Lubricants & Greases

By A.Antony

Peter

Lubricant
       Functions Environmental Issues in Changing Oils Oil Additive Usage Right Viscosity New 5W20 Weight Oils Switch to Synthetics Oil Life Monitoring

Lubricants
        Synthetic Oils & Leaky Seals Extended Drains API Ratings Too Dirty Overfilling Effects Engine Flush Products ALL of Tranny Fluid gets changed Rotary Engines – Synthetic Oils

Lubricants
Engines • High Eng Temp • Less Sump Capacity

•More Powerful •More Efficient

Functions
 Lubricate
 Less Loss of Power

 Protect through Thin Film
 From Metal to Metal Contact  From Corrosion by Acid Formation
i. Oxidation & Condensation of Oil ii. Condensation of By Products

Functions
 Dispersant
 Washing away the Particles

 Clean
 To be Filter out Particles < 20 µ

 Cool
 Combustion - Passing away Hot Components viz Cr Shaft, Cam Shaft, TGs, Piston, M&BE Brg, etc.  Heat from Friction

Main Components
 Base Fluid
 Bulk of the Oil

 Additive Package
 To Enhance Positive Quality of Base Stock

Base Fluid
I. II. Petroleum
 Refined from Crude Oil

Synthetic
 Chemically Engineered in Labs  No Contaminants (Removed via Purification)

Petroleum Base
Crude refined for …. Viscosity Index
 The viscosity of an oil refers to its relative resistance to flow at differing temperatures  Ability to maintain Viscosity over Wide Temp Range. High the number Lesser the Change

Low Temp Performance
 Better Flow in Low Temp  Eng Protection at Start-Up in Cold Weather Condition

Petroleum Base
Crude refined for ….

 High Temp Performance
 More Effective at Extreme Hot
 Burn Resistant  Metal to Metal Contact – Viscosity Loss

 Oxidation Resistant
 Oxygen when Reacts with Oil forms Sludge & Other Eng Deposits  Results in Viscosity Increase – Low Oil Flow

Petroleum Base
Crude refining Process ….

 Desalting
 Removing the Salt Contamination

 Partial Vapourisation
 To remove Differing Boiling Point Components  To contain High Boiling Point Components except Asphaltic Materials

Petroleum Base
Crude refining Process ….

 Vacuum Distillation
 Separated for Differing Molecular Weights  Differing Viscosity Index

 Solvent Extraction
 To extract Aromatic Compounds (80% Extcd)  To Improve
 Thermal & Oxidative Stability  Viscosity Index

Petroleum Base
Crude refining Process ….

 Dewaxing
 Low temp Fluidity

 Hydrofinishing / Clay Treatment
 To remove Unstable Components viz Sulphur & Nitrogen  To Improve Oxidation Stability, Thermal Stability & Colour

Petroleum Base
Crude refining Process ….

 Hydroheating
 99% removal of Aromatic Components  Used in Place of Solvent Extraction and/or in Addition to Solvent Extraction

Petroleum Base
Quality
 Depends on Crude Oil Selection  Tremendous Care to be Exercised in Selecting Crude Oil Stock

Pseudo – Synthetic Base Stocks
Petroleum Base Stocks put through Super Extreme refining process called Hydrocracking Hydrocracking involves in Breaking & Fragmenting different Molecular Structures into far more stable one Better Oxidative & Thermal Stability Better Viscosity Index

Synthetic Base Stocks
Polyalphaolefins (PAO's) Diesters Polyolesters

Polyalphaolefins (PAO's)
These are the most common synthetic basestocks used in the US and in Europe. PAO's are also called synthesized hydrocarbons and contain absolutely no wax, metals, sulfur or phosphorous. Viscosity indexes for nearly all PAO's are around 150, and they have extremely low pour points (normally below -40 degrees F)

Polyalphaolefins (PAO's)
Disadvantages  Although PAO's are also very thermally stable, they are not as oxidatively stable as other synthetics.  when properly additized, oxidative stability can be achieved.  PAO's also tend to shrink seals Quality  Their final lubricating characteristics depend on the chemical reactions used to create them.

Diesters
 Less commonly used  If chosen carefully, Diesters generally provide better pour points than PAO's (about -60 to -80 degrees F)  A little more oxidatively stable when properly additized.  Diesters also have very good solvency characteristics even without the aid of detergency additives.

Diesters
Advantage  Like PAO's, Diesters can affect seals. However, they generally cause seal swell  Chemically resistant seals are recommended if using synthetic base oils manufactured with diesters.

Polyolesters
 Similar to Diesters, but slightly more complex Advantages over Diesters  Greater range of pour points as low as -90 degrees F  Viscosity indexes as high as 160 (without VI additive improvers)  The same seal swell characteristics exist with polyolesters as with diesters.

Chemical Additives
Each chemical within an oils additive package plays a different role in boosting the beneficial properties of it's host lubricant (basestock)

Chemical Additives
IMPROVE VISCOSITY CHARACTERISTICS (VC) Pour Point Depressants Viscosity Index Improvers

Chemical Additives – (VC)
Pour Point Depressants  To improve the flow characteristics of a lubricant basestock at low temperatures  They are normally only used in conjunction with petroleum basestock lubricants  The only exception might be hydrocracked petroleum basestocks

Chemical Additives – (VC)
Viscosity Index Improvers  So, as the basestock loses viscosity with increases in temperature, VI improvers  negate that viscosity drop by increasing their size.

Chemical Additives
MAINTAIN LUBRICANT STABILITY (LS)  They are susceptible to breakdown due to contamination and/or oxidation which decreases the useful life of an oil.  Additives are used to inhibit the susceptibility

Chemical Additives
MAINTAIN LUBRICANT STABILITY Detergents and Dispersants Anti-Foaming Agents Oxidation Inhibitors Corrosion Inhibitors Anti-Wear Agents

Chemical Additives – (LS)
Detergents and Dispersants Attracted to sludge and varnish contaminants Contain and suspend those particles so that they do not come together to form deposits.

Chemical Additives – (LS)
Detergents and Dispersants Detergents are all metallic in nature. Ashless dispersants are more effective at controlling sludge and varnish contamination Ashless dispersants are actually long chain polymers that serve a dual purpose as VI improvers in multi-grade oils.

Chemical Additives – (LS)
Anti-Foaming Agents  Detergents and dispersants can have a negative effect of oil foaming.  These air bubbles will reduce the lubricating qualities of the motor oil.  Anti-foaming agents such as small amounts of silicone or other compounds are used to control

Chemical Additives – (LS)
Oxidation Inhibitors  They are also called antioxidants  Oxidation inhibitors are additives that manage to reduce the tendency of an oil to oxidize (chemically react with oxygen)

Chemical Additives – (LS)
Corrosion Inhibitors  Antioxidants prevent the acids caused by oxidation, they do nothing to neutralize the acids caused by combustion by-products

Chemical Additives – (LS)
Corrosion Inhibitors  To protect non-ferrous metals by coating them so they cannot come in contact with acids within the oil.  To actually neutralize the acids within the oil. The acid neutralizing capability of an oil is expressed by its Total Base Number (TBN)

Chemical Additives – (LS)
Corrosion Inhibitors For Diesel engines these oils generally have TBN between 9 and 14. Gasoline oil TBN levels are normally lower at 5 to 8. Generally, higher quality oils and/or those that are designed for longer drain intervals will have higher TBN numbers

Chemical Additives – (LS)
Anti-Wear Agents  Anti-wear additives are used to minimize the engine component wear  Engines may have very little lubricant protection at start-up. This is especially true in cold conditions.  Additives such as zinc and phosphorus will actually coat metal surfaces forming a protective barrier against wear.  They do not eliminate the metal to metal contact. They simply minimize the wear that occurs during those instances.  zinc and phosphorus come as a package called ZDDP (zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate). They work together.

Chemical Additives – (LS)
Anti-Wear Agents  Anti-wear additives are used to minimize the engine component wear  Engines may have very little lubricant protection at start-up. This is especially true in cold conditions.  Additives such as zinc and phosphorus will actually coat metal surfaces forming a protective barrier against wear.  They do not eliminate the metal to metal contact. They simply minimize the wear that occurs during those instances.  zinc and phosphorus come as a package called ZDDP (zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate). They work together.

Mono-Grade Oil
 Viscosity as per SAE J300 standards
 an oil is heated to 100 degrees C (212 degrees F)  It's kinematic viscosity at this temperature is measured.  If it falls within a certain range it is classified as a particular viscosity  For instance, an SAE 30 oil must have a kinematic viscosity at 100 degrees C of between 9.3 and 12.5 cSt (centistokes).

Multi-Grade Oil
5W30  In the last number - the "30" in 5w30 indicates
 the kinematic viscosity of a 5w30 multiviscosity oil falls within the same range at 100 degrees C as a monograde SAE 30 weight oil does.

Multi-Grade Oil
5W40 Vs 10W40  Think of the "W" as a "winter" classification instead of a "weight" classification.  5w30 motor oil will be thinner than a 10w30 motor oil  when subjected to the same low temperature conditions because the "W" number is lower  This is an indication of better cold weather performance.

Multi-Grade Oil
0W Vs 5W (Lower cP better) 0W grade oil
 Maximum CCS centipoise (cP) value of 3250 @ -30 degrees C  Maximum MRV cP of 60,000 @ -40 degrees C.

A 5W grade oil
 Maximum CCS cP value of 3500 @ -25 degree C  Maximum MRV cP of 60,000 @ -30 degrees C

Multi-Grade Oil - Problems
 Unfortunately, long chain polymers (VI improvers) are more unstable  In turn, over a short period of time, a 5w30 petroleum oil may actually "shear back" to a 5w20 (or lower) as these polymers break down  This can lead to a decrease in engine protection

Multi-Grade Oil - Problems
 For this reason the SAE J300 describes another requirement that a multi-viscosity oil must meet in order to be given its multiviscosity classification  It must maintain a certain cP level on the High Temperature/High Shear (HT/HS) test (ASTM D 4683)  The higher the HT/HS number the better because this indicates less shearing

Multi-Grade Oil - Solution
Not all multi-viscosity oils shear back so easily The result is that very little shearing occurs within synthetic oils will generally have significantly higher HT/HS numbers Oil remains "in grade" for a much longer period of time for better engine protection and longer oil life.

Multi-Grade Oil - Spec
 16 useful specifications on the technical data sheet for any given oil. These include:
I. II. III. IV. Kinematic Viscosity @ 100 degrees C (ASTM D-445) Kinematic Viscosity @ 40 degrees C (ASTM D-445) Viscosity Index (VI) (ASTM D-2270) Cold Crank Simulator Apparent Viscosity (ASTM D-2602 or 5293)

Multi-Grade Oil - Spec
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. Mini-Rotary Viscometer (ASTM D-4684) Borderline Pumping Temperature (ASTM D-3829) Pour Point (ASTM D-97) Flash Point (ASTM D-92) Fire Point (ASTM D-92) NOACK Volatility (DIN 51581) High Temperature/High Sheer Viscosity (ASTM D4683) VIII. Four Ball Wear Test IX. Total Base Number (TBN) (ASTM D-2896)

Multi-Grade Oil - Spec
I. II. III. Phosphorus % or PPM Zinc % or PPM Sulfated Ash Content

Multi-Grade Oil - CCS
 The Cold Crank Simulator measures the "startability" of an oil by measuring the speed at which a shaft can turn within an oil that is cooled to a certain temperature  When reading CCS numbers be careful not to assume that the score is a measurement of the speed of rotation of the shaft  The lower score on the CCS test is the better

Multi-Grade Oil - CCS
 This is important when comparing two oils a judgement call as to which is the better oil for cold temperature operation
 An oil that scores a 3250 at -25 degrees C is probably better than  An oil that scores a 3200 at -20 degrees C  Even though the CCS score is lower for the second oil, it was tested at a temperature 5 degrees warmer than the first oil. That can make a huge difference

Multi-Grade Oil - MRV
 Mini-Rotary Viscometer (MRV) tests the pumpability of the oil. In other words, how easily will the oil flow through the engine instead of how easily will engine components turn through the oil.  This test is a companion to the CCS test  The combination of the results of both of these tests determine whether an oil is classified with a certain "W" rating  A lower cP value on the MRV is better.

Multi-Grade Oil - PP
 The Pour Point of an oil is
 A temperature 5 degrees F above the temperature at which an oil shows no movement when its container is inclined for 5 seconds  the lowest temperature at which an oil will actually flow  This does not mean that it would easily pump through an engine at this temperature - just that the oil still acts somewhat like a liquid at this temperature.

Multi-Grade Oil - BPT
 Borderline Pumping Temperature of an oil is the lowest temperature at which it will adequately flow through your engine to provide the necessary lubrication and protection.
 For instance, those living in northern climates might want an oil with a borderline pumping temperature of -20 degrees F or lower.

Multi-Grade Oil - FP
 Flash Point of an oil is the temperature at which the oil vaporizes enough for the gas to become momentarily flammable in the presence of a small flame
 In today's modern engines a flash point under 400 degrees F is unacceptable  Flash point of at least 420 degrees F if you want the good stuff  A good quality synthetic should be significantly higher than this.

Multi-Grade Oil - FP
Fire Point is
 Similar to flash point  This test determines the point at which an oil gives off enough vapor to provide a continuous flame as opposed to a momentary one  Expect a fire point of at least
 420 to 450 degrees for petroleum oils  Near or over 500 for a synthetic oil.

Multi-Grade Oil - TBN
 Total Base Number  An oil is a relative indication  How well it can neutralize acid build-up within an oil  How long it can do it  The higher the number the better equipped an oil is to neutralize acids
 from condensation  oxidation processes  combustion by-products.

Multi-Grade Oil – HT/HS
High-Temperature/High-Shear test  Hoping for the least loss of viscosity with an increase in heat and stress the cP value to remain high  An oil must achieve an HT/HS cP value of 3.7 or higher in order to be classified at the 15w40 viscosity grade.

Multi-Grade Oil - Noack
 Noack Volatility Test (DIN 51581) is designed to determine the amount of evaporation that will occur over the course of High Temp in one hour time period  The NOACK test exposes an oil to a high temperature environment of 250 degrees C for one hour  Diesel oils must have a NOACK score of 17% or lower to meet API CH-4 standards.

Multi-Grade Oil - Noack
 For instance, an SAE 30 will evaporate more quickly than an SAE 60 motor oil  0w30 will evaporate more quickly than a 10w30  The difference may not be much, but there will almost certainly be a difference.

Multi-Grade Oil - FBW
Four Ball Wear Test method
 Covers a procedure for making a preliminary evaluation of  The anti-wear properties of fluid lubricants  in sliding contact by means of the Four-Ball Wear Test Machine

Multi-Grade Oil - FBW
It is performed by rotating one ball bearing on three fixed bearings
 The motor oil is used to form a film between the bearings  The test can be done at a variety of  temperatures  pressures and RPM.

Multi-Grade Oil - FBW
 Some tests will be done by placing more stress on the lubricant
 40 kg of pressure, 75 degrees C and 1200 RPM  60 kg of pressure, 150 degrees C and 1800 RPM

 At the end of the test, the wear scar is measured
 on each of the three stationary balls  averaged for a final "wear scar measurement" in millimeters

Multi-Grade Oil - FBW
The smaller this number, the better an oil will protect an engine at any point of sliding contact.

Multi-Grade Oil - Spec
The most commonly found specs
I. kinematic viscosity at 100 degrees and 40 degrees C II. VI (viscosity index) III. Cold crank simulator apparent viscosity IV. Mini-rotary Viscometer V. pour point

Multi-Grade Oil - Spec
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. pumping temperature Flash point Fire point TBN Borderline High temperature / High shear

Multi-Grade Oil - Spec
 There are five main areas where synthetic oils surpass their petroleum counterparts:
     Oil drains can be extended Vehicle life can be extended Costly repairs can be reduced Fuel mileage can be improved Performance can be improved

Multi-Grade Oil - Spec
GASOLINE SPECIFICATIONS Gasoline motor oil if it begins with an “S” some second letter after it is a specification for a gasoline motor oil SJ, SH, SG, SF and so on
 Best specification is look for the one that has the "highest" second letter  In other words, the most current - most stringent, specification is the API SL rating.

Multi-Grade Oil - Spec
GASOLINE SPECIFICATIONS All API ratings are backward compatible
 Therefore, an SJ rated oil will be just fine for an SH, SG or SF rated vehicle  However, on a newer vehicle that calls for an SJ rated oil  It is not recommended that you use an oil of SF, SG or SH Grade

Multi-Grade Oil - Spec
DIESEL SPECIFICATIONS
 Any specification that begins with a C is an API motor oil rating for diesel powered engines
 CD, CF, CG, CH, CH-4 and so on are all diesel oil ratings  The higher the second letter, the better the oil (meets more stringent API requirements)  Also, when a number follows the letter specification, it is a reference to whether the engine is a 4 cycle or 2 cycle specification

Multi-Grade Oil - Spec
DIESEL SPECIFICATIONS Motor oil specs are backward compatible
 A CH oil will be just fine if manual calls for a CF rated oil

The specifications are not forward compatible
 Don't use an oil that only meets the CF spec in an engine that calls for a CH spec oil

Multi-Grade Oil - Spec
GEAR LUBES & DIFFERENTIALS For the differential
 To translate power from the driveshaft to the wheels  The gears within the differential must operate at a severe angle to each other  results in high loads on small areas of the gears  In many cases there will not be a full lubricating film separating the gears

Multi-Grade Oil - Spec
 Maintaining proper protection within this type of environment requires that can  stand up to the extreme temperature and pressure generated within your differential  without breaking down too quickly  able to properly lubricate, protect and cool  Carrying wear debris away from the gears.

Multi-Grade Oil - Spec
RANKING SCORES The oils are all assigned a "ranking score“
 Within each viscosity grade  The oils are listed in order from highest ranking score to lowest ranking score

VI + Flash + (20 x HT/HS) + (2 x TBN) (Pour Point) - (3 x NOACK)= Ranking Score

Lube Oil - Engines
Oil Spec Before Spec BS-I BS-II BS-III CF4 – 20W40 15W40 CG4 – CH4 – 15W40 15W40 For AL Engine 20000 For NA 32000 Kms

Drain 16000 Perio Kms d

For Turbo 10000 Kms 16000 For NA Kms 16000 Kms

Lube Oil – Gear Box
Constant Mesh Spec Drain Period HP 90 Synchro Mesh XP 90 With Anglamol 99 36000 Kms

36000 Kms

Lube Oil – Rear Axle
Spiral Bevel Spec Drain Period HP 140 24000 Kms Hypoid 85W140 With Anglamol 99 36000 Kms

FUNDAMENTALS OF GREASES

COMPONENTS
The components of a Grease are:
– Base Oil. (70% - 95%)
• Mineral or Synthetic.

– Thickener (soap or non soap) • Metallic or non metallic i.e. clay).

– Additives.
• Bring up, Improve and give special properties to the grease.

GREASES
• Man’s oldest and most widely applied lubricant • Originally- Tallow Rendered From Animal Fat • Today- Complex Blends Of Oils, Thickeners, Other Additives, Etc

GREASE- DEFINITION

A Solid To Semi-fluid Product of a Dispersion of a Thickening Agent in a Liquid Lubricant. Other Ingredients are Added Which Impart Special Properties.

GREASE- USAGE
• Greases are generally used instead of oil where: • A lubricant must act as a seal to prevent entry of contaminants • A lubricant must maintain its position in a mechanism ( relubrication limited or impossible)

GREASE – DESIRABLE PROPERTIES
• Reduce Friction and Wear • Protect against rust and corrosion • Prevent dirt, water, and other contaminants from entering the parts being lubricated • Resist leakage, dripping, and throwoff • Maintain structure and consistency during long periods of use

GREASE – DESIRABLE PROPERTIES (Contd.)
• Be compatible with elastomer seals and other materials associated with the parts being lubricated • Tolerate some degree of moisture contamination without significant loss of performance

GREASES- COMPONENTS
• Thickeners- Transform Oil into Grease (Simple metal soaps, complex soaps, etc.) • Soaps- Salt of a Fatty Acid • Metal Soaps- Obtained from the reaction of an alkali base of animal or vegetable origin and a metallic component ( lithium, calcium, sodium, etc.)

GREASE- TYPES
• According to the type of Thickener which they contain. E.g. Calcium soap base grease, Calcium Complex grease, Sodium Base Grease, Lithium Base Grease, , Polyurea Grease, etc.

GREASE THICKENER-ROLE
The role of the thickening agents is similar to a sponge, it’s function is to retain ADDITIVES THICKENER the lubricating oil to liberate BASE OIL it bit by bit, in accordance to the neccesities of GREASE the elements. OIL

GREASES- IMPORTANT PROPERTIES • Penetration- Arbitary measure of grease hardness ranging from semifluid to hard block greases. Classified as per NLGI Consistency No. :000 (very fluid) to 6 (very hard) • Dropping Point- The temperature at which the grease passes from semisolid to liquid state

GREASES- IMPORTANT PROPERTIES (Contd.) • Load Carrying Capacity- Refers to the EP protection afforded by a grease • Rust and Corrosion ProtectionCorrosion Preventive properties of greases under wet conditions

GREASES- TYPES
LITHIUM BASE
• Are of smoothery-buttery texture. • Resistance to water wash-out. • Are of smoothery-buttery texture. • Great pumpeability at low temperatures. • Great mechanical stability. • Resistance to water wash-out. •Good pumpability at low • Applications: temperatures. – Multipurpose Grease. (Automotive & •Good mechanical stability. Industrial) Applications: – Bearings and small electric gears. – Multipurpose Grease. – Centralized systems where humidity is present. (Automotive & Industrial) –Bearings and small electric gears.

GREASES- TYPES
NON SOAP THICKENER
• The metallic soap is substituted by • • • a thickener which commonly Is bentonite. Characteristics:  They have great resistance to  water wash out.  Very stable at high temperatures.  Mechanical Stability.

Future Grease Trends
• Decline in demand for calcium & sodium base greases • Increase in demand for Lithium base greases • Development of new types of greases like Aluminium complex, lithium complex & polyurea greases and its constant growth. These are the developments that have taken place to meet the stringent requirements of the Industry

Future requirements
• The following are the market drivers
– The first and probably the most important market driver is Grease Economics – The second is extended life. This needs improved durability & oxidation stability – Third driver is comprised of environmental social issues and concerns which will require the usage of additives which are ash-less or heavy metal free – The usage of non- leaded greases will be mandated although Lead which is a very good Extreme Pressure agent, is an environmental hazard

GREASES- TROUBLE SHOOTING ( BEARINGS)
Symptom Excessive noise Overheating Possible Cause Condition of bearing Over greasing Check for Worn bearing Too frequent application. Bearing packed too full Insufficient application frequency Deficient loadcarrying ability (EP quality) Mechanical damage Excessive shrinkage or swelling Incorrect installation.

Starvation Incorrect product Excessive lubricant leakage Seals

Symptom

Possible Cause Incorrect NLGI grade

Check for Grease too soft for application or softening in service Admixture of greases

Incompatibility

Frequent bearing replacement

Excessive wear

Misalignment

Lack of load-carrying ability (EP of grease to handle shock loading) Starvation Contamination,dirt,rus t,water Normal bearing life exceeded Incorrect NLGI grade Correct Alignment

GULF OIL INTERNATIONAL

USED OIL ANALYSIS

The Human Body Parallel to Machine Maintenance
Maintenance Strategy Proactive Maintenance Technique needed Monitoring and correction of failure root causes, eg., contamination Monitoring of vibration, wear debris Periodic component replacement Large maintenance budget Human body parallel Cholesterol and blood pressure monitoring with diet control Detection of heart disease using ECG or ultrasonics By-pass or transplant surgery Heart attack or stroke

Predictive Maintenance

Preventive Maintenance Breakdown Maintenance

Which contaminant causes the most problem?
Dirt Water Water particles Rust & corrosion products Process chemicals Air (foam and air entrainment) Biological growth Other 37% 24% 9% 7% 5% 5% 5% 8%

WHY TEST LUBRICANTS?
• To ascertain whether the right oil is being used • To ensure that the equipment/ machinery is clean and in good shape • To establish effectiveness of maintenance practices • To ward off major mishaps & break downs • To guarantee longer service life for both lubricant and machine

WHEN TO TEST?
• Before Charging – To ensure lubricant as per the specified standards is being charged • After Charging - To ensure proper flushing and rule out contaminants; Base/ Reference Sample • In Service – Routine condition monitoring, To assess deterioration • Investigation – When abrupt changes in colour, clarity and odour is observed

HOW TO TEST?
• LUBRICANT TESTS CAN BE :
• On Site
– Sensory Tests – Test Kits

• Laboratory – Physico-Chemical Tests
– Primary Tests – Secondary Tests

• Laboratory - Spectrographic Analysis

WHAT TO TEST?
• ON SITE SENSORY TESTS
• • • • • Appearance – Clarity, Impurities, Foaming Colour – Oxidation, Contamination Odour – Oxidation, Contamination Crackle Test – Water content Blotter Spot Test – Deterioration in use

WHAT TO TEST?
• ROUTINE LABORATORY TESTS
• • • • • • • Specific Gravity Viscosity – at 40 Deg. C & 100 Deg. C Flash Point Neutralisation Value – TAN/TBN Water Content Insolubles – Pentane & Toluene Elemental/Wear Metal Analysis

INTERPRETATION OF TEST RESULTS
• After any evaluation, the questions asked are : – What is the condition now? – How much has changed from new? – What is the rate of change now? – What condition is acceptable? – What are the critical parameters/features identified and why?

CONTAMINATION DEGRADATION OF LUBRICANT CONSUMPTION OF ADDITIVES •WATER •DUST •WEAR PARTICLES •OTHER

• SLUDGE
FORMATION •ACID VALUE INCREASE •REDUCTION OF SURFACE TENSION
LIMIT TO USE OF LUBRICANT

TROUBLES

• INCREASE

OF WEAR/CORROSION

• INCREASE OF FRICTION • PLUGGING OF FILTER • FOAMING • CAVITATION • PITTING • SEIZURE

Problems Related to Oil Performance Potential Effect
Noisy Operation Stuck Oil Pump Valve /Lifter Stuck Rings Clogge d Oil Passag es High Oil Consumptio n Power Loss High Emissio n Poor Fuel Econom y CatasTraphi c Failure Reduce d Engine Life

Rust

Varnish

Sludge

Viscosit y Increase Wear Carbon Scuffing

DEGRADATION OF ENGINE OIL
CAUSES OF DEGRADATION OIL DEGRADATION • OXIDATION • NITRATION • CONDENSATION POLYMERIZATION • CONSUMPTION OF ADDITIVES CHANGE OF ENGINE OIL PROPERTIES INCREASE OF VISCOSITY/ACID NUMBER INCREASE OF INSOLUBLES DECREASE OF TOTAL BASE NUMBER VISCOSITY DECREASE CONTAMINATION • COMBUSTION PRODUCTS (ORGANIC ACIDS, WATER SULFONIC ACID,SOOT) FUEL DILUTION WEAR PARTICLES INCREASE OF ACID NUMBER DECREASE OF TOTAL BASE NUMBER INCREASE OF INSOLUBLES/WATER CONTENT EXPECTED TROBULE RING STICKING CLOGGING OF OIL PASSAGE INCREASE OF CORROSION/ DEPOSITS INCREASE OF CORROSION WEAR/ DEPOSITS INCREASE OF WEAR INCREASE OF CORROSION/ DEPOSITS CLOGGING OF OIL PASSAGE OIL EMULSIFICATION

VISCOSITY DECREASE INCREASE OF FE,AL,CU,ETC

INCREASE OF WEAR ACCELERATION OF OIL DEGRADATION/INCREASEOF WEAR INCREASE OF WEAR

DUST

INCREASE OF INSOLUBLES/ SILICON

CONTAMINANTS
Contamina nt Water
Solids Common Lube Oil Contaminant s

Origin
Condensatio n Leakage System Debris Wear Particles Soot Leakage Poor combustion Fuel Sulfur

Effect
Corrosion Hydrolysis Wear Deposits Viscosity Increase Low Flash Low or High Viscosity Insoluble Corrosion

Fuel

Strong Acids (Diesel Engines)

USED OIL ANALYSIS - TESTS
INDUSTRIAL OIL
WATER CONTENT VISCOSITY AT 400C TOTAL INSOLUBLES FLASH TAN WEAR METAL ANALYSIS

AUTOMOTIVE OIL
WATER CONTENT VISCOSITY AT 1000C TOTAL INSOLUBLES FLASH POINT TBN/TAN WEAR METAL ANALYSIS

USED OIL ANALYSIS - TESTS
Diesel Turbines Hydraulic Engine Systems Water Flash Point Selecte d TAN Tests TBN Viscosity X X X X X X X X X 0 X Routine 0 Optional X X X X X X X Gear Boxes X Compre ssors/ Pumps X

Pentane Insolubles Filter Residue Wear Metals

RECOMMENDED ACTION UNITS FOR USED ENGINE OIL TESTS GASOLINE AUTOMOTIVE MARINE TRUNK-TYPE
ENGINES
APPEARANCE AND ODOUR NO NUMERICAL LIMITS – INTERPRETED BY OBSERVER BLOTTER SPOT TEST VISCOSITY INCREASE @1000C % MAX VISCOSITY DECREASE @ 1000C FLASH POINT, OC WATER, VOL % MAX TOTAL INSOLUBLES % MAX TBN (MIN) WEAR METAL, PPM MAX IRON ALUMINIUM CHROMIUM COPPER LEAD SILICON TIN 35 25 <160 0.3 1.5 100 40 40 40 20 40 25 25 <180 0.3 1.5 50% OF NEW OIL 100 40 40 40 100 20 40 25 25 <180 0.5 2.5 50% OF NEW OIL 100 40 40 40 100 20 -

DIESEL ENGINES

DIESEL ENGINE

SAMPLING PROCEDURE
DO - Use only clean, dry containers as supplied. - Always draw samples from the same point in the system. - Sample at a point where a steady, full flow of oil is present. - Sample only when machinery is at operating temperature. - Thoroughly purge sampling connection to remove debris. - Draw some sample into a clean container,mix well and decent can into the 500ml container provided,leaving a small amount of room for expansion. -Ensure plastic sealing disc and cap are securely fitted. - Ensure sample label on bottle is fully completed. - Sample from places in the system where the oil may be stagnant. i.e. filter drain cocks etc. - Recheck that seal and cap are tight and that details are completed correctly on the supplied label. - To speed results we suggest that samples be dispatched by courier - Do remember to write the correct mailing address on the envelope

DO NOT

DESPATCH:

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