You are on page 1of 35

# Chapter 3

Control Algorithms
Content
Introduction of controller Mode
Classification of controller mode
Characteristic of different discontinuous
controller mode
two position control action
multi position mode
Floating control mode
proportional, integral & derivative controller
mode
PI controller mode,PD controller mode,PID
controller mode

INTRODUCTION
The controller is some form of computer
either analog or digital, pneumatic or
electronic that, using input measurements,
solve certain equations to calculate the proper
output.
The equations necessary to obtain control
exist in only a few forms, independent of both
the process itself and whether the controller
function is provided by an analog or digital
computer.
These equations describes the modes or
action of controller operation.
Conti..
The nature and the process itself and the
particular variable controlled determine which
mode or modes of control are to be used and
the value of certain constants in the mode
equations.
The controller inputs the result of a
measurement of the controlled variable and
determines the appropriate output to the final
control element.
Open vs Closed Loop
Closed loop
Automatic control

Open Loop
Manual control
Person takes the place of the controller

Control Action
automatic controller
+

Amplifier Actuator plant
Sensor
actuating error signal e(t)
output c(t)
feed back signal b(t)
controller output u(t)
reference
Input r(t)
What is control action?

The manner in which the automatic controller produces the
control signal is called the control action.
Two position or On-Off controllers
Proportional controllers
Integral controllers
Derivative controllers
Proportional-plus- Integral controllers (PI)
Proportional-plus-Derivative controllers (PD)
Proportional-plus-Integral-plus-Derivative
controllers (PID)
Classification of Controllers
Electric / Electronic controller /Computer control
Mechanical / Hydraulic / Pneumatic controller
Based on control actions
Based on power employed
Electric/Electronic Controllers
Characteristics
Can generate large forces and torques.
Higher speed response with start, stop and reversals.
Can operate under continuous, intermittent, reversing
and stalled conditions without damage.
Controllers Based on Control Actions
A two position controller has two fixed positions
usually on or off.

A proportional control system is a feedback control
system in which the output forcing function is
directly proportional to error.

A integral control system is a feedback control
system in which the output forcing function is
directly proportional to the first time integral of
error.
PI control system is a feedback control system in which
the output forcing function is a linear combination of the
error and its first time integral.

PD system is a feedback control system in which the
output forcing function is a linear combination of the
error and its first time derivative.

PID control system is a feedback control system in which
the output forcing function is a linear combination of the
error, its first time derivative and its first time integral.
Conti
Two Position Control Action
+

actuating error
signal e(t)
feed back signal b(t)
controller
output u(t)
reference
Input r(t)

<
>
=
0 e(t) U
0 e(t) U
u(t)
2
1
U
2
= U
1
or 0
Characteristics:
two states on / off
widely used
simple
inexpensive
u(t)
t
on
off
u
1
u
2
0

Two Position Control Action With Differential Gap
u(t)
t
differential gap
0
+

actuating error
signal e(t)
feed back signal b(t)
controller
output u(t)
reference
Input r(t)
Electro magnetic valve is two position controller
with differential gap
Self operated controller
Two Position Control Action With Differential
Gap
Proportional Control Action
The proportional controller is essentially
an amplifier with an adjustable gain.
e(t) K u(t)
p
=
p
K
E(s)
U(s)
=
+

K
p
actuating error
signal e(t)
feed back signal b(t)
controller
output u(t)
reference
Input r(t)
t
u(t)
K
p
e(t)
e(t)
0
In proportional controller there is
an steady state error or offset
K
p
is proportional gain
Simple Proportional System

Open Tank Control
Reverse and Direct Action
Response of proportional control Action
Proportional Response with Narrow PB
Response Vs.PB
Integral/Reset Control Action
+

actuating error
signal e(t)
feed back signal b(t)
controller
output u(t)
reference
Input r(t)
s
K
i
for zero e(t),
u(t) remains stationary
u(t)
t 0
}
e(t)dt
e(t)=1
e(t) K
dt
du(t)
i
=
s
K
E(s)
U(s)
i
=
K
i
Derivative Control Action
Properties:

It responds to the rate of change of the actuating error.
It anticipates the actuating error, initiates an early
corrective action.
It tends to increase the stability of the system.
It adds damping to the system, permitting the use of large
gain, which results in improvement of steady state error.
It does not affect the steady state error directly.
It is always used in combination with proportional
controller.
Proportional-plus-Integral Control Action
+

actuating error
signal e(t)
feed back signal b(t)
controller
output u(t)
reference
Input r(t)
s T
s) T (1 K
i
i p
+
}
+ =
t
0
i
p
p
e(t)dt
T
K
e(t) K u(t)
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
s T
1
1 K
E(s)
U(s)
i
p
u(t)
t 0
K
p
2K
p
T
i
proportional
input e(t)
is unit step
K
p
is proportional constant, T
i
is integral time
K
p
is proportional gain, T
i
is integral time
K
p
and T
i
T
i
p
Inverse of integral time is reset rate (duplication / minute)
+

actuating error
signal e(t)
feed back signal b(t)
controller
output u(t)
reference
Input r(t)
s T
s) T (1 K
i
i p
+
Proportional-plus-Integral Control Action
Response of Proportional-plus-Integral
Control Action
Improves damping and reduces maximum overshoot
Increases rise time
Decreases band width
Proportional-plus-Integral Control Action
Proportional-plus-Derivative/Rate
Action Control
+

actuating error
signal e(t)
feed back signal b(t)
controller
output u(t)
reference
Input r(t)
s) T (1 K
D p
+
u(t)
t 0
T
D
dt
de(t)
T K e(t) K u(t)
D p p
+ =
s) T (1 K
E(s)
U(s)
D p
+ =
0 t
e(t)
K
p
is proportional gain, T
D
is
derivative time
+

actuating error
signal e(t)
feed back signal b(t)
controller
output u(t)
reference
Input r(t)
s) T (1 K
D p
+
K
p
is proportional gain, T
D
is derivative time
K
p
and T
D
T
D
is time interval by which rate action advances.
Derivative controller is anticipatory in nature.
Proportional-plus-Derivative/Rate
Action Control
Response of Proportional-plus-Derivative Control Action
The open Loop Response of Proportional Plus
Derivative (PD) Action to Rapidly Changing
Error Signals
Improves damping and reduces overshoot.
Reduces rise time and settling time.
Attenuates noise at higher frequencies.
Proportional-plus-Derivative/Rate
Action Control
Proportional-plus-Integral-plus-Derivative-
Action
+

actuating error
signal e(t)
feed back signal b(t)
controller
output u(t)
reference
Input r(t)
s T
) s T T s T (1 K
D
2
D i i p
+ +
}
+ + =
t
0
D p
i
p
p
dt
de(t)
T K e(t)dt
T
K
e(t) K u(t)
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + = s T
s T
1
1 K
E(s)
U(s)
D
i
p
t
0
e(t)
u(t)
t
0
+

actuating error
signal e(t)
feed back signal b(t)
controller
output u(t)
reference
Input r(t)
s T
) s T T s T (1 K
D
2
D i i p
+ +
K
p
is proportional constant,
T
i
is integral time constant,
T
D
is derivative time constant
Proportional-plus-Integral-plus-Derivative-
Action