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ENGINEERING OPTIMIZATION

Methods and Applications

A. Ravindran, K. M. Ragsdell, G. V. Reklaitis

Book Review

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Chapter 9: Direction Generation Methods Based on Linearization

Part 1: Ferhat Dikbiyik Part 2:Mohammad F. Habib

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The Linearization-based algorithms in Ch. 8

LP solution techniques to specify the sequence of intermediate solution points.

(t )
The linearized subproblem at this point is updated The exact location of next iterate is determined by LP

( t 1)

The linearized subproblem cannot be expected to give a very good estimate of either boundaries of the feasible solution region or the contours of the objective function

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Good Direction Search

Rather than relying on the admittedly inaccurate linearization to define the precise location of a point, it is more realistic to utilize the linear approximations only to determine a locally good direction for search.

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Outline

9.1 Method of Feasible Directions

9.2 Simplex Extensions for Linearly Constrained Problems 9.3 Generalized Reduced Gradient Method 9.4 Design Application

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9.1 Method of Feasible Directions

G. Zoutendijk
Mehtods of Feasible Directions, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1960

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Preliminaries

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Preliminaries

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9.1 Method of Feasible Directions

Suppose Define x as The first order Taylor approximation of f(x) is given by is a feasible point

In order for

, we have to have

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9.1 Method of Feasible Directions

This relationship dictates the angle between d and to be greater than 90 and less than 270 .

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9.1 Method of Feasible Directions

The first order Taylor approximation for constraints And with assumption (because its binding) In order for x to be a feasible, hence

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9.1 Method of Feasible Directions

This relationship dictates the angle between d and has to be between 0 and than 90 .

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9.1 Method of Feasible Directions

In order for x to solve the inequality constrained problem, the direction d has to be both a descent and feasible solution.

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9.1 Method of Feasible Directions

Zoutendijks basic idea is at each stage of iteration to determine a vector d that will be both a feasible direction and a descent direction. This is accomplished numerically by finding a normalized direction vector d and a scalar parameter > 0 such that

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9.1.1 Basic Algorithm

The active constraint set is defined as

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9.1.1 Basic Algorithm

Step 1. Solve the linear programming problem

and

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9.1.1 Basic Algorithm

Step 2. If the iteration terminates, since no further improvement is possible. Otherwise, determine

If no

exists, set

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9.1.1 Basic Algorithm

Step 3. Find such that

Set

and continue.

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Example 9.1

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Example 9.1

to find the point at which boundary of feasible region is intersected

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Example 9.1
Since

is positive for all 0 and is not violated as is increased. To determine the point at which will be intersected, we solve

to

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Example 9.1

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Example 9.2

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9.1.2 Active Constraint Sets and Jamming

The active constraint set used in the basic form of feasible direction algorithm, namely, cannot only slow down the process of iterations but also lead to convergence to points that are not Kuhn-Tucker points. This type of false convergence is known as jamming

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9.1.2.1 -Perturbation Method

1. At iteration point and with given , define and carry out step 1 of the basic algorithm. 2. Modify step 2 with the following: If , set and continue. However, if , set and proceed with line search of the basic method. If , then a KuhnTucker point has been found.
With this modification, it is efficient to set rather loosely initially so as to include the constraints in a larger neighborhood of the point . Then, as the iterations proceed, the size of the neighborhood will be reduced only when it is found to be necessary.

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9.1.2.2 Topkis-Veinott Variant

This approach simply dispense with the active constraint concept altogether and redefine the direction-finding subproblem as follows:

If the constraint loose at , then the selection of d is less affected by constraint j, because the positive constraint value will counterbalance the effect of the gradient term. This ensures that no sudden changes are introduced in the search direction.
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9.2 Simplex Extensions for Linearly Constrained Problems At a given point, the number of directions that are both descent and feasible directions is generally infinite. In the case of linear programs, the generation of search directions was simplified by changing one variable at a time; feasibility was ensured by checking sign restrictions, and descent was ensured by selecting a variable with negative relative-cost coefficient.

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9.2.1 Convex Simplex Method

M rows Given a feasible point two sets: the basic variables the nonbasic variables

N components the x variable is partitioned into , which are all positive an M vector

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9.2.1 Convex Simplex Method

The relative-cost coefficients The nonbasic variable to enter is selected by finding such that

The basic variable to leave the basis is selected using the minimum-ratio rule. That is, we find r such that

elements of matrix
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9.2.1 Convex Simplex Method

The new feasible solution

and all other variables zero. At this point, the variables and are relabeled. Since an exchange will have occurred, will be redefined. The matrix is recomputed and another cycle of iterations is begun.
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9.2.1 Convex Simplex Method

The application of same algorithm to linearized form of a non-linear objective function:

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Example 9.4

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Example 9.4

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Example 9.4

The relative-cost factor:

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Example 9.4
The nonbasic variable to enter will be , since

The basic variable to leave will be

, since

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Example 9.4
The new point is thus

A line search between and is now required to locate minimum of . Note that remains at 0, while changes as given by

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Example 9.4

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Convex Simplex Algorithm

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The nonbasic variable direction vector:

This definition ensures that when for all i, the Kuhn-Tucker conditions are satisfied.

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If all

, then set

If all

, then set
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