths are first split from the combined optical signal with help of splitter and then fed to individual receive transponders. • The receive transponder converts the optical signal to electrical . does 3R functions and finally convert the signal back into optical .
TRANSPONDER / TRANSLATOR / WAVELENGTH CONVERTOR Input O/E Electrical REGENERATION E/O Predefined output .
• The center of the DWDM band lies at 193. . • “Standard" Channel spacing is 100 GHz allows transmission of 45 channels on one fiber.52nm with standard channel spacing of 200 GHz and 100 GHz.1 THz and centre wave length of 1552.Signal Direction : ITU -GRID • DWDM sending a large number of closely spaced optical signals over a single fiber. Standards developed by the ITU (International Telecommunications Union) define the exact optical wavelength used for DWDM applications.
because of closure spacing.8 nm • 50 GHz = 0. of channels. the more channel cross talk results.4 nm When spacing the wave lengths more closely. . typically at 50 GHz : Double the no.Channel Spacing and Optical Wave Length : • 200 GHz = 1.6 nm • 100 GHz = 0.
4 nm 50 GHz 1510.77nm 198.6THz Fig.0 nm 202.61 nm 192.6THz 196.1 THz .10THz 1480.0 nm 1528. Wavelength Plan for 50 GHz Grid 1560.2.0.
ITU-T BAND ALLOCATION Optical Supervisory channel C BAND BLUE BAND RED BAND 1565 L BAND 1500 1520 1530 1542 1547 1620 • CONVENTIONAL BAND = 1530 TO 1565 NM • LONG BAND = 1565 TO 1620 NM • ERBIUM DOPED FIBRE AMPLIFIERS SUITABLE FOR ‘C’ BAND. .
4 194.5 193.0 192.0 193.5 195.4 195.53 1545.6 192.1 196.12 1546.33 1531.92 1547.33 1554.79 1560.56 1541.2 193.4 1543.8 1532.9 Central (nm) 1550.25 1535.3 Central (nm) 1539.72 1552.04 1535.4 192.7 Central (nm) 1528.82 1536.32 1550.90 Nominal Central (THz) 194.75 1556.3 195.94 1555.98 1559.7 193.19 1539.2 195.6 195.55 1557.12 1531.40 1538.47 1534.7 194.13 195.1 195.9 194.55 1530.61 1537.52 1553.77 1540.8 192.73 1544.2 194.36 1558.8 195.6 194.6 193.32 1546.77 1529.7 192.ITU –T G.51 1549.0 195.3 192.3 193.5 192.0 194.8 193.5 194.2 192.68 1533.14 1542.17 1558.9 193.1 1554.92 1551.9 195.1 194.12 192.92 Nominal Central (THz) 193.77 194.692 Frequency Grid Nominal Central (THz) 196.1 193.72 1548.61 .35 1542.
Optical Amplifier • The optical amplifier is used to amplify all the wave lengths at once and boost the signal power after multiplexing and before de-multiplexing. • The fiber optic amplifier component of the DWDM system provides a cost efficient method of taking in and amplifying optical signals without converting them into electrical signals. • DWDM amplifies a broad range of wavelengths in the 1550 nm region. .
Requirements of an Optical Ideal Amplifier: • Provide high gain • Have wide spectral band width • Provide uniform gain • Allow Bi-directional amplification • Add minimum noise and Low cost • Have low insertion loss • No cross talk and no interference between components • Good conversion efficiency .
AMPLIFIER using in DWDM systems: Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) .
• Highly efficient • Low in noise • Low cost • Flat gain • Wide bandwidth • Polarization independency. . • EDFAs are ability to amplify multiple wavelength channels without crosstalk penalty.Advantages of EDFA • Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers operate at 1550 nm wavelengths that reduce fiber loss and minimize dispersion effects.
OPTICAL AMPLIFIER Pump (980 or 1480 nm at 3 W) Coupler EDFA Weak signal in Fiber Isolation Fiber Amplified signal out isolation Fiber .
• At the receiving end the De-multiplexer separates the single beam into its wave length components and coupling them into individual fibers. • These devices (MUX / DEMUX) is to minimize crosstalk and maximize channel separation and interference.Multiplexers and De-multiplexers • DWDM systems send signals from several sources through a single fiber. • The multiplexer takes optical wave lengths from multiple fibers and converges them into one beam. .
Add/drop multiplexer (OADM) • OADM can remove or insert one or more wave lengths. . the OADM can remove some while passing the others. • OADM only can do optical wave lengths are added and dropped but no conversion of the signal from optical to electrical. • Rather than combining or separating all the wave lengths.
Wayside Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer TM TM 1 2 15 WDM MUX O A WDM DEMUX O A 16 1-4 5-8 .
OPTICAL CROSS CONNECT : • OXC can take four input fibers each carrying four wave lengths and rearrange the 16 wave lengths on to the four output fibers. • A wave length can also change by a transponder in OXC will shuffle one of the arrived wave lengths and transmits another wave length to an available channel. . • A wave length can arrive on one fiber and leave on another fiber.
OPTICAL CROSSCONNECT SWITCH MATRIX T T T T T T T T INPUT FIBRE LINKS WAVELENGTH TRIBUTARY ADAPTATION LINKS .
This type of optical switch has been realized for the first time through the fusion of various techniques such as micromachining techniques for fabricating the mirror. • . optical design techniques for achieving low-loss optical connections. The direction in which the light beam is reflected can be changed by rotating the mirror to different angles. a micro-mirror is used to reflect a light beam.MEMS (Micro-electro-mechanical-systems) • In a MEMS optical switch. and control techniques for positioning the mirror accurately. allowing the input light to be connected to any output port.
Reconfigurable .Micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS): 1. Configurable 2.
Optical Supervisory Channel (OSC) Line Terminal Equipment 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 In-line Amplifier Line Terminal Equipment 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Tx 1 Tx 2 Tx 3 Tx 4 Tx 5 Tx 6 Tx 7 Tx 8 Rx Rx Rx Rx Rx Rx Rx Rx + supervisory Tx sup Rx Tx Rx sup System Control Processor OSC System Control Processor Network Management Network Management DATA OUT DATA IN .
N.com . Mary SDE RTTC Hyderabad Mobile no: 9490282822 Email id: nannam.com P. Munigangadharam JTO RTTC Hyderabad Mobile no: 9490182966 Email id: firstname.lastname@example.org@gmail.
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