Meeting the Needs of Struggling Learners K-2

Jefferson Parish Turnaround Schools

Teaching ALL Children to Read
• For reading interventions to succeed, all children at risk for reading failure need to be identified and helped well before age 9 (Lyon, 1995) • Without interventions, 88% of children who have difficulty reading in first grade will have difficulty reading at the end of fourth grade (Juel, 1988) • Without intervention, 75% of children who are poor readers at the end of third grade will remain poor readers in high school (Shaywitz, et al., 1997) • With appropriate intervention, two-thirds of reading disabled children can become average/above average if they are identified early (Vellutino et al., 1996)

Accelerated Learning for below grade level students!
1. Ensure all students make expected yearly growth Provide strong core reading instruction for all Enough time spent to meet the needs of many students who do not typically receive powerful support at home Enough quality so that the increased instruction time is spent effectively { Time + Quality Instruction = GROWTH} Ensure students who are behind make expected growth PLUS catch-up growth Effective differentiated instruction by classroom teachers Effective school level systems and resources to provide additional intensive interventions in small enough groups for enough time and with enough skill

2.

Student Needs (Reading)
Proximal=YEARS WORTH OF GROWTH What supports needed to help students with current grade-level learning targets (Common Core Grade Level Learning Targets)

Distal=ACCELERATED GROWTH FOR BELOW-GRADE LEVEL STUDENTS What supports needed to address the learning gaps in basic skills so students have the skills needed to master grade-level learning targets (Foundational Reading Skills)

The best intervention is effective instruction.
T

Data-Driven Instruction
Step 1: What should students in each grade know and be able to do by the end of the year? (Establish Grade-Level Learning Targets) Step 2: How will we know if they know it?
DATA-DRIVEN INSTRUCTION DIBELS, Formative Assessments, Short-Cycle Assessments, ANet,

Quarterly Assessments Step 3: What will we do for students who do not know it? (Skills-Based Intervention Groups)

Where do you find grade-level learning targets?

• Common Core Standards • “I Can” Statements • NC Department of Public Instruction Unpacked CCS

Step 1: What should students know and be able to do?

Literacy Learning Targets for K-2 are

Common Core State Standards

Foundational Reading Standards

Literacy Standards

At the beginning of each quarter teachers need a whole day to:
 to write grade-level learning targets for 3rd quarter  to analyze quarterly data  determine skill-based intervention groups TSI  Assign students to TSI  set up TSI groups

Foundational Reading Skills
Phonemic Awareness-- ability to hear and manipulate individual sounds in oral language Phonics-- understanding and connecting letters Literacy Learning Targets for K-2 of written language with sounds of oral are language Fluency– reading text accurately and quickly Vocabulary--oral or reading language needed for Foundational Reading Standards Literacy Standards effective communication’ Text Comprehension-- purposeful and active strategies for understanding written language (National Reading Panel, 2000)

Foundational Reading CCS Skills (5 Components) Explicit Instruction in These Areas
Phonemic Awareness Phonics Vocabulary Fluency Comprehension

Kindergarten

Phonological Awareness and Print Concepts

Phonics Word Recognition
Phonics and Word Recognition Phonics And Word Recognition

Sight Words

First

Phonological Awareness and Print Concepts

Sight words & Phrases
____________

Timed Passages Timed Passages

Second Third

Timed Passages

DAZE PASSAGES

Fourth

Timed Passages

DAZE PASSAGES

Fifth

Timed Passages

DAZE PASSAGES

Phonemic Awareness
~Shared Reading

~Read Alouds
~Nursery Rhymes

Comprehension
~Guided Reading ~MAZE

Phonics
Strengthen The Core Literacy Curriculum
~Orton Gillingham ~Word Study: "Words Their Way"

~AR

Vocabulary
~Academic Vocab. ~Marzano's 6 Step Process ~PWIM

Fluency
~Sight Word ID ~Phrases ~Timed passages

Handout- Sight Words
Pre-Primer Primer First Second Third Fourth and Fifth- 220 Sight Words

How important is Phonemic Awareness?
Students in high school who had difficulty reading were identified as having no/very little instruction In phonemic awareness!

Phonological Awareness Teaching Progression
Difficult

Phoneme Deletion and Manipulation Blending and Segmenting Onset-Rime Blending and Segmentation Syllable Segmentation and Blending Sentence Segmentation Rhyming Word Comparison
Easy

Handout
How To Teach Phonemic Awareness “Gingerbread Baby” Read and discuss with a partner.

FLORIDA CENTER FOR READING RESEARCH Foundational Reading Skill Activities for Teachers
WEBSITE:

Student Center Activities
During 2004-2007, a team of teachers at FCRR collected ideas and created Student Center Activities for use in kindergarten through fifth grade classrooms. Accompanying these Student Center Activities is a Teacher Resource Guide and Professional Development DVD that offers important insights on differentiated instruction and how to use the student center materials. Frequently Asked Questions about Student Center Activities Grades K-1 Student Center Activities (2005) Grades K-1 Student Center Activities (Revised, 2008) Grades 2-3 Student Center Activities (2006) Grades 4-5 Student Center Activities (2007)

Kindergarten Literacy Instruction
1) Foundational Reading Skills  Phonemic Awareness  Phonics  Vocabulary  Fluency  Comprehension

2) Common Core Literacy Standards

Common Core Literacy Skills 2013
Kindergarten

Reading Literature

Informational Text

Writing

Speaking Listening

Language

First Grade

Reading Literature

Informational Text

Writing

Speaking Listening

Language

Second Grade
Transitional Curriculum Transitional Curriculum Transitional Curriculum Transitional Curriculum Transitional Curriculum

Third Grade

GLE
Calendar : Skills Taught and Tested 2013

GLE
Fourth Grade

Calendar: Skills Taught and Tested 2013

Fifth Grade

GLE
Calendar: Skills Taught and Tested 2013

WEBSITE:

Florida Center for Reading Research
http://www.fcrr.org

Use these charts to access Student Center Activities aligned to each of the Common Core State Standards (Grades K through 5). Click on the grade level below to access the activities organized by standard. A Center On Instruction document listing the standards addressed by each Student Center Activity can be accessed here .

Reading Foundational Skills: Kindergarten | Grade 1 | Grade 2 | Grades 3 through 5 Reading Literary Text: Grades K and 1 | Grades 2 and 3 | Grades 4 and 5 Reading for Information: Grades K and 1 | Grades 2 and 3 Language: Grades K and 1 | Grades 2 and 3 | Grades 4 and 5 Writing and Speaking & Listening: Grades K through 5

Handout

Curriculum Maps • University of Oregon • North Carolina Department of Public Instruction Website

Literacy Block Lesson Plan Format

Literacy Block
ACTIVITY
Read Aloud – CCSS Reading Literature/Informational Text Shared Reading/Guided Reading (read with) Guided Reading Groups Reader’s Workshop- Daily Five Phonemic Awareness Activity Phonics Sight Words Morning Message (write to) Predictable Chart (write with) Writer’s Workshop (write by) Intervention/Progress Monitoring

Minimum Minutes
30 20 60 (determined by # of groups)

20 20 10 5 20 35 20 (240 min)

Second Grade Daily Lesson Plan Date: Phonemic Awareness (20 minutes) Phonics (20 minutes) Sight Words (5 minutes) Teacher: Fluency (5 minutes) Vocabulary (5 minutes)

CCSS/GLE: Reading Literature / Informational Text (circle one) I CAN Statement:

CCSS/GLE: Writing / Speaking and Listening / Language (circle one) I CAN Statement:

Teacher Directed:

Teacher Directed:

Model:

Model:

Guided Practice:

Guided Practice:

Independent Practice:

Independent Practice

Formative Assessment:

Formative Assessment:

Intervention-Students:

Skill:

Progress Monitor-Students:

3-5 Lesson Plan

NOW WE HAVE ADDRESSED STEP 1: Learning Targets Curriculum Maps Lesson Plans Move to Step 2

Step 2: How do we know they know it?
Data-Driven Literacy Instruction
Assessments: DIBLES, FORMATIVE, RUNNING RECORDS, ETC.  Analyze Data  Make Feedback and Develop Strategies  Act  Assess Again  Repeat

Common Core State Standards Classroom Assessments

M T W Th F M T W Th F M T W Th F M T W Th F M T W Th F M T W Th F                               FA FA FA FA FA FA FA FA FA FA FA FA FA FA FA FA FA FA FA FA FA FA FA FA FA FA FA FA FA FA  SHORT CYCLE ASSESSMENT  SHORT CYCLE ASSESSMENT  BENCHMARK TESTING (ANET TESTING)  SHORT CYCLE ASSESSMENT

FA – FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT

Create Teacher-Made Assessments As Rigorous As The State Test
Standards (and objectives) are meaningless until you define how to assess them. Because of this, assessments are the starting point for instruction, not the end. In an open-ended question, the rubric defines the rigor. In a multiple choice question, the options define the rigor.

Data-Team Meeting
Review all individual student data (Formative Assessments, Short Cycle Assessment, Benchmark Assessment, ANet) Determine who needs additional assessments (Cool Tools, DRA, DAR, Phonics Screener)

Discuss DIBELS data on next page and make Feedback 1) Which students are ready to read? 2) Which students have made no/little progress? 3) Which students are Intensive, Strategic, Core in each sub skill? 4) What strategies would you use to move students to a higher level 5) Could there be problems with core instruction

DIBELS
• Is instruction taking place between each progress monitoring period? • Is the instruction explicit? • Are your red students being progress monitored every week? If so, the data should be used to plan instruction and this instruction should move red students to green! • If the answer to these questions is yes, and the student is still red, then the student/s should be given a diagnostic test such as DRA, DAR, Scholastic Reading Inventory, COOL TOOLS mini assessments, Phonics Screener

Handout
Diagnostic Assessments Administer to dig deeper to determine skill deficits and create a plan to remediate deficits!

Results of Phonics Screener Student

Date Word Recognition OR R E A A L D Accuracy Fluency

P A HW OA NR E N E S S L&S E O T U T N E D R S S WA O N R A D L Y S I S

Silent Reading Comp Spelling Word Meaning Print Awareness Rhyming Words Segmenting Words Initial Consonant Sound Final Consonant Sound Auditory Blending

Naming Capital Letters Naming Lowercase Matching Letters Matching Words Writing Words Consonant Sounds Consonant Blends Short Vowels Sounds Rule of Silent E Vowel Digraphs Diphthongs Vowels with R Two-Syllable Words Polysyllabic Words

Ready for Step 3 Step 3: Now that we know the skill deficits for each student, what are we going to do about it?

Regroup by ability for literacy instruction
Intensive Class Strategic Class Average Class Above Class Discuss the pros and cons of ability grouping

*Kaleidoscope

For Classroom Instruction, Intervention & Enrichment 2010-2011
Kindergarten 8:30-9:45 Imagine It/AR First Grade 8:30(MWF) Orton-Gillingham Second Grade 8:30-9:15 AR/Imagine It

ALL STUDENTS RECEIVE: Imagine It! Intensive Curriculum Guided Reading Spelling (Word Study) AR Strategic

9:45-10:20

Word Work 10:10-11:00 Imagine It 9:15-10:15 Word Work Guided Reading (LLI) 11:00-11:50 Word Work Guided Reading(LLI) 10:20-11:50 Orton-Gill. (WThF) Guided Reading (LLI) 11:00(MTTh) Orton-Gillingham 2:00-2:45 FCRR Activities 11:50-12:20 FCRR Activities 2:15-2:45 FCRR Activities 8:30-9:45 Imagine It/AR 10:10-11:00 Imagine It 8:30-9:15 AR/Imagine It

9:45-10:50 Word Study 11:00-11:50 Word Study 9:15-10:15 Word Study Guided Reading (LLI) Guided Reading (LLI) Guided Reading(LLI) 2:00-2:45 FCRR Activities Imagine It/AR Word Study Guided Reading 11:50-12:20 FCRR Activities 2:15-2:45 FCRR Activities

Fluency 8:30-9:45 STAR Test Average DIBELS Maze 9:45-10:20 10:10-10:30 AR 8:30-9:15 AR/Imagine It 10:30-11:00 Imagine It Novel Studies Book Studies (FVC) 9:15-10:15 Word Study 11:00-11:50 Word Study Guided Reading Guided Reading Supplements: FCRR & Nifty 50 Supplements: FCRR & Nifty 50 10:10-10:30 AR 8:30-9:15 AR/Imagine It 10:30-11:00 Imagine It Novel Studies Book/Novel Studies 9:15-10:15 Word Study 11:00-11:50 Word Study Guided Reading Guided Reading Supplements: FCRR & Nifty 50 Supplements: FCRR & Nifty 50

Supplements: FCRR & Nifty 50 Imagine It AR (independent) Book Studies (FVC) 9:45-10:20 Word Study Guided Reading Supplements: FCRR & Nifty 50 8:30-9:45

Above Average

“The idea that lower ability students will look up to brighter students as role models is highly questionable. Children typically model their behavior after the behavior of other children of similar ability who are coping well with school. Children of low ability do not model themselves on fast learners. It appears by “watching someone of similar ability succeed at a task raises the observer’s feelings of efficiency and motivates them to try the task.” Students gain more from watching someone of similar ability “cope” (that is gradually improve their performance after some effort), rather than watching someone who has attained “mastery” (that is, can demonstrate perfect performance from the outset).”

Ability Grouping

Advantages of Ability Grouping
 Teachers are able to focus more instruction at the level of all the students in the group  Time is not wasted as lower ability students wait for explanations to be given to higher ability students  Lower ability students require more remediation, repetition, and review  Provides increased teacher-led (face-to-face) instructional time and less “down time” for struggling students  Reduced seatwork increases students’ progress in developing reading skills  Slower student will not become complacent by comparing themselves with higher-level students

Data-Team Meeting
After Data Review and Administering Additional Assessments (if needed) We Now: Create skill groups Assign students to groups  Decide push-in or pull-out Decide how students be progress monitored

Intervention Groups Targeted Skills Intervention (TSI)
Targeted-Skills Groups

Skills- Based Small Flexible Lesson plans Progress Monitor

DIBELS- Kindergarten Groups
List the names of students in each category: First Sound Fluency RED YELLOW GREEN

Teacher:___________

RED

Letter Name Fluency YELLOW

GREEN

RED

Phoneme Segmentation YELLOW

GREEN

DIBELS Interventions Grade:_____________ Dates:____________to_______________ Time:________________
Students Skills

SKILL____________________________

Teacher/Room

DATA TEAM MEETINGS
• • • • Review data Group students based on skill deficits Decide who will teach the skill/s Decide when during the school day the TSI group will be taught • Decide how students will be assessed to determine mastery of skill • Regroup and follow the same procedure till all students have no skill deficits

should not be used “whole class” nor should students be placed in “programs” for interventions unless the “program” is designed to teach students’ specific skill deficit!!! Programs such a Lexia, IReady, etc. could be used for skills-based interventions? Yes or No Often these programs are not used for the purpose for which they were created, and are often only used as an means for checking off the “compliance” box. Often these programs waste valuable teaching time when students are placed in these programs when they do not need remediation. Often these programs are used as a “baby sitting” block, or to provide teachers with a free period. DISCUSS

When Programs are Used for Interventions Interventions should be skills-based and not program-based. Programs

Now we have addressed Step 3 by providing additional time and support for struggling students
NOW We need to monitor the progress of students in interventions to determine:  Are students appropriately place?  Is the intervention working?  Does the student need additional intervention time?  Does the student need to be tested for learning problems? (first check attendance, behavior referrals, medical issues)

Progress Monitoring- K-2
Foundational Reading Skills
Common Core Reading Standards

Foundational Reading Skills PROGRESS MONITOR

Kindergarten Benchmarks (Foundational Reading Skills)
Beginning Of Year Benchmark Quarter 1st

Name:_____________
Middle of Year Benchmark
2nd Quarter

3rd Quarter

4th Quarter May

September October December
NWF Goal 17 FSF Goal 10 Sight Word ID Goal 30

End of Year Benchmark GOAL June

Goal 28

Goal 30

Goal 92

PSF

Goal 20

Goal 40

LNF

FIRST Grade Benchmarks
Student____________________

Beginning Of Year Benchmark September

1st Quarter October

Middle of Year Benchmark December

2nd Quarter

3rd Quarter

4th Quarter May

End of Year Benchmark GOAL June

NWF
Goal: 27 Goal 43 Goal 58

ORF
Goal 23 (78%) Goal 47 (90%)

Sight Word ID LNF (Not tested) Retell
Goal 92

Goal 133

Goal 48

Goal 48 Goal 15

Individual Progress Monitoring Sample
Name: Nicole
Language Arts Fluency Maze AR Spelling Level
43 78
1/36 100% Within Word Pattern Early B (2nd) 11/12 9/12 10/12 10/12 10/12

Quarter 1

92

66 92 87 106
8/32

99 120
10/33

96 117 128
15/36 10/33 15/33 15/32

2nd Grade Spelling Words (AIMS)
Weekly Spelling Comprehension

100 100

100 100

92 100

88 86

100 70

96 80

100 88

Mid-term 75

NWF 86

ORF 90

DIBELS
2.1 2.2

STAR

How to Progress Monitor Common Core Literacy Skills Create an assessment for each skill to determine mastery (Assessments should be as rigorous as the State Test. The assessment should drive the instruction.)

Checklists, ANet, Formative Assessments, Short Cycle Assessments, Benchmark Assessments

Guided Reading Administer Running Record

State Test Items
1. What is the main idea? 2. This story is mostly about: A. Two boys fighting B. Little Red Riding Hood’s adventures with a wolf C. A wolf in the forest D. A girl playing in the woods

Common Core Test Questions
3. Which source of dialogue supports the book’s main theme? A. “Oh why I am so afraid? I usually like it at Grandmother’s.” B. “Come Little Red Riding Hood. Here is a piece of cake. Take it to your grandmother. She is sick and this will do her well.” C. “Oh grandmother, what big eyes you have.” “All the better to see you with!” 4. This story is mostly about: A. Little Red Riding Hood’s journey through the woods B. The pain of losing your grandmother C. Everything is not always what it seems D. Fear of wolves

It matters little what else they learn in elementary school if they do not learn to read at grade level.

Math Instruction Follow the same 3 Step Process
STEP 1: What do we want students to know and be able to do in math STEP 2: How will we know if they do/do not know it? STEP 3: What are we going to do for those students who do not know it?

Meeting Student Needs to Accelerate Learning
Proximal- Support needed to master grade-level math learning targets Distal- Support needed remediate skill deficits such as math facts, number sense, etc.

Step 1: What do we want students to know and be able to do?
Determine Grade-Level Learning Targets: Kindergarten: Common Core and LCC First Grade: Common Core and LCC

Second Grade: Common Core, ANet, LCC

Math Learning Targets Jefferson Parish 2013
Kindergarten- Follow activities in Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum in the order written starting with Unit 1 and continuing through Unit 7. This is available on Louisiana State Department website under Library. You should be using this for math instruction. Blackline masters are also available on the website. First Grade- Same as Kindergarten

Second Grade: ANet tests do not follow the order of the LCC, so ANet Plans have been created to help teachers know where they can find activities for each skill.

AND
Determine grade-level basic skill requirements needed to be successful at EACH grade level. Screen students and provide daily practice until skills are mastered!
2nd grade – addition and subtraction 3rd grade- multiplication 4th grade- division 5th- fractions, decimals

IXL Common Core Math Practices

Create Grade-Level Math Curriculum Maps
Based on Common Core and LCC (You can find these on the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction Website)

Step 2: How do we know they know it?
Identify assessments to be used at each grade level. Daily Formative Assessments ANet Screeners (AimsWeb, Scholastic Math Inventory)

Step 3: What are we going to do for those who do not know it?

Identify Struggling Students Provide Additional Time and Support
 Assess students to determine skill deficits, then group students for targeted-skills instruction in small fluid groups.  During grade-level data meetings teachers review data and place students in skills-based groups for 30minutes of additional intensive instruction OUTSIDE THE MATH BLOCK! • All staff (counselor, librarian, social worker, etc.) have a TSI math group so groups are small. Decide on push-in or pull-out model. • Students are progressed monitored and every three weeks assigned to a new skills-based intervention group!

Grade-Level Data Team Meetings
Review all data Make feedback Complete chart Determine time for grade-level interventions Determine who will teach at that time and where Assign staff to skill groups Write lesson plans for each skill group Progress Monitor Change groups every 3 weeks

Sterling Elementary Test Scores
3rd Grade 4th Grade 5th Grade ALL

’08

‘09

‘10

‘11

‘08

‘09

‘10

‘11

‘08 ‘09

‘10

‘11

‘08

‘09

‘10

‘11

Reading

26 65 66 75 41 62 68 72 36 49 63 74 34 59 66 74

Math

41 86 86 82 52 88 86 94 62 77 73 83 52 84 82 86

Additional Instructional Time
The amount of instructional time makes a huge difference in students’ progress! Also, the amount of instructional time at each individual’s level is critical- being able to provide students the time they need to improve! We make the time. We are determined to get all the instructional time we can. We test the first week of school. We collaborate and form groups. We begin ability group instruction in the first weeks. We teach to the end of the instructional day and year. We tweak more time for instruction by changing transitions. We are committed to getting the time our kids need. We keep looking at our schedule and making adjustments to increase teaching and learning time!

Mike found during instructional time:

Resources
www.fcrr.org www.interventioncentral.com www.idonline.org www.studentprogress.org www.k8accesscenter.org http://kc.vander bilt.edu/pals http://reading.uoregon.edu http://readingcomp.mathmatica-mpr.com

SHARE!

With your grade-level team answer the following questions?
1) 2) 3) 4) What are we going to do immediately (now) How are we going to do it What resources are we going to use How will we know if we are successful