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By: Maria Luz Lourdes M. Paulino, RN, MBA

Session Objectives
At the end of the session, the students will be able to:
Discuss the types of research data Design a data collection instrument adhering to the guidelines in preparing questions for interviews Prepare a cover letter for the assigned firm or company

Types of research data

Primary data vs. secondary data
Quantitative vs. qualitative data

Data Collection Methods

1. Primary Data (Observation) 2.1 Direct observation 2.2 Using instruments 2. Primary Data (Query) 2.1 Interview 2.2 Use of a questionnaire 2.3 Focus Group Discussion 3. Secondary Data (Review of records)

Primary Data
1. Interview - questioning of a person or a conversation in which information are elicited ; the form contains set of questions that are read out by the interviewer to the respondent. 2. Use of Questionnaire - a set of questions is sent and answered separately by each survey participant 3. Focus-group discussion - discussion of approximately 6 - 12 persons guided by a facilitator

Secondary Data
Before using secondary data, determine the following: 1. if data/ information are available 2. accuracy of data 3. acceptability of the primary method of data collection

Steps in formulating the questions:
1. List and define the topic(s) 2. For each topic, decide number/type of questions 3. Formulate questions 4. Pilot testing and revise


questions wherein a space is provided for the answers of the respondents


question that has a finite set of answers predetermined by the researcher from which the respondent chooses

Likert-scale items

Allows the respondent to agree or disagree with a series of statements. (Note, these are statements, not questions.) Questions about attitudes are often asked using likert scales which force the respondent to place themselves on a continuum of responses that typically include "strongly agree," "agree," "neutral," "disagree," and "strongly disagree".


Likert-scale items

Guides for Question Formulation

1. Use words that are: Specific and clear Simple words and simple/short sentences

Know exactly what the investigator is asking. Avoid asking questions that have several possible meanings.

Question Formulation
2. Ask questions that one can expect to know the answers/accurately answer 3. For closed-type, - provide exhaustive choices (categories
available to all)


- provide mutually exclusive choices (no overlap)

Avoid the ff types of questions

loaded questions double-barreled leading questions

double negatives ambiguous complex questions with technical terms

Questions that have more than one concept being asked; do not combine conflicting statements in one Q.
Examples: Do you think that banning liquor or alcohol is good for the health and the economy of the country?


Loaded question
Questions are emotionally charged, with false or disputed presupposition.
Examples: Would you favor or oppose abortion by agreeing with a woman's free choice concerning delivery of a child?

Leading Question
Question that has a view or summary of a position of a current or recent event which asks for a response. This tends to lead the respondent in a given direction.
Examples: The Secretary of DOH states that drinking liquor or alcohol is harmful to one's health. Do you encourage your children to drink liquor or alcohol?


Questions using the word "not which are often confusing because responding "no" creates a double negative

Do you think that not drinking liquor or alcohol is good? many respondents will either read over the word not, or will be confused by the double negative in the question and their response.

Not clear and/or different meaning
Examples: What activity do you want to participate in?

Complex question
Long and numerous ideas
Example: Given the current trend in sports, do you think that steroids use should be banned even though it is not enforced?

Question sequencing

Organize the questions in sections concerning major themes all related questions should come up before a second topic is raised.

Easy-to-answer questions at the beginning to make the respondent feel good

The more sensitive questions last Avoid Conditional or Skip Logic questions


Thank the respondent for taking the time to complete the survey questionnaires State the following: purpose of survey reason for participation and the importance of the information timeframe to complete the survey Assurance of confidentiality and how results will be used instructions on how to accomplish the survey questionnaires contact details Body Double-spaced to facilitate reading Proper section heading End or thank you page

Preparation for data collection For questionnaire

Develop cover letter
Introduction Ask if respondent needs any other help from you and how you can be contacted