Francis turbine

Francis turbine is an inward flow reaction turbine having radial discharge at outlet is known as Francis turbine. In modern Francis turbine, the water enters the runner of the turbine in the radial direction at the outlet and leaves in the axial direction at the inlet of the runner.

Construction and working Francis turbine is a mixed flow turbine. The test ring consists of Runner A ring of adjustable guide vanes A scroll casing Draft tube .

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Guide vanes fixed out side turbine casing. A 15 h. The flow from the pump is controlled by means of a gate valve. The water is supplied to the runner through the guide vanes while passing through the spiral casing and guide vanes.P centrifugal pump supplies water under pressure to the Francis turbine.The runner consist of two shrouds with runner of curved vanes in between the guide vanes can be rotated about their axis by means of a hand wheel. the portion of the pressure head is converted into viscosity energy. .

. This conical draft tube is provided for the purpose of regaining the kinetic energy from the exit water and also facilitating easy accessibility of the turbine due to its location at a higher level than the tail race.When the water passes through the vanes of the runner the velocity energy is transformed into the mechanical energy and hence the runner discharges water into the tail race through the conical draft tube.

The output of the turbine can be controlled by adjusting the guide vanes for which a hand wheel and a suitable link mechanism is provided.A transparent hollow cylinder is provided between the draft bend and the casing for purpose of observation of flow at the exit of runner. . The net supply head on the turbine is measured by a pressure and vacuum gauge and for the measurement of speed a hand tachometer is used.

A belt is provided over a drum to load the turbine tension in the belt is increased with the help of hand wheel and tension is measured by using spring balance. .

one spring balance on each end of belt measures the load applied. .Experimental setup It consist of a Francis turbine to which water under requisite head is supplied by means of a centrifugal pump. A sluice valve is provided near the outlet end of supply pipe connected to the turbine. a pressure gauge and vacuum gauge measures the pressures head at the inlet and outlet end of the turbine simultaneously. The speed of running of turbine is measured by means of techno meter. The turbine discharges in the tail race channel which is measured by means of a Vnotch. A brake drum is coupled with the Francis turbine to which the load is applied by tightening the belt wrapped round the drum.

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Prime the pump and start the electric motor to run the pump. 2. Set the full gate (col.M). 3.10 and 11) Note: it can be done by adjusting the weights W1 and W2 at the ends of belt. Note the initial readings of gauge over the notch. pressure head at the spiral casing (col. gauge reading over notch. Note the speed n (r. Open the delivery valve and allow the water to stand just up to the crest of v-notch and then close the valve. 4.2) and open the delivery valve. . Apply different sets of loads W1 and W2 on the turbine shaft (col. 6.Procedure 1.P.4) every time the loads are changed.3) and the pressure at the entrance to the draft tube (col. Change the gate opening and repeat the procedure. 5.

8) The total net head H under which the turbine is working H = (positive pressure head).W2)/4500 The input power to the turbine is then computed Input power = wQH/75 The overall efficiency of the turbine is given as N0 = output power/nput power Finally the unit quantities are calculated Pu = P/H3/2. Qu=Q/H. Nu=NH .Calculations The discharge flowing through the turbine is calculated as Q = CHn (col.(negative suction head at the entrance to draft tube) The output power is then computed as P= 2πRN(W1 .

Formula used 1.1nH)H3/2 Where . Discharge = 2/3. Cd = coefficient of discharge H = head over the notch L = length of the notch 2. G = pressure gauge V = vacuum gauge X = height difference between pressure gauge and vacuum gauge . Total Head = G+V+X Where .Cd√(2g)(l-0.

P 75x60 where N= speed of turbine in r.3.m . Output :Brake drum diameter = 0.H 75 In H.P = πDNT H.H.P 4.3m Spring load on tight side = T1Kg Spring load on slack side = T2 Kg T1 and T2 should be taken after subtracting readings at no load Resultant load = T1 = T2 =T Kg B.p. Input of turbine Input = w.Q.

P Unit speed (Nu) = N/√H Unit power (Pu) = P/H Unit discharge(Qu) = Q/√H Specific speed (Ns) = N√P/H5/4 or Ns = N√Q/H3/4 .H.H.P I.Efficiency = Output Input = B.

no Gate opening Pressure gauge 1 2 3 Head reading Vacuum gauge 4 Discharge reading H m 5 Final gauge 6 H m 7 Q m3/s 8 N W1 Kg 10 W2 Kg 11 P NO Qu Pu Nu 9 12 13 14 15 16 .Observation Table Diameter of brake drum = 30cm. Length of rectangular notch = 30cm. S.

Presentation of result In preparing characteristic curves. each on separate graph paper for different gate openings. . it is found convenient to determine unit quantities and then plot graphs between Qu. Pu and efficiency N0 versus Nu. These are known as characteristics curves of the given turbine.

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What way is it different from pelton wheel and Kaplan turbine? When the load on the shaft changes.? What are unit power and unit speed? What is the function of spiral casing of the Francis turbine? . why does discharge entering the turbine change and how ? What is the purpose of a draft tube? Why should it be divergent? Why can’t we have a greater angle of divergence? Why can’t we extend the length of the tube more and more? What will happen if some air leaks in the entrance of the draft tube? What are characteristics curves of a turbine and what are their uses.Viva voce Describe main constructional and principal features of a Francis turbine.