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18)

Forces acting on a satellite in a stable orbit around the earth (from Fig. 3.4 of reference 1). Gravitational force is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the centers of gravity of the satellite and the planet the satellite is orbiting, in this case the earth. The gravitational force inward (FIN, the centripetal force) is directed toward the center of gravity of the earth. The kinetic energy of the satellite (FOUT, the centrifugal force) is directed diametrically opposite to the gravitational force. Kinetic energy is proportional to the square of the velocity of the satellite. When these inward and outward forces are balanced, the satellite moves around the earth in a “free fall” trajectory: the satellite’s orbit. For a description of the units, please see the text.

Satellite Communications, 2/E by Timothy Pratt, Charles Bostian, & Jeremy Allnutt Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons. Inc. All rights reserved.

Figure 2.2 (p. 20)

The initial coordinate system that could be used to describe the relationship between the earth and a satellite. A Cartesian coordinate system with the geographical axes of the earth as the principal axis is the simplest coordinate system to set up. The rotational axis of the earth is about the axis cz, where c is the center of the earth and cz passes through the geographic north pole. Axes cx, cy, and cz are mutually orthogonal axes, with cx and cy passing through the earth’s geographic equator. The vector r locates the moving satellite with respect to the center of the earth.

Satellite Communications, 2/E by Timothy Pratt, Charles Bostian, & Jeremy Allnutt Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons. Inc. All rights reserved.

Satellite Communications.Figure 2. & Jeremy Allnutt Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons. c) does not lie in the same direction as the z0 axis except for satellite orbits that are exactly in the plane of the geographical equator. .3 (p. 2/E by Timothy Pratt. All rights reserved. z0. The geographical zaxis of the earth (which passes through the true North Pole and the center of the earth. is perpendicular to the orbital plane. The third axis. Charles Bostian. x0 and y0 lie in the orbital plane. In this coordinate system. the orbital plane of the satellite is used as the reference plane. Inc. 21) The orbital plane coordinate system. The orthogonal axes.

2/E by Timothy Pratt. . and is normal to the plane of the satellite’s orbit. Satellite Communications. Φo. Charles Bostian.4 (p. All rights reserved. The plane of the orbit coincides with the plane of the paper.Figure 2. The axis z0 is straight out of the paper from the center of the earth. 21) Polar coordinate system in the plane of the satellite’s orbit. The satellite’s position is described in terms of the radius from the center of the earth r0 and the angle this radius makes with the x0 axis. Inc. & Jeremy Allnutt Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons.

. the satellite moves in the orbit between times t1 and t2 and sweeps out an area denoted by A12. the satellite moves in the orbit between times t3 and sweeps out an area denoted by A34. 2/E by Timothy Pratt. one is close to the earth and encloses the perigee while the other is far from the earth and encloses the apogee. The perigee is the point of closest approach to the earth while the apogee is the point in the orbit that is furthest from the earth. Satellite Communications. While close to apogee. then A12 = A34. The orbit is an ellipse with a relatively high eccentricity.Figure 2. A satellite is in orbit about the planet earth. E. While close to perigee. The figure shows two shaded portions of the elliptical plane in which the orbit moves. Charles Bostian. If t1 – t2 = t3 – t4. 22) Illustration of Kepler’s second law of planetary motion.5 (p. & Jeremy Allnutt Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons. Inc. it is far from being circular. that is. All rights reserved.

respectively. 24) The orbit as it appears in the orbital plane. of the ellipse is zero (i.. The dimensions a and b are the semimajor and semiminor axes of the orbital ellipse. the ellipse becomes a circle and a = b). Charles Bostian.e. The two centers do not coincide unless the eccentricity.6 (p. e. Satellite Communications. Inc. All rights reserved. & Jeremy Allnutt Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons. . 2/E by Timothy Pratt.Figure 2. The point O is the center of the earth and the point C is the center of the ellipse.

A vertical line through the satellite intersects the circumscribed circle at point A. The satellite location in the orbital plane coordinate system is specified by (x0. Satellite Communications. 26) The circumscribed circle and the eccentric anomaly E. Charles Bostian.Figure 2. The eccentric anomaly E is the angle from the x0 axis to the line joining C and A. y0). Point O is the center of the earth and point C is both the center of the orbital ellipse and the center of the circumscribed circle. . All rights reserved. 2/E by Timothy Pratt.7 (p. Inc. & Jeremy Allnutt Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons.

the instant when the subsolar point crosses the equator from south to north. 27) The geocentric equatorial system. 2/E by Timothy Pratt. an object may be located by its right ascension RA and its declination . The first point of Aries is the direction of a line from the center of the earth through the center of the sun at the vernal equinox (about March 21 in the Northern Hemisphere). Inc. . This geocentric system differs from that shown in Figure 2. All rights reserved. & Jeremy Allnutt Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons.1 only in that the xi axis points to the first point of Aries. Satellite Communications.Figure 2. In the above system.8 (p. Charles Bostian.

Figure 2. The satellite penetrates the equatorial plane (while moving in the positive z direction) at the ascending node. Satellite Communications. The right ascension of the ascending node is and the inclination i is the angle between the equatorial plane and the orbital plane. measured in the orbital plane. All rights reserved. Angle . 2/E by Timothy Pratt. locates the perigee with respect to the equatorial plane. .9 (p. & Jeremy Allnutt Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons. Inc. 28) Locating the orbit in the geocentric equatorial system. Charles Bostian.

All rights reserved. Inc. 2/E by Timothy Pratt. & Jeremy Allnutt Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons. The elevation angle is measured upward from the local horizontal at the earth station and the azimuth angle is measured from the true north in an eastward direction to the projection of the satellite path onto the local horizontal plane. Satellite Communications. . 32) The definition of elevation (EI) and azimuth (Az). Charles Bostian.Figure 2.10 (p.

11 (p. The line joining the satellite and the center of the earth. C.Figure 2. and south directions are those defined by the geography of the earth. & Jeremy Allnutt Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons. two off-nadir angles are given: the number of degrees north (or south) from nadir. All rights reserved. the subsatellite point. In general. Satellite Communications. 33) Zenith and nadir pointing directions. The pointing direction from the satellite to the subsatellite point is the nadir direction from the satellite.e. north. In general. Charles Bostian. west. Inc. at an elevation angle of 90°).. and the number of degrees east (or west) from nadir. 2/E by Timothy Pratt. If the beam from the satellite antenna is to be pointed at a location on the earth that is not at the subsatellite point. The satellite is directly overhead at this point and so an observer at the subsatellite point would see the satellite at zenith (i. two off-nadir angles are given: the number of degrees north (or south) from nadir. East. the pointing direction is defined by the angle away from nadir. . passes through the surface of the earth and point Sub.

Satellite Communications. 2/E by Timothy Pratt. The plane of the paper is the plane defined by the center of the earth. The central angle is .Figure 2. The elevation angle EI is measured upward from the local horizontal at the earth station. and the earth station. . All rights reserved. 33) The geometry of elevation angle calculation. & Jeremy Allnutt Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons. Inc. the satellite.12 (p. Charles Bostian.

All rights reserved.Figure 2. This requires that the orbital radius rs be greater than the ratio re/cos(). . Satellite Communications. where re is the radius of the earth and is the central angle. 2/E by Timothy Pratt. Inc. 36) The geometry of the visibility calculation.13 (p. The satellite is said to be visible from the earth station if the elevation angle EI is positive. & Jeremy Allnutt Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons. Charles Bostian.

25 days. Charles Bostian. All rights reserved. & Jeremy Allnutt Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons. the earth (and the geostationary satellite) rotates once about 24 h. See next slide for an enlarged image.14 (p. moon. the sun – which has a greater girth at the equator than at the poles – has its equator inclined about 7. 2/E by Timothy Pratt. The orbit of the moon is inclined about 5° to the earth’s equatorial plane. The precessional forces that cause the inclination of the geostationary satellite’s orbit to move away from the equatorial plane therefore vary with time. and leads to maximum out-of-geostationary-orbit-lane forces at the solstice periods (approximately June 21 and December 21). and the earth revolves around the sun every 365. 40) Relationship between the orbital planes of the sun. The plane of the earth’s orbit around the sun is the ecliptic.Figure 2. In addition. The moon revolves around the earth in 27.3 days.3° to the ecliptic. Satellite Communications. and earth. The geostationary orbit plane (the earth’s equatorial plane) is about 23° out of the ecliptic. Inc. All of these various angular differences and orbital periods lead to conditions where all of the out-ofplane gravitational forces are in one direction with respect to the equatorial (geostationary orbital) plane at a given time as well as to conditions where the various gravitational out-of-plane forces partially cancel each other out. .

. & Jeremy Allnutt Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons. 2/E by Timothy Pratt.Figure 2. Charles Bostian. All rights reserved.14 (p. 40) Satellite Communications. Inc.

All rights reserved. . Charles Bostian. 43) Schematic of a Proton launch (after reference 5). 2/E by Timothy Pratt. Inc.15 (p. Satellite Communications. & Jeremy Allnutt Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons.Figure 2.

Satellite Communications.16 (p. All rights reserved. VAFB. Inc. 2/E by Timothy Pratt. . CCAS. 45) Representative ELVs (after reference 5). Charles Bostian.Figure 2. & Jeremy Allnutt Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons. Cape Canaveral Air Station. Vandenburg Air Force Base.

1996 prices (after reference 5). The trend line for launchers is shown as $12.Figure 2. and European launchers.S. All rights reserved. Satellite Communications. Charles Bostian. . & Jeremy Allnutt Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons. Note that Long March. 2/E by Timothy Pratt.17 (p. Zenit. Inc. and Proton are well below this trend line.000 per pound. The launch vehicles have been normalized to a launch into geostationary transfer orbit at an inclination of 28°. performance. 46) Launch vehicle market price vs. mainly due to aggressive pricing objectives to break into a market long dominated by U.

All rights reserved. & Jeremy Allnutt Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons. . Charles Bostian.Figure 2.18 (p. 2/E by Timothy Pratt. Inc. 47) Schematic of the decision making process to select a rocket for a given satellite requirement (after reference 5). Satellite Communications.

Satellite Communications. after more careful orbit determination. 48) Illustration of the GTO/AKM approach to geostationary orbit (not to scale). The combined spacecraft and final rocket stage are placed into low earth orbit (LEO) around the earth. Charles Bostian. All rights reserved.19 (p. After careful orbit determination measurements. the final stage is ignited in LEO and the spacecraft inserted into a transfer orbit that lies between the LEO and the geostationary orbit altitude: the so-called geostationary transfer orbit or GTO. Inc. . 2/E by Timothy Pratt. & Jeremy Allnutt Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons. Again. The satellite is then in GEO. the apogee kick motor (AKM) is fired on the satellite and the orbit is both circularized at geostationary altitude and the inclination reduced to close to zero.Figure 2.

Inc. & Jeremy Allnutt Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons. At the same time as the orbit is being raised. 2/E by Timothy Pratt. As before (see Figure 2. in this case.Figure 2. etc.19). the thruster firings will be designed gradually to reduce the inclination to close to zero. it deploys many of the elements that it will later use in GEO (solar panels. .20 (p. once the satellite is ejected from the final rocket stage. Satellite Communications. rather than being spin-stabilized. The combined spacecraft and final rocket stage are placed into low earth orbit (LEO) around the earth. The higher power thrusters are then used around the apogee to raise the perigee of the orbit until the orbit is circular at the GEO altitude. All rights reserved.) and stabilizes its attitude using thrusters and momentum wheels. the spacecraft is injected into GTO but. Charles Bostian. 49) Illustration of slow orbit raising to geostationary orbit (not to scale).

the geostationary plane is in the shadow of the earth on the far side of the earth from the sun. As the satellite moves around the geostationary orbit. depending on how close the plane of the geostationary orbit is with respect to the center of the shadow thrown by the earth. 2/E by Timothy Pratt.22). 1977.Figure 2. . All rights reserved. Prentice Hall.) During the equinox periods around the March 21 and September 3. The length of the eclipse period will vary from a few minutes to over an hour (see Figure 2. Satellite Communications. it will pass through the shadow and undergo an eclipse period. 52) Eclipse geometry. (Source: Spilker. Inc. & Jeremy Allnutt Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons. Charles Bostian.21 (p. Digital Communications by Satellite.

22 (p. . Charles Bostian. 52) Dates and duration of eclipses.) Satellite Communications. All rights reserved. 2/E by Timothy Pratt. Communications Satellite Systems. Prentice Hall 1978. & Jeremy Allnutt Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons. Inc.Figure 2. (Source: Martin.

The effective temperature of the sun at these frequencies is on the order of 10. encloses the sun. Charles Bostian. & Jeremy Allnutt Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons. not only does the earth’s shadow cause eclipse periods to occur for geostationary satellites. 53) Schematic of sun outage conditions. during the sunlit portion of the orbit.Figure 2. there will be periods when the sun appears to be directly behind the satellite. All rights reserved. or completely. 2/E by Timothy Pratt.000 K. the sun appears as a hot noise source. At the frequencies used by communications satellites (4 to 50 GHz).23 (p. The precise temperature observed by the earth station antenna will depend on whether the beamwidth partially. During the equinox periods. Inc. . Satellite Communications.

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