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Engineering Optimization

Second Edition Authors: A. Rabindran, K. M. Ragsdell, and G. V. Reklaitis Chapter-1 (Introduction) Presenter: Pulak Chowdhury June 4, 2010

Life is about Optimization


Introduction to Optimization
Finding the best candidate from a set of alternatives without explicitly enumerate and evaluate all possible alternatives Root of Engineering - design new, better, more efficient, and less expensive systems

Requirements to Apply Optimization

Clearly delineate the boundary of the engineering system
Define quantitative criterion - objective Problem Select system variables Formulation Define a model for expressing relation of variables

Defining System Boundaries (1)

System - A restricted portion of the Universe System boundary separate the system from the universe

Defining System Boundaries (2)

Initial choice may be too restrictive
Expand system boundary - increase in size and complexity Example: A manufacturing operation has a paint shop in which finished parts are mounted on an assembly line and painted in different colors. Optimize batch size or color sequence.

Performance Criterion
Criteria on the basis of which the performance or design of the system can Shop foreman - design with minimum color be evaluated and part changes Examples: Total capital cost, annual cost, return on investment, cost-benefit ratio, Sales department - design with maximized production time, inventory of parts maximum production rate, etc. Financial Officer - design that minimizes Maximum/mimimum inventories Only one criterion

Independent Variables
Variables adequate to characterize possible candidate designs or operating conditions of the system Distinguishing Variables Including all variables To what detail?

System Model
Describes the relations among problem variables

Simplified mathematical representation of real system

Collection of equations Real system too expensive

Optimization Problem
Performance Measure - Objective

A set of independent variables

A model relating the variables

Defined boundary - Constraints


Engineering Design Process


Application of Optimization
Design of components or entire systems
Design of a welded beam, Design of an oxygen supply system

Planning and analysis of existing operations

Refinery production planning

Engineering analysis and data reduction

Nonlinear curve fitting

Control of dynamic systems


Structure of Optimization Problems


Minimize Subject to
Constrai nts

Problem with no constraints, that is, Constrained Optimization Problem Unconstrained Optimization Problem. Here, and

Classification of Optimization Problems

Unconstrained problems in which is a onecomponent vector are called single-variable problems
Constrai Objective nts Linear Linear nonlinear Linear Linear linear Variables Continuous Integer N/A Program Linear Program Integer Linear Program Quadratic Program Linearly Fractional Linear Constrained Program Nonlinear Program 14

Refinery Production Planning: Description

A refinery processes crude oils to produce a number of raw gasoline intermediates that must subsequently be blended to make two grades of motor fuel, regular and premium. Each raw gasoline has a known perform- ance rating, a maximum availability, and a fixed unit cost. The two motor fuels have a specified minimum performance rating and selling price, and their blending is achieved at a known unit cost. Contractual obligations im- pose minimum production requirements of both fuels. However, all excess fuel production or unused raw gasoline amounts can be sold in the open market at known prices. The optimal refinery production plan is to be deter- mined over the next specified planning period.

Refinery Production Planning: Schematic


Refinery Production Planning: Formulation

System: Raw gasoline intermediates, blending operation, fluid motor fuels

Performance Index: Net profit over planning perio

Motor fuel and intermediate sales - blending costs - cost intermediates


Refinery Production Planning: Variables

Flows depicted as directed arcs in the figure Each intermediate - one variable for each intermediate

for each product

= amount used for regula = amount used for premiu = amount sold directly

= amount allocated to contracts = amount sold in open market

Refinery Production Planning: Model

aterial balance equations


Refinery Production Planning: Objective

Performance Criterion - Net profit