Structure & Function of Animal Organs

Structure & Function of Animal Organs
by General Biology Subjects Teams

Department of Biology Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences Brawijaya University Malang


Study in Biology (Biosciences)

synthesis of complex structures form simpler substances  Responsiveness: ability to sense and react to stimuli  Growth: increase in size and/or number of cells  Development: changes in form or function of an organism over time  Reproduction: production of new cells or new organisms .the breakdown of substances into simple components  Anabolism . order  Cellular composition: all living things are composed of cells  Metabolism: all chemical reactions of the body  Catabolism .Characteristics of Life  Organization: condition in which there are specific relationships and functions.

Structural & Functional Organizations  Chemical Level: interaction of atoms  Cell Level: functional unit of life  Tissue Level: group of similar cells and the materials surrounding them  Organ Level: one or more tissues functioning together  Organ System Level: group of organs functioning together  Organism Level: any living thing. .

What we can see… .

Overview of Anatomy and Physiology  Anatomy: scientific discipline that investigates the body’s structure related to  Physiology: scientific investigation of the processes or functions of living things .

Topics of Anatomy  Gross or macroscopic: structures examined without a microscope  Regional: studied area by area. skeletal  Surface: study of internal structures as they relate to deeper structures  Microscopic: structures seen with the microscope  Cytology: cellular anatomy  Histology: study of tissues  Developmental Anatomy  Traces structural changes throughout life  Embryology – study of developmental changes of the body before birth . abdomen. nervous. head/neck  Systemic: studied system by system.

anatome~ : a cutting up anatemnein > ana (up) + temnein : to cut 1. detailed analysis 5. the science of morphology or structure of animals or plants. structure.of its parts. the dissecting of an animal or plant in order to determine position. structure of organism or body.ANATOMY : (from Webster’s New World – College Dictionary) Greek > anatomia. etc. [Archaic] a skeleton . 4. 3. 2.

Principle of Complementarity of Structure and Function  Function always reflects structure  What a structure can do depends on its specific form  Examples:     Friction ridges of the fingers Folding of the intestinal lining Hardness of bone Ultra-thin lining of cells through which diffusion occurs .

.HISTOLOGY : (from Webster’s New World – College Dictionary) Greek > histos : a web logos : science. the tissue structure of organism or parts. as revealed by microscopic study. the branch of Biology concern with the microscopic study of structure of tissues. theory 1. 2.

and cell function     Epithelial Connective Muscle Nervous  Histology: Microscopic Study of Tissues  Biopsy: removal of tissues for diagnostic purposes  Autopsy: examination of organs of a dead body to determine cause of death . composition of noncellular extracellular matrix.Tissues and Histology  Tissue classification based on structure of cells.

Tissues are Derived from the Three Embryonic Germ Layers in Vertebrates .

bone.Embryonic Tissue  Germ layers  Endoderm  Inner layer  Forms lining of digestive tract and derivatives  Mesoderm  Middle layer  Forms tissues as such muscle. blood vessels  Ectoderm  Outer layer  Forms skin and neuroectoderm .

Developmental Aspects Figure 4.13 .

Reproductive System . Endocrine System 6.Ten Organ Systems of Vertebrates 1. Excretory System 10. Circulatory System 9. Skeletal System 3. Integumentary system 2. Respiratory System 8. Muscular System 4. Digestive System 7. Nervous System (including sense organs) 5.

Organ Systems: Their Main Components and Functions in Mammals .

and facial expression • Maintains posture • Produces heat BO (Bimbingan Orang tua) . phosphorous) • Composed of muscles and tendons • Allows manipulation of the environment. and ligaments • Protects and supports body organs • Provides the framework for muscles • Site of blood cell formation • Stores minerals (calcium.Organ Systems of the Body BO • Forms the external body covering • Composed of the skin. sweat glands. oil glands. cartilage. hair. and nails • Protects deep tissues from injury and synthesizes vit. locomotion. D • Composed of bone.

reproduction. and nerves • Is the fast-acting control system of the body •Responds to stimuli by activating muscles and glands • Composed of various hormone-secreting glands • Regulate processes such as growth.BO BO BO BO BO • Composed of the brain. spinal column. and nutrient use (metabolism by body cells • Composed of the heart and blood vessels • The heart pumps blood • The blood vessels transport blood throughout the body .

trachea. pharynx. small intestine. large intestine. lymph nodes. stomach. anus. and lungs • Keeps blood supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide • Composed of the oral cavity. thymus. and lymphatic vessels • Picks up fluid leaked from bv’s and returns it to blood • Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream • Houses white blood cells involved with immunity • Composed of the nasal cavity. bronchi. rectum. spleen. and liver • Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood • Eliminates indigestible foodstuffs as feces . esophagus.BO BO BO • Composed of red bone marrow.

and uterus. electrolyte. and vagina urethra • Main function is the • Eliminates nitrogenous production of offspring wastes from the body • Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones • Regulates water. and ductus deferens • Main function is the production of offspring • Testes produce sperm and male sex hormones • Ducts and glands deliver sperm to the female reproductive tract Organ Systems above !! . ureters. ovaries.BO BO BO BO BO • Composed of prostate gland. urinary bladder. uterine tubes. • Remaining structures serve and pH balance of the blood as sites for fertilization and development of the fetus • Mammary glands produce milk to nourish the newborn Note: Study by yourself about every organs of each • Composed of mammary penis. glands. testes. • Composed of kidneys. scrotum.

Comparative Anatomy Comparative Anatomy Struktur homolog berevolusi dari struktur asli umum Analog Struktur berevolusi dari struktur asli yang berbeda namun fungsi yang sama Struktur vestigial berfungsi dalam organisme leluhur. tetapi y angberkurang (dalam struktur dan fungsi) d alam keturunan yang Contoh pada manusia: Lampiran usus ekor tulang belakang dari tulang ekor Homologous structures suggested common ancestors and variation in evolution since those ancestors .

Planes of section in Anatomy .


Four Main BASIC TISSUES of ANIMAL: EPITHELIAL TISSUES Connective Tissue Muscle Tissue Nervous Tissues .


structure and function of epithelial tissues .

Epithelium Characteristics  Cellularity-Terdiri hampir seluruhnya sel  Meliputi permukaan tubuh dan kelenjar bentuk Permukaan luar tubuh  Lapisan sistem pencernaan. basal. dan lateral  Basement membran  Khusus sel kontak  Avaskular tidak ada pembuluh darah  Regenerative-Menggantikan kehilangan sel dengan pembelahan sel  . pernapasan dan urogenital Jantung dan pembuluh darh  Lapisan rongga tubuh banyak  Polaritas-Memiliki permukaan apikal.

(jaringan ikat)  Panduan sel migrasi selama perbaikan jaringan  Bertindak sebagai filter dalam nefron ginjal  Tidak setiap epitel membran basement yang terkait dengannya.T.  .  Sebuah"lem" selular  Lampiran C.Basement Membrane (membrana basalis)  Ekstraselular:dibentuk oleh sekresi kedua epitel dan jaringan ikat.

nephrons in kidney  Secreting substances.g.g.g. e. lining of small intestine . e. pancreas  Absorbing substances. e.g.. skin  Permitting the passage of substances...g. e.. e.Functions of Epithelia  Protecting underlying structures. epithelium lining the mouth  Acting as barriers..

skala seperti  Cuboidal-hampir sama tinggi dan lebar  Kolumnar-lebih tinggi dari lebar  . tapi semua kontak selmembran basal sehingga sebenarnya sederhana Bentuk sel  Skuamosa-datar. Setiap memanjang dari membran basal kepermukaan bebas  Berlapis-lebih dari satu lapisan. Bentuk sel-sel dari lapisan apikal digunakan untuk nama jaringan.Classification of Epithelium  Jumlah lapisan sel  Sederhana-satu lapisan sel. Termasuk epitel transisi di mana sel apikal lapisan berubah bentuk tergantung pada distensi organ yang garis jaringan  Pseudostratified-jaringan tampaknya bertingkat.

sekresi. . penyerapan  Bertingkat: perlindungan. Mungkin termasuk selgoblet yang memproduksi dan mengeluarkan lendir. filtrasi darah.Functional Characteristics How does shape affect function?  Simpel: memungkinkan difusi gas. terutama terhadap abr asi  Skuamosa: memungkinkan difusi atau bertindak sebagai filter  Cuboidal dan columnar: sekresi atau penyerapan.

filtration.  Location: simple squamous. some protection against friction.lining of the heart. . lining of serous membranes (mesothelium).Simple Squamous Epithelium  Structure: single layer of flat cells  Functions: diffusion. alveoli of the lungs. absorption. blood and lymphatic vessels (endothelium) and. secretion.

and surface of the ovaries. .Simple Cuboidal Epithelium  Structure: single layer of cube-shaped cells with large.  Locations: Kidney tubules. central nuclei  Some types have microvilli (kidney tubules) or cilia (terminal bronchioles of the lungs)  Functions:  Secretion and absorption in the kidney  Secretion in glands and choroid plexus  Movement of mucus out of the terminal bronchioles by ciliated cells. choroid plexus of the brain. glands and their ducts.

. bronchioles of lungs. uterus. intestines. Some have cilia (bronchioles. narrow cells. Functions:     Movement of particles out of the bronchioles by ciliated cells Aids in the movement of oocytes through the uterine tubes by ciliated cells Secretion by glands of the stomach and the intestine Absorption by cells of the intestine. auditory tubes.  Location. uterine tubes. and uterus) or microvilli (intestine). uterine tubes.Simple Columnar Epithelium   Structure: single layer of tall. stomach. auditory tubes. Glands and some ducts.

and bronchi of lungs. pharynx. Appears stratified because nuclei are at various levels.Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium  Structure: Single layer of cells with different heights.  Functions:  Synthesize and secrete mucus onto the free surface  Move mucus (or fluid) that contains foreign particles over the free surface and from passages  Locations:  Ciliated type in lining of nasal cavity.  Nonciliated type in male’s sperm-carrying ducts . trachea. some do not reach the free surface. Almost always ciliated and associated with goblet (mucus-producing) cells. all cells reach basement membrane.

Stratified Squamous Epithelium  Structure: multiple layers of cells that are cuboidal in the basal layer and progressively flatten toward the surface. surface cells are dead.  Locations:  Non-keratinized. . surface cells retain a nucleus and cytoplasm. inferior urethra. In moist. water loss. anus. and infection. larynx. vagina. throat. caustic (epidermis)  Functions: protection against abrasion.mouth. and cornea  Keratinized. esophagus. In keratinized.

ureters and superior urethra. surface cells are dome shaped  Functions: stretches to permit the distension of the urinary bladder  Location: lining of urinary bladder. . basal cells are cuboidal.Transitional Epithelium  Structure: stratified.

no ducts.T. ducts  Exocrine glands classified either by structure or by the method of secretion  Classified by structure  Unicellular: goblet cells  Multicellular . produce hormones  Exocrine: open contact maintained with exterior.)  Two types of glands formed by infolding of epithelium:  Endocrine: no open contact with exterior.Epithelium: Glandular  A gland is one or more cells that makes and secretes an aqueous fluid  Epithelium with supporting network of connective tissue (C.

glycoproteins. proteins. and steroids .Endocrine Glands  Ductless glands that produce hormones  Secretions travel to target site via the blood  Examples:      Pituitary Thyroid and Parathyroid Pancreas Adrenal Gonads (Ovaries and Testes)  Secretions include amino acids.

oil. sweat. lacrima. and salivary glands  The only important unicellular gland is the goblet cell  Multicellular exocrine glands are composed of a duct and secretory unit .Exocrine Glands  More numerous than endocrine glands  Secrete their products onto body surfaces (skin) or into body cavities  Examples include mucous.

Multicellular Exocrine Glands
  Classified on the basis of types of ducts or mode of secretion Types of ducts  Simple: ducts with few branches  Compound: ducts with many branches  If ducts end in tubules or saclike structures: acini. Pancreas  If ducts end in simple sacs: alveoli. Lungs

Classified by Method of Secretion Types
 Merocrine
 No loss of cytoplasm. Secretion leaves by exocytosis.  Sweat glands, pancreas, and salivary glands

 Apocrine
 Fragments of the gland go into the secretion. Apex of cell pinches off.  Mammary glands.

 Holocrine
 Whole cell becomes part of secretion. Secretion accumulates in cell, cell ruptures and dies.  Sebaceous glands (Oil glands of skin)

Epithelial tissues

Simple squamous epithelium .

Simple cuboidal epithelium .

Simple columnar epithelium .

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium (ciliated) .


Connective Tissue .

Connective Tissues  Abundant. found in every organ  Consists of cells and fibers separated by extracellular matrix  Many diverse types  Performs variety of important functions .


Representative types of connective tissue .

Connective Tissue: Embryonic Origin Figure 4.5 .

Characteristics of Connective Tissue  Connective tissues have:  Mesenchyme as their common tissue of origin  Varying degrees of vascularity  Nonliving extracellular matrix. consisting of ground substance and fibers .

 Protection. .  Cushion and insulation.Functions of Connective Tissue  Enclose organs as a capsule and separate organs into layers  Connect tissues to one another.  Support and movement. Cells of the immune system. Tendons and ligaments. Blood. Fat. Bones.  Transport. Fat.  Storage.

chondroblasts. and hematopoietic stem cells .Structural Elements of Connective Tissue  Ground substance – unstructured material that fills the space between cells  Fibers – collagen. or reticular  Cells – fibroblasts. elastic. osteoblasts.

 Functions as a molecular filter through which nutrients diffuse between blood capillaries and cells . Vitreous humor of eye. Trap large amounts of water.  Proteoglycans: protein and polysaccharide. Good lubricant. Protein part attaches to hyaluronic acid. fibronectin in fibrous connective tissue.Ground Substance  Interstitial (tissue) fluid Most common molecules are:  Hyaluronic acid: polysaccharide. osteonectin in bone.  Adhesive molecules: hold proteoglycan aggregates together. Chondronectin in cartilage.

6b .Ground Substance: Proteoglycan Structure Figure 4.

 Reticular. strong. Fill spaces between tissues and organs. Contain molecules of protein elastin that resemble coiled springs. form branching networks (stroma) . Returns to its original shape after distension or compression. Fine collagenous. flexible.Composition of Extracellular Matrix: Fibers  Protein fibers  Collagen. great tensile strength  Elastic. inelastic. Most common protein in body.

Common beneath membranes. Can release heparin. along small blood vessels.Connective Tissue Cells  Fibroblasts . .blood  Undifferentiated mesenchyme (stem cells). Phagocytize or provide protection  Chondroblasts  Osteoblasts  Hematopoietic stem cells . rare in some (cartilage)  Mast cells. and proteolytic enzymes in response to injury. Common in some tissues (dermis of skin). Respond to injury or infection  Macrophages. histamine.  White blood cells. Have potential to differentiate into adult cell types.secrete the proteins for fiber synthesis and components of the extracellular matrix  Adipose or fat cells (adipocytes).

Figure 40.2x Connective tissue .

Wharton’s jelly. .Embryonic Connective Tissue  Mesenchyme: source of all adult connective tissue.  Forms primarily from mesoderm  Delicate collagen fibers embedded in semifluid matrix  Mucus: found only in the umbilical cord.

Collagenous fibers are loosely arranged  Dense.Adult Connective Tissues  Loose (areolar). Fibers form thick bundles that nearly fill all extracellular space  Dense regular  Dense irregular     With special properties Cartilage Bone Blood and hemopoietic tissue .

Superficial fascia = subcutaneous layer = hypodermis Contains collagen. macrophages . lymphocytes. elastic fibers and all five types of cells Often seen in association with other types of C. mast cells.Loose (Areolar) Connective Tissue      Loose packing material of most organs and tissues Location: Attaches skin to underlying tissues. adipose cells. reticular..T. like reticular tissue and fat Cells include fibroblasts.

have a considerable volume of cytoplasm and contain multiple lipid droplets of varying size.  Scant ring of cytoplasm surrounding single large lipid droplet. neck and near kidneys  Cells are polygonal in shape. in breasts Brown. within abdomen. White at birth and yellows with age. Most abundant type.Connective Tissue : Adipose Predominant cells are adipocytes  Yellow (white). Found only in specific areas of body: axillae. has a wide distribution.  . Nuclei flattened  Under skin. around kidneys and eyeballs.

Connective Tissue Proper: Loose .

form sheets or bands  Aponeuroes: flattened sheet of tendon .Dense Regular Connective Tissue  Has abundant parallel collagen fibers that resist stretching  Major cell type is fibroblast  Tendons: Connect muscles to bones  Ligaments: Connect bones to bones. usually flattened. Collagen often less compact.

Dense Irregular Connective Tissue  Irregularly arranged collagen fibers with some elastic fibers  Major cell type is fibroblast  Withstands tension in many directions  Forms innermost layer of the dermis of the skin. scars. capsules of kidney and spleen .

nuchal ligament  Collagen fibers give strength (for when you shout). but elastic fibers are more prevalent .Elastic Connective Tissue  Ligaments in vocal folds.

Elastic Connective Tissue  Bundles and sheets of collagenous and elastic fibers oriented in multiple directions  In walls of elastic arteries  Strong. yet elastic .

Heals slowly. Fibroblasts of perichondrium can differentiate into chondroblasts.  Type of cartilage determined by components of the matrix.  Avascular and no nerve supply.  Types of cartilage  Hyaline  Fibrocartilage  Elastic .  Firm consistency. Tissue can spring back after being compressed.  Perichondrium.Connective Tissue: Cartilage  Composed of chondrocytes located in matrix-surrounded spaces called lacunae. Dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds cartilage.  Ground substance: Proteoglycans and hyaluronic acid complexed together trap large amounts of water.

Smooth surface in articulations  Locations:  Found in areas for strong support and some flexibility: rib cage. trachea. and bronchi.Hyaline Cartilage  Structure: large amount of collagen fibers evenly distributed in proteoglycan matrix. articular cartilage  In embryo forms most of skeleton  Involved in growth that increases bone length .

Hyaline cartilage .

Rigid but elastic properties  Locations: external ears and epiglottis .Elastic Cartilage  Structure: elastic and collagen fibers embedded in proteoglycans.

intervertebral discs . slightly compressible and very tough  Locations: found in areas of body where a great deal of pressure is applied to joints  Discs of knee joint. pubic symphysis.Fibrocartilage  Structure: thick collagen fibers distributed in proteoglycan matrix.

allows bone to support and protect other tissues and organs  Organic: collagen fibers  Inorganic: hydroxyapetite (Ca plus PO4)  Osteocytes located in lacunae  Types  Cancellous or spongy bone  Compact bone  Stores calcium.Connective Tissue: Bone  Hard connective tissue composed of living cells (osteocytes) and mineralized matrix  Matrix: gives strength and rigidity. and fat  Marrow (center/substance) inside bones is the site of hematopoiesis . minerals.

Looks like a sponge.  Cancellous or spongy bone: trabeculae of bone with spaces between.  Compact bone: arranged in concentric circle layers around a central canal which contains a blood vessel. Found inside bones. cont.Bone. . Found on periphery of bones.

Bone—Haversian canal

 Matrix: plasma
 Liquid and lacks fibers.

 Formed elements: red cells, white cells, and platelets  Functions in the transport of respiratory gases, nutrients, and wastes

Muscle Tissue

Muscle Tissue
 Characteristics  Cells are referred to as fibers; some types are multinucleated  Contracts or shortens with force when stimulated  Moves entire body and pumps blood  Types  Skeletal: most attached to skeleton, but some attached to other types of connective tissue. Striated and voluntary.  Cardiac: muscle of the heart. Striated and involuntary.  Smooth: muscle associated with tubular structures and with the skin. Nonstriated and involuntary.


Skeletal Muscle .

Cardiac Muscle .

Smooth Muscle .


Nervous Tissues .

can be many per neuron  Types:  Multipolar. and unipolar  Found in brain. conducts impulses away from cell body. spinal cord. and peripheral nerves . bipolar.Nervous Tissue: Neurons  Neurons or nerve cells have the ability to produce action potentials  Parts:  Cell body: contains nucleus  Axon: cell process. usually only one per neuron  Dendrite: cell process. receive impulses from other neurons.

Brain and spinal cord process sensory input and initiate responses 3. thinking. emotion .Functions of the Nervous System 1. Integration. Consciousness. memory. Motor output: Controls of muscles and glands 4. Homeostasis. Sensory input: Monitor internal and external stimuli 2. Mental activity. Regulate and coordinate physiology 5.

The Nervous System  Components  Brain. nerves. sensory receptors  Subdivisions  Central nervous system (CNS): brain and spinal cord  Peripheral nervous system (PNS): sensory receptors and nerves . spinal cord.

The Neuron  The human body contains billions of neurons  Basic structural unit of the nervous system  Specialized cells conduct electrical impulses along the plasma membrane  Nerve impulse  Action potential .

Figure 48.15 Diversity in nervous systems .

Figure 48.16 The nervous system of a vertebrate .

Figure 48.18 The main roles of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves in regulating internal body functions .

19 Embryonic development of the brain .Figure 48.

Neurons .

The Neuron  Other special characteristics  Longevity – can live and function for a lifetime  Do not divide – fetal neurons lose their ability to undergo mitosis. neural stem cells are an exception  High metabolic rate – require abundant oxygen and glucose .

Cells of Nervous System  Neurons or nerve cells receive stimuli and transmit action potentials  Organization  Cell body or soma  Dendrites: input  Axons: output  Neuroglia or glial cells  Support and protect neurons .

4b .Neurons (Nerve Cells) Figure 11.

Nerves  Endoneurium – layer of delicate connective tissue surrounding the axon  Nerve fascicles – groups of axons bound into bundles  Perineurium – connective tissue wrapping surrounding a nerve fascicle  Epineurium – whole nerve is surrounded by tough fibrous sheath .

Structure of a Nerve Figure 12.16a .

R: primary site of protein synthesis.  Tapers to form axon hillock  Dendrites: short. Can branch to form collaterals. Cell Body.  Axon hillock: Initial segment: beginning of axon  Axoplasm . often highly branched.  Receptive regions of the neuron  Axons.cytoplasm of the axon  Axolemma . Nucleus. Nissl Bodies.membrane of the axon  Presynaptic terminals (terminal boutons) Parts of the Neuron .  Contains nucleus and nucleolus  Major biosynthetic center  No centrioles (hence its amitotic nature)  Nissl bodies = chromatophilic substance = rough E.

renewal. Can move cytoskeletal proteins. organelles away from cell body toward axon terminals. Supply for growth. and substances taken in by endocytosis can be transported up axon to cell body. Into cell body: damaged organelles. repair.Axonic Transport Mechanisms  Anterograde: Toward axonal terminal. Axoplasm moved from cell body toward terminals. .  Retrograde: Away from axonal terminal. recycled plasma membrane. Rabies and herpes virus can enter axons in damaged skin and be transported to CNS.

motor neurons  Bipolar: sensory in retina of the eye and nose  Unipolar: single process that divides into two branches. Part that extends to the periphery has dendrite-like sensory receptors .Types of Neurons  Functional classification  Sensory or afferent: action potentials toward CNS  Motor or efferent: action potentials away from CNS  Interneurons or association neurons: within CNS from one neuron to another  Structural classification  Multipolar: most neurons in CNS.

Neurons Classified by Function Figure 12.11 .

 Regulate extracellular brain fluid composition . Lots of microfilaments for support.  Produce chemicals that promote tight junctions to form blood-brain barrier  Blood-brain barrier: protects neurons from toxic substances.Neuroglia of CNS: Astrocytes  Processes form feet that cover the surfaces of neurons and blood vessels and the pia mater. Regulate what substances reach the CNS from the blood (bloodbrain barrier). allows the exchange of nutrients and waste products between neurons and blood. prevents fluctuations in the composition of the blood from affecting the functions of the brain.

Specialized versions of ependymal form choroid plexuses.Neuroglia of CNS: Ependymal Cells  Line brain ventricles and spinal cord central canal. Cilia help move fluid thru the cavities of the brain. . Secrete cerebrospinal fluid.  Choroid plexus within certain regions of ventricles.

microorganisms. Single oligodendrocytes can form myelin sheaths around portions of several axons. phagocytize necrotic tissue. Respond to inflammation. and foreign substances that invade the CNS.Neuroglia of CNS: Microglia and Oligodendrocytes  Microglia: specialized macrophages. .  Oligodendrocytes: form myelin sheaths if surround axon.

Neuroglia of PNS  Schwann cells or neurolemmocytes: wrap around portion of only one axon to form myelin sheath.  Satellite cells: surround neuron cell bodies in ganglia. Cell membrane primarily phospholipid. During development. as cells grow around axon. provide support and nutrients . Wrap around many times. cytoplasm is squeezed out and multiple layers of cell membrane wrap the axon.

Not wrapped around the axon.Myelinated and Unmyelinated Axons  Myelinated axons  Myelin protects and insulates axons from one another. .  Degeneration of myelin sheaths occurs in multiple sclerosis and some cases of diabetes mellitus.  Not continuous  Nodes of Ranvier  Completion of Development of myelin sheaths at 1 yr.  Unmyelinated axons: rest in invaginations of Schwann cells or oligodendrocytes. gray matter. speeds transmission. functions in repair of axons.

 In spinal cord: white is outer. Integrative functions  In brain: gray is outer cortex as well as inner nuclei. dendrites. gray is deeper. neuroglia.  Gray matter: unmyelinated axons. Gray Matter  White matter: dense collections of myelinated axons. white is deeper. cell bodies. .Regions of the Brain & SC White vs.

Conduct at 2 m/s or less. Part of ANS  Type C: small-diameter. Conduct at 3-15 m/s. Part of ANS . Motor neurons supplying skeletal and most sensory neurons  Type B: medium-diameter. myelinated. unmyelinated. Conduct at 15-120 m/s. lightly myelinated.Nerve Fiber Types  Type A: large-diameter.

The Synapse  Junction between two cells  Site where action potentials in one cell cause action potentials in another cell  Types of cells in synapse  Presynaptic  Postsynaptic .

Synapses  Elaborate cell junctions  Axodendritic synapses – representative type  Synaptic vesicles on presynaptic side  Membrane-bound sacs containing neurotransmitters  Mitochondria abundant in axon terminals  Synaptic cleft separates the plasma membrane of the two neurons .

Electrical Synapses  Gap junctions that allow local current to flow between adjacent cells. almost as if the tissue were one cell.  Found in cardiac muscle and many types of smooth muscle. Connexons: protein tubes in cell membrane. Action potential of one cell causes action potential in next cell.  Important where contractile activity among a group of cells .

it fires. If enough Na+ diffuses into postsynaptic cell.Chemical Synapses  Components  Presynaptic terminal  Synaptic cleft  Postsynaptic membrane  Neurotransmitters released by action potentials in presynaptic terminal  Synaptic vesicles: action potential causes Ca 2+ to enter cell that causes neurotransmitter to be released from vesicles  Diffusion of neurotransmitter across synapse  Postsynaptic membrane: when ACh binds to receptor. . ligand-gated Na+ channels open.

Chemical Synapse .

Some Important Types of Synapses Figure 12.7 .

Figure 48.4 Structural diversity of neurons .

5 Schwann cells .Figure 48.

Figure 48.11 Saltatory conduction .

Figure 48.12 A chemical synapse .

Figure 48.13 Integration of multiple synaptic inputs .

1 The Major Known Neurotransmitters .Table 48.

Figure 2.18 Molecular shape and brain chemistry .

20 The main parts of the human brain .Figure 48.

gray and white matter .Figure 48.20x1 Cerebral cortex.

20x2 Cerebral cortex .Figure 48.

21 The reticular formation .Figure 48.

Figure 48.24 Structure and functional areas of the cerebrum .

Figure 48.27 The limbic system .

PNS receptors: ending of neurons or  Sensory separate. muscles. odors  Nerve: a bundle of axons and their sheaths that connects CNS to sensory receptors. sound. and sometimes neuron cell bodies. pressure. light. pain. and glands  Cranial nerves: originate from the brain. 31 pairs  Ganglion: collection of neuron cell bodies outside CNS  Plexus: extensive network of axons. touch. specialized cells that detect such things as temperature. located outside CNS . 12 pairs  Spinal nerves: originate from spinal cord.

Figure 48.17 Functional hierarchy of the peripheral nervous system .

 Motor (efferent): transmits action potentials from CNS to effectors (muscles. glands) .Divisions of PNS  Sensory (afferent): transmits action potentials from receptors to CNS.

Prepares body for physical activity.  Subconscious or involuntary control. second from ganglion to effector.  Enteric.  Two neuron system: first from CNS to ganglion. E. Somatic nervous system: from CNS to skeletal muscles.  Voluntary. but still considered part of ANS because of the parasympathetic and sympathetic neurons that contribute to the plexi. neuromuscular junction is a synapse between a neuron and skeletal muscle cell. cardiac muscle and certain glands. Motor Division of PNS  Autonomic nervous system (ANS): from CNS to smooth muscle.. plexuses within the wall of the digestive tract. .  Parasympathetic. Can control the digestive tract independently of the CNS.g.  Synapse: junction of a nerve cell with another cell.  Single neuron system. Regulates resting or vegetative functions such as digesting food or emptying of the urinary bladder.  Divisions of ANS  Sympathetic.

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