Cognitive Development

*Biography of Jean Piaget * Cognitive Theory * Four periods in Cognitive Development * Evaluation of Cognitive Development .

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• Was born in Neuchatel. Switzerland on August 9. 1896 • he was the most influential theorist in the history of Developmental psychology and the study of human intelligence. Piaget launched a career in research that focused that on the mental development of children • First books in psychology: The Language and Thought of the Child (1924) and Judgment and Reasoning of the Child . • published his first article at the age of ten (A Description of the Albino Sparrow) • In 1921.

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sensori-motor skills directed the way in which the infant explored his or her environment and so how they gained more knowledge of the world and more sophisticated exploratory skills.• Genetic Epistemology – the study of the development of knowledge • SCHEMAS . .

2 complementary processes of schemas Assimilation -process by which we integrate new information w/ our existing knowledge of things Accommodation -altering our schemas so that we can include new information that does not fit into our existing ways of thinking .

Four Periods in Cognitive Development .

except with constant variation Object Permanence • • • . Secondary circular reactions (4-12 months) .24 months) .which involve an act that extends out to the environment Tertiary circular reactions (12.• • Period of sensory input and coordination of physical action Primary circular reactions (0-4 months) – just an action of his own which serves as a stimulus to which it responds with the same action.consist of the same "making interesting things last" cycle. and around and around we go.

the prime example. papers are dishes. a box is the table.A symbol is a thing that represents something else. A drawing. but another good example of symbol use is creative play. • The use of language is. wherein checkers are cookies. and so on. of course.PRE-OPERATIONAL STAGE (2-7) • Period of representational and pre-logical thought • Symbolization . • Clear understanding of past and future • Inability to mentally hold changes in two dimensions at the same time (centration) • Inability to consider another point of view (egocentrism) . a written word. or a spoken word comes to be understood as representing a real dog.

order • Conservation refers to the idea that a quantity remains the same despite changes in appearance.• Period of concrete logical thought in number. CONCRETE OPERATIONAL STAGE (7-11 years old) . (6 or 7) if you have two five inch sticks laid parallel to each other. then move one of them a little. class . she may believe that the moved stick is now longer than the other.

fat glass into the tall.he will know that you have to look at more than just the height of the milk in the glass: If you pour the mild from the short. he will tell you that there is the same amount of milk as before. despite the dramatic increase in mild-level! . skinny glass.

or even split it into ten little pieces. if you rolled it all back into a single ball. it would look quite the same as it did – a feature known as reversibility.By 7 or 8 the children may develop conservation of substance: If I take a ball of clay and roll it into a long thin rod. And he will know that. . the child knows that there is still the same amount of clay.

. the last of the conservation tests is mastered: conservation of area. the child who conserves will know that they take up just as much room as the same squares spread out in the corners. or. for that matter. and lay them on a six-by-six cloth together in the center. anywhere at all.By nine or ten. If you take four oneinch square pieces of felt.

and Edith is darker than Lily. and using them in the abstract. rather than the concrete • Ex: "If Edith has a lighter complexion than Susan. who is the darkest?" .involves using logical operations.• FORMAL OPERATIONAL STAGE (12 y/0 and up) • Period of unlimited logical thoughts • hypothetical thinking .

Evaluation of Piaget’s Theory .

Piaget underestimated the cognitive abilities of infants and children. Later studies prove that children can share conversation at an earlier state than Piaget’s proposal. .Piaget was correct about the order in which children master cognitive tasks However.

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