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INTRODUCTION

All electronic equipments need memory

Intense commercialization started from the development

of optical storage Recording signals on a medium through the use of light Material used is polycarbonate plastic The road map of optical data storage is :CD 0.8 Gb DVD 4.7Gb Bluray DVD 50 Gb Holographic Disc 100 Gb 5 D DVD ?????? 1.6-10 Tb

CD
Write process -

of disc Causes formation of bumps and grooves Read process Scaning through laser Detects or reads a '1' if the laser is not reflected (no bump) And '0' if the laser is reflected (hits a bump) Probability of errors is high Wavelenght = 780 nm Checks bits = 2/3 of the actual data

Burning

DVD
It has several layers of plastic (polycarbonate) Layers consist of :

Microscopic bumps arranged as a Single, Continuous and Extremely long spiral track of data Once the layers are formed A thin reflective layer is sputtered onto the disc, covering the bumps. Aluminum is used behind the inner layers, And a semi-reflective gold layer used to focus through the outer and onto the inner layers Wavelength = 640nm Two types : Single side Double side

Bluray Disc
Utilize blue violet laser to record and to read

Hybrid format
Single layer 25 Gb Dual layer 50 Gb

Holographic Disc
Optical interference pattern within photosensitive

optical material Laser divided into two separate optical patterns dark and light Bits in parallel 3D storage

5D DVD
5D optical storage = 2,000 Conventional DVD Nano structured material incorporated onto a disc to

increase data capacity Aditional 2 dimentions by nano material Nano structure material => Gold Nanorods Multiple polarizations
Effective writing at different angles in the same place

Dimensions of Data Storage


Dimension (D)
A parameter by which a data written on or read from an

optical recording device

CDs & DVDs 2D optical recording

Dual layer DVDs & Holographic Disc 3D storage


For greater storage we introduce more dimensions for data storage

5D = 3 spatial dimention + 1 spectral dimention + 1 polarisation

Dimensions of data storage in five dimensional optical recording


Three Spatial Dimensions: Include the three spatial dimensions

x, y and z Colour dimension: nanoparticles react to light according to their shape Polarization dimension: Record data at two different polarization of light.

DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF STORAGE DEVICE


Basic Design Similar to DVD except in the gold nanorods Gold nanorods of three different sizes Coated thin glass films with the solution Use glue to assemble a stack of three of the films, one on top of other

a: layer gold nanorods in a polymer solution

and coated on a thin layer of glass b: The spacer between two recording layers c: The polycarbonate substrate for mechanical strength to the disc.

Gold Nanorods
Nano particles of gold in the shape of rods called

gold nanorods Different sizes are used in different recording layers Spectrum and polarization sensitive nanorods react to light depending on their shape Nanorods of different orientations respond to different polarizations of light

SPR of Gold Nanorods


Surface plasmon resonance interaction between an electromagnetic wave and the conduction electrons in a metal Incident light interacts nanostructure, photons will be released

with the same frequency in all directions known as scattering. some of the photons will be converted into phonons or vibrations of the lattice known absorption. Nanorods the SP resonance splits into two bands: parallel (longitudinal) and perpendicular (transverse)

Effect of Coloured Light


nanoparticles react to light according to their shape

absorbance of the light which is converted into lattice

vibrations is different for different light

Each layer has gold nanorods of a particular size that

resonate only when a particular wavelength of light Red, Green and Blue coloured lights are used
images of SPR modes of Nano-rod for various incident

laser light at (A) red (658 nm), (B)green (532 nm), (C) blue (488 nm)

Effect of Polarized Light


Polarization is a property of waves that describes the orientation of their

oscillations The polarization can be rotated 360 degrees By projecting light, electric field contained in the light waves aligned with the gold nanorods. That allowed the researchers to record different layers of information at different angles 0 & 90 polarization can be done overlaped without interfering with each other

The figure shows how we can record different

data in a same space using laser giving out light of same wavelength but different polarization.

If Gold nanorods are aligned in the direction of polarization of the light it get heated up and melt into spheres other nanorods remain in the original shape depending on its relative positioning with incoming light.

How it works ??..


Recording
Stage 1
multiple nanorod layers are stacked between layers of

transparent spacers to create a three-dimensional storage material, The 3D can be stored in x,y & z direction And the laser will not interfere with the layers that are not being read

Stage 2
using different colours and different polarizations of light Three different colors Red, Blue & Green 9 data instead of 3 which was in use Due to spectral dimention

only
Nanorods of different sizes respond to different colours of light

Polarization -direction in which light waves are oscillating Nanorods of different orientations respond to different

polarizations of light Nanorods hit with the wrong colour or polarization are unresponsive and therefore "invisible."

Reading
After writing the gold nanorods permanently changes its from rods to spheres
focusing light from the same laser on the bits with

much lower energy Nanorods shine when they absorb the dim light, Which must be of the same wavelength and polarization that could change their shape during recording

Advantage
Large storage capacity
Light and Compact Data security

Disadvantage
Slow writing speed since the

Can be manufactured on a

large scale Compatible with existing technology by reducing the thickness of the spacer Storage upto 10Tb of data

data density Non Rewriteability Costly Develop an optical decoder

Future development
Data recording could be done with a cheaper laser diode
high-speed recording and readout should be possible Test the technology on an actual DVD-sized disc Try different nanorod materials. For example, he is interested

in trying silver nanorods, as they are cheaper than gold

Conclusion
Introduced two more dimensions to the existing

technology colour dimension and polarization Increase the data density to attain a storage capacity of 1.5 TB in a volume of 12 cm proving to be a promising technology in future for bulk data storage

Referance
This paper appears in: IEEE Applied Physics Letters Date of Publication: May 2012 Author(s): Zhou, Lin National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, Peoples Republic of China Tang, Xia-Mei ; Huang, Cheng-Ping ; Zhang, Yi ; Zhu, Yong-Yuan Volume: 100 , Issue: 22 Page(s): 221901 - 221901-4 Product Type: Journals & Magazines
^ "'5D' storage could hold 2,000 times more than 1 DVD". CBC News. Canadian

Broadcasting Corporation. 2009-0522.http://www.cbc.ca/technology/story/2009/05/22/tech-5d-storage-dvdpolarization-colours-3d-swinburne-chon-nature.html. Retrieved 2009-05-29. Zijlstra, Peter; Chon, James; Gu, Min; Gu (2009). "Five-dimensional optical recording mediated by surface plasmons in gold nanorods". Nature 459 (7245): 410413. 2009-05-21. DOI:10.1038/nature08053. PMID 19458719.

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