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Distributed Systems

Tiffany Layton
Wyatt Cavall
Hadi Rabih
Definition
 A distributed system is a collection of
computers connected through a network, but
allows the user to use it as a single
computer.
Topics
 Kinds of systems
 Networking operating systems
 Issues
Kinds of systems
 Distributed  Network operating
operating system: system:
◦ A distributes ◦ This is a system that
operating system is a has an echelon of
system that looks like protocols in order for
its is running on one the computer to
system, but in reality perform tasks
it is running on correctly
multiple systems.
Networking Operating
Systems
 This is also known as “NOS”. This consists of
two components:
◦ Intranet
Is a private network commonly used by businesses to
communicate through out the company. This is usually
protected by firewalls.
◦ Internet
The internet is a communication system between
computer networks, also known as a network of
networks.
Transparency
 In order for a distributed system to run correctly it
must not look like it is running from multiple
computers.
 A distributed system should be invisible to the user.
The user should not know where their computer is
running from. This is called transparency.
 From the user’s view point the system and programs
should appear as one and not as multitude of
different computers.
Issues
 Scalability is the ability of editing a system without having to
delete or create an entirely new one.
◦ Getting a bigger server, or multiple servers is an example.
 Software Interface is the display of the software to a user,
the easier to use is generally more popular.
 Security is the means to provide safe and legal use of the
data used in the system.
◦ Examples are Firewalls, Encryptions, mechanisms, and using the source
code.
Software Interfaces
 RPC ( Remote
Procedure Call)
◦ A technique used to allow
client and server software to
communicate.
◦ Consists of a Sender and a
receiver, such as Outlook.
 Middleware
◦ Is used as a sort of link
between already existing
programs. Also known as the
“Virtual Glue”
Connections
 Packets: Is a collection of data sent through specific programs
using the internet.

 Sockets: A socket is one end point of a two-point way of
communication between two programs running on one network.

 Ports: A port is a numerically encoded connection point, in
which a socket needs in order to establish communication.

 Endpoint: They are used to send and receive information and
also to identify who sent and who received the information

 Protocols: Protocols are layers of rules that controls how
computers and network devices exchanges information over a
network.
Security Threats
 Interception: (no not football) is the ability of the attacker to get a
hold of data or a signal by an illegal means.
◦ Examples are key loggers, cookie trackers, and wireless signal
interceptors.
 Interruption : Is where the attacker will block of signals of certain
protocols to make the source less reliable.
◦ Malformed messages are sent via the attacker to reboot or crash
the system.
◦ SIP flooding is used to overload the endpoint/proxy to limit
resources.
◦ Call hijacking of a proxy/endpoint resulting in an error message
of some kind, the hijacker must replicate the destination
perfectly.
Security Threats cont’d…
 Modification: The attacker will modify the packets of data
being sent, acting as a “middle man”

◦ Call black holing- where the attacker will drop packets to cause a
loading or receiving error.
◦ This is also how some trojans, or interceptors are placed into the
packets to steal information.

 Fabrication : The attacker will try modify the program for
his/her benefit or to cause malicious problems.

◦ Accessing a database to change data in your benefit, IE accessing
PSU database to change your grade is ILLEGAL!
Security Mechanisms
 In order for a distributed system to be effective it must be
protected. Some types of protection are:

 Encryption: Is a way of protecting your system by scrambling
up your information so that the common person cannot
understand it. Every encryption has to have a key in order
decrypt it.

 Authentication: This is a type of protection where you need to
take certain steps to show that you are indeed the user and not
a fraud.

 Authorization: This is when you are allowed access from
another party to view the information.

 Auditing: A in depth scan of the system to make sure that there
aren’t any problems with the security.
Client-Server Model
 A Client-Server
Model is a where
the client which is
your computer
program sends out
a request to another
computer program
which is the server
carries out the
request.
Recourses
 Principles of Distributed Systems
◦ 11th International Conference, OPODIS 2007, Guadeloupe,
French West Indies, December 17-20, 2007

 Pedro Robles

 Stabilization, Safety, and Security of Distributed
Systems
◦ 9th International Symposium, SSS 2007 Paris, France,
November 14-16, 2007 Proceedings
Website
 www.scribd.com/twh2009