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•Place where it is used •Insulation material used •Mechanical protection •Place of utilization •System for which used •Type of conductor
• Gauge of the conductor • Pressurization of core
Sheath LSDC / PVC
Insulating material PVC / PAPER
2nd pair B Limb
O R E
1st pair A limb 1st pair B Limb
Annealed Copper Conductors
Filling material Dry air / Jelly
3rd pair A Limb
MECHANICAL PROTECTION 2 LAYERS OF GI STRIPS
• • • • • • • •
CONDUCTOR Pairing and Overlay Unit Formation Core wrappings Filling compound SCREEN SHEATH ARMOURING
Pairing and Overlay • Two insulated conductors shall be twisted together with uniform lay to form a pair. The length of the lay of any pair shall be different from that of adjacent pairs. . The lay of various pairs shall be so chosen as to satisfy the capacitance unbalance requirements and cross-task requirement.
SCREEN • An aluminum tape coated with polythene / copolymer on both sides shall be applied over the cable core with a minimum overlap of 6 mm for all sizes of cables .
CODE FOR WIRE IDENTIFICATION • Primary colors For 1st wire in a pair White Red Black Yellow .
• Blue Secondary colors For 2nd wire in a pair and binder tape of unit in 50pr/100pr unit • Orange • Green • Brown • Slate/Gray .
CODE FOR TAPE OR BINDER FOR UNIT IDENTIFICATION • • • • • • Unit 1 2 3 4 5 Colour Blue Orange Green Brown Slate/Gray .
Super Units • 200 & 400 pair cable su of 50 paiirs • Above 400 pairs su of 100 pairs .
Identification of super units • Position of the layer • First (Marker) • Itermediate • Last (Reference) Colour Red White Black • The numbering of the units will be clock wise .
CABLE LAYING •Receipt. handling and transport of cable •Surveying and selection of routes. cable diagram and other relevant records •Acceptance testing . trenching and laying •Jointing of cables and termination •Preparation of cable plan. storage.
• • • • • . If unavoidable measures like covering the cable with sand or drawing the cable through non-reactive duct should be adopted. electricity. (e) While surveying along a new road under construction or newly developed area. (b) Corrosive soil should be avoided. (c) Opening of expensive pavements and roads should be avoided. (d) The consideration should be given to the existence. future requirements and expansion of other services are take in to consideration. alternation and growth of other services. proper coordination should be maintained with other underground services like water.SURVEYING THE SELECTION OF ROUTE : • • • • The routes should be as short as practicable provided other requirements viz. sewage.. gas etc. Normally the cable should be laid along road and railway tracks.
• DEPENDING UPON THE ROUTE SELECTED. PERMISSION FOR DIGGING TRENCHES ARE TO BE TAKEN FROM THE RELEVANT AUTHORITIES .
• AT THE TIME OF TRENCHING OPERATION CO-ORDINATION WITH THE FOLLOWING AUTHORITIES ARE TO BE MAINTAINED:• (1)Electric supply. • (3) Gas pipeline. . • (2) Water supple. • (4) Sewage system.
• (e) The width of the trench should be between 30 cm and 40 cm minimum . • (b) The alignment should be straight at least 50 m at a stretch. • (c) It should be at least 0. • (d) The depth of the trench should be 1.2 m. from the soil surface.TRENCHING : • Trenching should be such that the top of the cable should not be less than 60 cms.3m away from the boundary walls.
Cross-trenches (trial pits are to be made if records for existing services .2m) should be maintained while cable laid parallel to electric cables. • (ii) Parallelism exceeding 0. the telephone cable should be laid solid in between for 90 cm on either side.6 m (relaxable upto 0.• (i) A separation of 0.8 km with 11KV and above should be referred to PTCC • (iii) At the crossing with electric cables.
bending diameter for armoured cables should be 15 times of the diameter of the cable .• The min.
• (b) The depth of the pipe from the surface of the road should be 1m and with a slight slope to pass away water.ROAD CROSSING • Cable should be laid through G. • (c) The number of pipes laid at a time should be sufficient to cater to the requirements for 20 years.I. pipes of suitable sizes. • (d) No jointing in the middle of the road .
• Permission from the Chief Engineer PWD is to be taken. due consideration to save the cable from the clutches of the roots are envisaged . GUIDELINES FOR LAYING OF CABLES ALONG NATIONAL HIGH WAYS • (c) The depth of the cable from the soil surface should not be less than 120 cm. • (b) The cables should be laid at distance not less than 457 cm from the Centerline of the road on formation. • (d) While laying along grove or avenue.
Along over bridges culverts & Fly– over • A culvert should be paid by a concrete channel of 12” depth below the bed of the culvert to correspond to the footpath alignment so that all the cables can be drawn through this opening .
• In order to lay the cable across small bridges with piers the piers should be extended beyond the width of the road so that pipe for cables may be securely clamped on the piers .
liaison should be kept with proper authorities to ensure that suitable arrangements are provided for laying cables.• In case of long bridges and fly over in cities. the present practice is to have a concrete channel 20 to 30 cm in depth 90 cm in width along the footpath with removable covers .
Excavation and reinstatement for any underground cable within 3 meters of the centre of any Railway track or any attachment to any Railway structure should be attended by the Railway staff at the cost of DOT.5 meters from the centre line of any Railway Track.g. • .ALONG RAILWAYS • Side of the track will be selected by DET in consultation with proper Railway authority e. either Divisional Operating superintendent or district Engineer. if the alignment falls within 3 to 5.
5 meters from the center of the last track.I.25 meters. This should extend at least 4. The length of the pipe should be sufficiently long so that work on telecom alignment can be carried out without any hindrance to the railway traffic. pipes of 75 mm dia.RAILWAY CROSSING • • Railway track should be crossed by G. Minimum depth of the GI pipe from below the rail level should be 1. • .
LAYING METHOD OF THE CABLE • Laying direct in the ground • laying solid • drawing through duct or duct laying • Digging the trench as per standard The digging may be done manually or be thrust boring or by other mechanical means. • Preparation of a bedding 5 cm high of soft soil (sieved earth) free from stones and corrosive elements. • Thorough checking of cable which is to be laid. • Paying out the cable in the trench .
LAYING METHOD OF THE CABLE • Laying direct in the ground • laying solid • drawing through duct or duct laying • As a protective measure a row of bricks (length wise or width wise depending upon the number of cables) or stone slabs are to be placed along with cable alignment. The modern practice is to lay a plastic tape with name of the Department printed on it at about 30 cms above and along with cable alignment .
The modern practice is to lay a plastic tape with name of the Department printed on it at about 30 cms above and along with cable alignment .LAYING METHOD OF THE CABLE • Laying direct in the ground • laying solid • drawing through duct or duct laying • As a protective measure a row of bricks (length wise or width wise depending upon the number of cables) or stone slabs are to be placed along with cable alignment.
DIRECT LAYING • Digging the trench as per standard The digging may be done manually or be thrust boring or by other mechanical means. • Preparation of a bedding 5 cm high of soft soil (sieved earth) free from stones and corrosive elements. • Thorough checking of cable which is to be laid. • Paying out the cable in the trench .
Precautions at the time of paying • There should not be any twist in the cable and there should not be heavy strain (specially in the case of un armoured cable) • Laying should be as far as practicable straight and along one side of the bed of the trench . . there must not be any criss-cross of the cables. • If more than one cable are to be laid at a time.
Warning Bricks or tapes • As a protective measure a row of bricks (length wise or width wise depending upon the number of cables) or stone slabs are to be placed along with cable alignment. The modern practice is to lay a plastic tape with name of the Department printed on it at about 30 cms above and along with cable alignment .
. cable plan for primary secondary and distribution side.Preparation of diagrams & records • All the diagrams relating to the cable alignment viz. line diagram for primary secondary and distribution side. records for Pillars and DPs etc. are to be prepared.
JOINTING ACTIVITY .
• Crossing Water Pipes .Some Common Wrong Practices and Their Remedies.
Crossing Culverts .
it is advisable to take the telecom cable with maximum horizontal clearance as far as practicable but not less than 0.Crossing 11KV Electric Cables • In respect of parallelism.6 meters • Absence of sheath continuity and armour continuity in Telecom cable and it’s improper earthing in the vicinity of power cable will result in AC induction and consequent impairment of the telecom circuits .
8 kms the cable route should be referred to Power Telecom Co-ordination Committee (PTCC) for recommendation of protection measures .• When the power parallelism is more than 0.
• .6 meters but not less than 0. When the specified clearances cannot be maintained. it is preferable to lay the telecom cable through cement concrete pipes for a length of 1 meter on either side of power cable at the crossing and seal the mouths at both ends. In case of crossings. care should be taken see that telecom cable crosses at right angles and at a vertical clearance preferably of 0.3 meters at any point. .
CABLE JOINTING • STRAIGHT JOINT • BRANCH JOINT • .
• ARRANGEMENTS TO BE MADE BEFORE THE START OF JOINTING .
CONDUCTOR JOINTING • CONVENTIONAL METHOD :-Twist Joint • USING CONNECTORS .
DIFFERENT JOINTING PROCEDURES IN TELECOM CABLES • LEAD SLEEVE JOINTS • AUXILIARY LEAD SLEEVE SEAL (ALSS) JOINT. • JOINTING OF JELLY FILLED CABLES USINGT THERMOSHRINKING TECHNIQUE .
CABLE USING XAGA TECHNIQUE • • • • • • • • Cable Marking Armour removing Conductor Jointing Filling of Compound Metal Canister Cable Preparation Thermo shrinking Armour Continuity Completed .F.PROCEDURE FOR JOINTING J.
5 100/6.5 600.5 .5.1200/6.5 200.300. 800/6. 400/6.5 1000 .Kit Selection • • • • • • TSF 1 TSF2 TSF3 TSF4 TSF5 TSF 6 10/6. 20/6.5 50/6.
to join a 100 pair cable to a 20 pair cable.g. the kit indicated against the smaller one is to be used.• When cables to be jointed are of same pair found on both sides. use the kit indicated in the kit selection chart • b)When one cable is larger in pair count than the other. e. . TST 1 is to be used.
• . . If any side contains only one cable. The sum of the diameters of all the cables on the branch side plus the thickness of branch clips should not exceed the maximum splice bundle diameter indicated in the kit selection chart. the diameter of the single cable should not fall below the minimum cable diameter indicated in the kit selection chart. • Condition 2.
Kit Selection • • • • • TSF 1 TSF2 TSF4 TSF5 TSF 6 .
20/6.Kit Selection • • • • • TSF 1 TSF2 TSF4 TSF5 TSF 6 • 10/6.5.5 .
28/6.5 .5.Kit Selection • • • • • TSF 1 TSF2 TSF4 TSF5 TSF 6 • 18/6.
5 .Kit Selection • • • • • TSF 1 TSF2 TSF4 TSF5 TSF 6 • 10/6. 20/6.5.
Kit Selection • • • • • TSF 1 TSF2 TSF4 TSF5 TSF 6 • 10/6. 20/6.5 .5.
20/6.5 .Kit Selection • • • • • TSF 1 TSF2 TSF4 TSF5 TSF 6 • 10/6.5.
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