Artery White blood cells


Red blood cells

• Deliver O2

• Remove metabolic wastes
• Maintain temperature, pH, and fluid volume

• Protection from blood loss- platelets
• Prevent infection- antibodies and WBC • Transport hormones

Plasma-55% Buffy coat-<1%

Formed elements-45%

90% Water 8% Solutes: • Proteins Albumin (60 %) Alpha and Beta Globulins Gamma Globulins fibrinogens • Gas • Electrolytes

• Organic Nutrients Carbohydrates Amino Acids Lipids Vitamins • Hormones • Metabolic waste CO2 Urea .

• Leukocytes • Platelets .

• Erythrocytes (red blood cells) • Leukocytes (white blood cells) • Platelets (thrombocytes) .

Erythrocytes .

Why?  1 RBC contains 280 million hemoglobin molecules  Men.5 million cells/mm3  Women. 2  chains and 2  chains  Lack mitochondria.quaternary structure.5 million cells/mm3  Life span 100-120 days and then destroyed in spleen (RBC graveyard) .so can't reproduce.Erythrocyte7.5m in dia  Anucleate.4. repro in red bone marrow  Hematopoiesis.production of RBC  Function.transport respiratory gases  Hemoglobin. however.


girdles and proximal epiphyses of humerus and femur .Hematopoiesis • Hematopoiesis (hemopoiesis): blood cell formation –Occurs in red bone marrow of axial skeleton.

Hematopoiesis • Hemocytoblasts (hematopoietic stem cells) – Give rise to all formed elements – Hormones and growth factors push the cell toward a specific pathway of blood cell development • New blood cells enter blood sinusoids .

Erythropoiesis • Erythropoiesis: red blood cell production – A hemocytoblast is transformed into a proerythroblast – Proerythroblasts develop into early erythroblasts .

Hemoglobin accumulation 3. Ejection of the nucleus and formation of reticulocytes – Reticulocytes then become mature erythrocytes .Erythropoiesis – Phases in development 1. Ribosome synthesis 2.

Erythrocyte cyte Figure 17.5 .Stem cell Committed cell Developmental pathway Phase 1 Ribosome synthesis Phase 2 Hemoglobin accumulation Phase 3 Ejection of nucleus Hemocytoblast Proerythroblast Early Late erythroblast erythroblast Normoblast Reticulo.

and B vitamins . amino acids.Regulation of Erythropoiesis • Too few RBCs leads to tissue hypoxia • Too many RBCs increases blood viscosity • Balance between RBC production and destruction depends on – Hormonal controls – Adequate supplies of iron.

Hormonal Control of Erythropoiesis • Erythropoietin (EPO) –Direct stimulus for erythropoiesis –Released by the kidneys in response to hypoxia .

g. iron deficiency) – Reduced availability of O2 (e. high altitudes) .Hormonal Control of Erythropoiesis • Causes of hypoxia – Hemorrhage or increased RBC destruction reduces RBC numbers – Insufficient hemoglobin (e.g...

resulting in higher RBC counts in males .Hormonal Control of Erythropoiesis • Effects of EPO – More rapid maturation of committed bone marrow cells – Increased circulating reticulocyte count in 1–2 days • Testosterone also enhances EPO production.

Formation & Destruction of RBCs .

Blood Cell Production . athletesremove blood 2 days before event and then replace it. however. naturally occurs at high elevations Blood doping.when blood has low O2 carrying capacity.excess of erythrocytes. B12 deficiency Polycythemia. Epoetin. Factors that can cause anemia. . 8-11 million cells/mm3 Usually caused by cancer.banned by Olympics.Anemia. insufficient RBC or iron deficiency.  viscosity of blood. tissue hypoxia.exercise.

Abnormal hemoglobin crystalizes when O2 content of blood is low. the heterozygous condition is beneficial. Found in 1 out of 400 African Americans. Homozygous for sickle-cell is deadly.Sickle-cell anemiaHbS results from a change in just one of the 287 amino acids in the  chain in the globin molecule. causing RBCs to become sickle-shaped. . but in malaria infested countries.

Genetics of Sickle Cell Anemia Genetics of Sickle Cell Anemia .

000 cells/mm 3 Never let monkeys eat bananas Granulocytes Neutrophils.1-4% Basophils.000-11.<1% Agranulocytes Monocytes.4-8% Lymphocytes.20-45% .40-70% Eosinophils.4.

Basophil Eosinophil Lymphocyte platelet Neutrophil Monocyte .

ID WBC’s .

Leukocyte Squeezing Through Capillary Wall .

• • Leukopenia • • Abnormally low WBC count—drug induced Leukemias Cancerous conditions involving WBCs • Named according to the abnormal WBC clone involved highly contagious viral disease caused by Epstein-Barr virus. recover in a few weeks • Mononucleosis • . fatigue. sore throat. excessive # of agranulocytes.

enzymes. Ca2+.Platelets • Small fragments of megakaryocytes • Formation is regulated by thrombopoietin • Blue-staining outer region. purple granules • Granules contain serotonin. and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) . ADP.

12 .Stem cell Developmental pathway Hemocytoblast Promegakaryocyte Megakaryoblast Megakaryocyte Platelets Figure 17.

000-500.stoppage of bleeding Platelets: 250.Hemostasis.000 cells/mm3 Tissue Damage Platelet Plug Clotting Factors .

Platelet plug formation 4. Vascular spasm 3. Vessel injury 2.Hemostasis: 1. Coagulation .

Hemostasis (+ feedback) Clotting Factors thromboplastin Prothrombin Thrombin Fibrinogen Fibrin Traps RBC & platelets Platelets release thromboplastin .

Blood Clot RBC Platelet Fibrin thread .

Disorders of Hemostasis • Thromboembolytic disorders: undesirable clot formation • Bleeding disorders: abnormalities that prevent normal clot formation .

Thromboembolytic Conditions • Thrombus: clot that develops and persists in an unbroken blood vessel – May block circulation. leading to tissue death • Embolus: a thrombus freely floating in the blood stream – Pulmonary emboli impair the ability of the body to obtain oxygen – Cerebral emboli can cause strokes .

Thromboembolytic Conditions • Prevented by – Aspirin • Antiprostaglandin that inhibits thromboxane A2 – Heparin • Anticoagulant used clinically for pre.and postoperative cardiac care – Warfarin • Used for those prone to atrial fibrillation .

too few platelets • causes spontaneous bleeding • due to suppression or destruction of bone marrow (e. infection or cancer Thrombocytopenia. radiation) – Platelet count <50.Thrombocytosis. malignancy..g.000/mm3 is diagnostic – Treated with transfusion of concentrated platelets .too many platelets due to inflammation.

impairing fat and vitamin K absorption .• Impaired liver function – Inability to synthesize procoagulants – Causes include vitamin K deficiency. hepatitis. and cirrhosis – Liver disease can also prevent the liver from producing bile.

• Hemophilias include several similar hereditary bleeding disorders • Symptoms include prolonged bleeding. especially into joint cavities • Treated with plasma transfusions and injection of missing factors .

a sex-linked recessive trait. primarily carried by males (x chromosome) .Hemophiliac.

Type A Type B Type AB Type O .

proteins made by lymphocytes in plasma which are made in response to the presence of antigens.Blood type is based on the presence of 2 major antigens in RBC membranes-. They attack foreign antigens.A and B Blood type Antigen Antibody A A anti-B B B anti-A A&B AB no anti body Neither A or B O anti-A and anti-B Antigen. which result in clumping (agglutination) .protein on the surface of a RBC membrane Antibody.

Type A b b b b b b b .

Type B a a a a a a a .

Type O a b a a a b a a b b .

Type AB .

indicates no protein .Rh Factor and Pregnancy RH+ indicates protein RH.

mother w/ problem RhoGAM used @ 28 weeks .baby– no problem Rh.mother w/Rh+ baby– problem Rh.father– no problem Rh.Rh Factor and Pregnancy Rh+ mother w/Rh.mother w/

universal recipients Type O. anti-b .15% recessive Blood Type A antigen A Clumping anti-A serum Antibody antibody anti-b B AB O antigen B antigen A & B neither A or B anti-B serum anti A & B serum antibody anti-a - no clumping w/ either anti A or B anti-a.Type AB.universal donor Rh factor: Rh+ 85% dominant in pop Rh.

agglutinates with both sera) Type A (contains agglutinogen A.16 . does not agglutinate with either serum) Anti-A Serum Anti-B RBCs Figure 17. agglutinates with anti-A) Type B (contains agglutinogen B. agglutinates with anti-B) Type O (contains no agglutinogens.Blood being tested Type AB (contains agglutinogens A and B.

6% 35.5% 1.4% 6.4% .Blood Type & Rh O O A A B B AB AB Rh Positive Rh Negative Rh Positive Rh Negative Rh Positive Rh Negative Rh Positive Rh Negative How Many Have It 1 person in 3 1 person in 15 1 person in 3 1 person in 16 1 person in 12 1 person in 67 1 person in 29 1 person in 167 Frequency 37.7% 6.3% 8.5% 3.6% .

ABO Blood Types Phenotype Genotype O i i A I A I A or I A i B I B I B or I B i A I B AB I .

Punnett square Type A and Type B cross IB i IA i IA IA IB IA IA IB IA i .

8. 6. What antigens and antibodies found on AB red cells? In a transfusion. 4. Erythroblastosis fetalis . and thrombocyte? What 2 things do red cells lack compared to white cells? What dietary component is needed for the production of red blood cells? The largest cells in the blood that leave the bloodstream to become macrophages are ____. what type blood can you give a type O person? . also known as hemolytic newborn disease. 3.1. occurs in ____ mothers carrying ____ fetuses. INQUIRY What is an erythrocyte. 7. 2. 5. In an acute infection. the white cell count would show as ______. leukocyte.

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