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Uploaded by Nikhil Verma

The Presentation takes you through the basic of Production Managemnt basic Teshniques and to use Regression on available Data though Linear programming using the Software "Excel Solver" by Frontline Solver.

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You are on page 1of 19

Using

Excel Solver

Presented by:

Nikhil Verma

vermanikh@gmail.com

Agenda

Linear Programming

Ø Introduction to LP

Ø Application Areas

Ø Methods to Solve

Ø Advantages

Ø Limitations

Software tools to solve LP

Excel Solver

Ø Model

Ø Optimization

Ø Solution

Introduction

Technique for optimization

Found during Second World War

Key people

v Leonid Kantorovich

v George B. Dantzig (1947)

v Leonid Khachiyan(1979)

v Narendra Karmarkar(1984)

Application Areas

Transportation Problem

Military Applications

Personnel Assignment Problem

Other Applications

Different Methods of Linear

Programming

The Graphical Method

The Analytical Method

**The Simplex Method
**

Advantages of Linear

Programming

Make the best possible use of available

productive resources (such as time, labor,

machines etc.)

Highlighting of bottle necks

Improving quality of decision making

**Avoiding wastage of resources
**

Limitations of Linear

Programming

Applicable only to problems where the

constraints and objective function are linear

Factors such as uncertainty, weather conditions

etc. are not taken into consideration.

There may not be an integer as the solution

Only one single objective is dealt with while in

real life situations, problems comes with multi-

objectives.

Parameters are assumed to be constants

Software Tools For Linear

Programming

**MATLAB - MathworksInc. USA - Vectors and
**

Matrices

**LINGO – LindoSystems Inc - linear, nonlinear
**

and integer programming

**EXCEL SOLVER - Frontline Systems, Inc - No
**

Scripting

How to Use Excel Solver

To use a solver, you must build a model that

specifies:

**The resources to be used, using decision
**

variables,

The limits on resource usage, called

constraints (Physical, policy, integer, non-negative,

bounds etc)

The measure to optimize, called the objective.

**Can’t Model be defined and executed in
**

SpreadSheet?

Example Problem

Our factory is building three products: TV sets, stereos and

speakers. Each product is assembled from parts in inventory,

and there are five types of parts: chassis, picture tubes, speaker

cones, power supplies and electronics units. Our goal is to

produce the mix of products that will maximize profits, given the

inventory of parts on hand.

Algebraic Form:

Maximize : 75 x1 + 50 x2 + 35 x3 (Profit)

Subject to:

1 x1 + 1 x2 + 0 x3 <= 400 (Chassis)

1 x1 + 0 x2 + 0 x3 <= 200 (Picture tubes)

2 x1 + 2 x2 + 1 x3 <= 800 (Speaker cones)

1 x1 + 1 x2 + 0 x3 <= 400 (Power supplies)

2 x1 + 1 x2 + 1 x3 <= 600 (Electronics)

In Spreadsheet….

Decision Variables

cell A1 for x1, cell A2 for x2 and cell A3 for x3

Objective Function

cell A4: =75*A1+50*A2+35*A3

Constraints

cell B1 =1*A1+1*A2+0*A3(Chasis)

cell B2 =A1 (Picture tubes)

cell B3 =2*A1+2*A2+A3 (Speaker cones)

cell B4 = A1+A2 (Power supplies)

Cell B5 =2*A1+A2+A3 (Electronics)

Optimization With Solver

Solver from the Add-Ins tab or the Tools menu

Start Using Premium Solver in the Welcome / Help

dialog

An empty Solver Parameters dialog should appear,

as shown

Optimization With Solver

1. Define the objective function

Ø click to select Objective in the outline list in the Solver

Parameters dialog (when first opened, it is selected by

default) and click the Addbutton. The Add Objective dialog

appear

**Ø we can type a different cell address (or an Excel defined
**

name), or we can click the cell se le ctor icon at the right

edge of the edit box, which allows us to point and click the

cell we want on the worksheet:

Optimization With Solver

2. select the decision variables

Ø To do this, click to select Variables in the Solver

Parameters dialog, and click the Add button:

**Ø We can click the cell selector icon to select the cell
**

range A1:A3, then click OK:

Optimization With Solver

3. Select the constraints

Ø non-negativity constraint : shortcut way to do

this . an Assume Non-Negative. check box in the Solver

Options dialog

Ø Click to select Constraints in the Solver Parameters

dialog, and click the Add button:

Optimization With Solver

Constraints Contd…

Ø we want to define the five general constraints in our

problem

Ø enter 400 in cell C1, 200 in C2, 800 in C3, 400 in C4, and

600 in C5

Ø Ensure that Constraints in the outline is selected, and

click the Addbutton. Click the cell selector icon next to

the Cell Reference, and select cells B1:B5 (the left hand

sides). The default relation of <= is OK. Click the cell

selector icon next to the Constraint, and select cells

C1:C5 . so the Add Constraint dialog looks like this:

Optimization With Solver

Selecting the Solver Engine

Ø In the Premium Solver products, selecting the Solver engine is

easier: There is a dropdown list of Solver engines available in the

Solver Parameters dialog. The default choice is the standard GRG

Solver (which, while slower, is fully capable of solving linear as

well as nonlinear problems).

Optimization With Solver

Solving the Problem

Ø click the Solve button

Ø After an instant or two, the solution values appear in the decision

variable cells

Ø Solver Results dialog appears, as shown below

**Ø You can select one or more reports to be produced from the
**

Reports list box (and check the Outline Reports box, if you would

like the reports outlined you can either keep the solution values

in the decision variable cells, or discard the solution values

(restoring the original cell values)

Thank You

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