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# Motors & Generators

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Motor Effect Parallel Conductors DC Motors Torque Magnetic Flux Faradays Law Lenzs Law & Back emf & Eddy currents Generators AC & DC Transformers Energy losses & Transmission Lines Westinghouse & Edison AC Induction motors

Uses of Magnets
Every time you use a computer, you're using magnets. A hard drive relies on magnets to store data, and some monitors use magnets to create images on the screen. If your home has a doorbell, it probably uses an electromagnet to drive a noisemaker. Magnets are also vital components in:

CRT televisions speakers microphones generators transformers electric motors burglar alarms compasses car speedometers

In addition to their practical uses, magnets have numerous amazing properties. they can induce current in wire supply torque for electric motors.

## The Right Hand Palm Rule (RHPR)

The right-hand palm rule can be used to determine the direction of the force experienced on a conductor. If the right thumb points in the direction of the conventional current in the conductor and the fingers of the right hand point in the direction of the external magnetic field, then the force on the conductor is directed outward from the palm of the right hand. Thumb =

Fingers = palm =

Magnetic fields surround a magnetised object and are described by field lines. Magnetic flux density is represented by the symbol B & has the unit Tesla (T). Magnetic field lines are directed out of the North pole & into the South pole.

## Deduce the direction of the Force in each diagram

a) B to the right of page I down the page I
c) b)

I into page

d)

## Deduce the direction of the Force in each diagram

a) B to the right of page
b)

I into page

c)

d)

## The Motor Effect

The motor effect is where a current carrying wire in a magnetic field experiences a force. The direction of this force is perpendicular to both the direction of the current and the direction of the magnetic field.

F = BILsin
F= B= I= L= = Factors that affect the force acting on a current carrying conductor: Strength of the magnetic field Size of the current Length of the conductor in the field Angle between the conductor and the magnetic field.

## I coming out of page (OOP)

Questions
Q1. A wire of length l = 20cm is placed perpendicular to a magnetic field of intensity B = 0.05T. What force does the wire experience if it carries a current I = 3A? Q2. A conductor of length l = 60cm is placed in a magnetic field B = 0.03T at an angle of = 30. What is the force on the conductor if it carries a current I = 10A?

Solutions:

Do questions from text book: Motors & Generators p9 Q1,3,4 p12 Q1,2,4

Questions
Q1. A wire of length l = 20cm is placed perpendicular to a magnetic field of intensity B = 0.05T. What force does the wire experience if it carries a current I = 3A? Q2. A conductor of length l = 60cm is placed in a magnetic field B = 0.03T at an angle of = 30. What is the force on the conductor if it carries a current I = 10A?

Solutions:
A1. F =BILsin = 0.05 x 3 x 0.2 x sin 90 = 0.03N A2. F = BILsin = 0.03 x 10 x 0.60 x sin 30 = 0.09N

Do questions from text book: Motors & Generators p9 Q1,3,4 p12 Q1,2,4

## Questions on the Motor Effect

Q1. The rigid wire XY can be moved about in the space between the magnets as shown in the diagram. Which of the following movements would produce the greatest reading on the galvanometer? a) Downwards, quickly b) Downwards, slowly c) Sideways, quickly d) Sideways, slowly Q2. Which of the following changes would not affect the direction of the force on a wire carrying a current in a magnetic field? a) Both the direction of the magnetic field and the direction of the current is reversed. b) The direction of the magnetic field is reversed. c) The magnetic field is removed. d) The current is switched off.

## Magnetic Field near a Conductor

The magnetic field at a distance due to charges moving through a conductor (a current) is given by the formula: B = KI d B= K= I = d= The curved fingers show the direction of the and thumb the

## Do questions Motors & Generators Bk p6 Q1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Note: This is not in the Year 12 Physics syllabus. But is helpful in understanding future concept including solenoid current directions and magnetic pole

Measuring Magnets

Magnetic lines of force, or flux (), are measured in W. (Wb). A field's strength, symbol .. , or the density of the flux, is measured in T (T).
Units Equation Description Magnetic lines of force. Is the product of magnetic f density and the area under consideration.

## Magnetic Flux Density

(d of the flux lines) is a measure of the number of l of force per unit a... Also called Magnetic Field Strength.

## http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pB7oZNBIqqc&NR=1 Surfing Bk: Motors & Generators p28,29 Q 1,2,3,4,5,6,8,11,14

Fluxing

Magnetic lines of force, or flux (), are measured in Webers (Wb). Magnetic field's strength, symbol B, or the density of the flux, is measured in Tesla (T).
Units Webers (Wb) Equation = BA Description Magnetic lines of force. Is the product of magnetic flux density and the area under consideration.

## Magnetic Tesla (T) Flux Density

B= A

(density of the flux lines) is a measure of the number of lines of force per unit area Also called Magnetic Field Strength.

Magnetic Flux

Q1. In which arrangement is the flux the greatest? Explain. Q2. In which arrangement is the flux the smallest? Explain.

## Amperes Law: Forces between Parallel Conductors

1 ampere is the amount of current flowing through two straight parallel conductors 1 metre apart in a vacuum which produces a force of 2 X 10-7 Newton per metre of conductor.

Current carrying wires have a force between them. The force is attractive if the currents travel in the same direction The force is repulsive if the currents travel in the opposite direction

F = kI1 I2 l d
F= K= I1 = I2 = L= d=

## Activity: Complete the diagrams by drawing in direction of the magnetic field

lines around each pair of conductors then determine the direction of the force between each pair of conductors. Two parallel conductors with current flowing the same way Two parallel conductors with current flowing the opposite way

If two parallel wires have currents traveling in the same direction, the magnetic fields generated by those currents between the wires will point in opposite directions resulting in the wires attracting each other. Reason: magnetic flux density is low between the wires since there is a cancellation effect going on. So the density is greater on the outside of the wires.

As you can see in the diagram, if two parallel wires have currents traveling in opposite directions, the magnetic fields generated by those currents between the wires will both point in the same direction, in this case, into the plane of the page. These wires would repel each other.
Reason: The magnetic flux density between wires is greater then the density on the outside of each wire.

## Magnetic Fields around Parallel Wires (A)

Current out of page for both conductors. Using the Right Hand Screw Rule the direction of the magnetic fields can be deduced. (In this case anticlockwise for both). Due to these two fields a cancellation area exists between them. i.e. flux is zero.

Therefore the two wires have an attractive force between them. Activity: Write an explanation for what is happening in diagram (B).

## Two Conductors Into Page

Current into page for both conductors. Using the Right Hand Screw Rule the direction of the magnetic fields can be deduced. (In this case clockwise for both)

Wire 1 Finding the force on wire 2 due to wire 1 use vectors and the RHPR.

Wire 2 Finding the force on wire 1 due to wire 2 use vectors and the RHPR

B So if B is down the page and the I is into page using RHPR the F is .................

## Two Conductors One Into Page the other Out of Page

Current going into and out of page. Using the Right Hand Screw Rule the direction around one conductor is clockwise the other anticlockwise.

Wire 1
Finding the force on wire 2 due to wire 1 use vectors and the RHPR

Wire 2
Finding the force on wire 1 due to wire 2 use vectors and the RHPR

Questions
Q1. Two long straight wires carry currents of 2A & 4A respectively due North. Calculate the force, both size and direction, acting on a 1m length of the wire carrying 2A (which lies to the west of the other wire) if the wires are 1cm apart in air.
Q2. Two long parallel wires separated by a distance d carry currents of I1 and I2 respectively. They exert a force of F on each metre of wire. What is the new force if the currents are both doubled and the separation is halved? Q3. Two parallel wires 12cm apart each carry currents of 8A in the same direction. What is the force acting on a 1 metre length of one of the wires?

Solution:
A1. F = KI1I2 x L d = 2 x 107 x 2 x 4 x 1 1 0.01 F = K 2I1 x 2I2 x L 0.12 A2. F = K I1I2 xL d New force is given by: A3. F = KI1I2 x L d F = 2x107 x 8x8 x

= 1.6 x 10

N/m

d/2
F = K x 8 xI1 xI2 x L d = 8F

## Question on Two parallel Conductors

Q1.

Questions

Torque
Torque is the turning effect of a force. This turning force (Torque) is delivered by a motor. It is the product of the force and the perpendicular distance from the axis

## force. to the line of action of the = Fd Its units are (Nm).

Starting Torque: The torque or twisting force delivered by a motor at the F instant it is switched on. rod Perpendicular distance (d) axis

## Torque on a Coil in a Magnetic Field

T = ......................
T= n= B= I= A= The torque on a current carrying coil in a magnetic field is dependent on:

The n................. of coils The s................. of the magnetic field The a.................. of the coil The a.................. between the coil and the magnetic field The c.. in the coil

## Torque on a Coil in a Magnetic Field

T = nBIA cos
T = torque (Nm) n = number of coils B = magnetic field (T) I = current (A) A = area (m) The torque on a current carrying coil in a magnetic field is dependent on:

The number of coils The strength of the magnetic field The area of the coil The angle between the coil and the magnetic field The current in the coil

## Torque v Position of Coil

The magnetic field is directed d.. the page. In this position torque is a m because the long ends of the coil (that are at right angles to the magnetic field) have a maximum p.. distance from the a...

In this position torque is z because the long ends of the coil ( at r.. angles to the magnetic field) are directly over the a. and therefore perpendicular distance is z...

## Torque v Position of Coil

The magnetic field is directed down the page. In this position torque is a maximum because the long ends of the coil (that are at right angles to the magnetic field) have a maximum perpendicular distance from the axle.

In this position torque is zero because the long ends of the coil ( at right angles to the magnetic field) are directly over the axle and therefore perpendicular distance is zero.

## How the Torque Direction & Equation is Derived

A rectangular coil lying parallel to a magnetic field has sides AB and CD which carry currents at right angles to the magnetic field. They experience the force due to the motor effect. But sides BC and AD do not as the current travelling through those sides is parallel to the magnetic field. Using the RHPR the force on side AB is up and force on side CD is down. Therefore it rotates in a clockwise direction (looking from the commutator end). If F = BIL for sides AB and CD And d = width /2 The Torque on these sides is T = 2 (Fd) = 2 (BIL w/2) = BILw Now since L x w = Area of the rectangular coil T = BIA And of course if there is more than one coil in the armature T = nBIA And if the coil is inclined at an angle to the magnetic field T = nBIAcos

If the coil is a circular shape then the area is the area of a circle i.e. A = r

## Torque Diagram of a Motor

Questions
Q1. A rectangular coil of 25 turns and with an area A=0.04m is placed in a magnetic field with B = 0.10T. If the current I = 4.0A what is the torque when the coil is:
a)

b)
c)

## Inclined at 45 to the field?

Perpendicular to the field?

Q2. A rectangular coil consisting of 500 turns and with a width of 10cm and a depth of 20cm is placed in a radial magnetic field of intensity 10T. What torque does the coil experience if it carries a current of 2A?

Solution:

Questions
Q1. A rectangular coil of 25 turns and with an area A=0.04m is placed in a magnetic field with B = 0.10T. If the current I = 4.0A what is the torque when the coil is: a) Parallel to the field? b) Inclined at 45 to the field? c) Perpendicular to the field? Q2. A rectangular coil consisting of 500 turns and with a width of 10cm and a depth of 20cm is placed in a radial magnetic field of intensity 10T. What torque does the coil experience if it carries a current of 2A?

Solution:
A1. a) T = nBIAcos A2. T = nBIAcos = 25 x 0.10 x 4 x cos 0 = 500 x 10 x 2 x 0.10 x 0.20 x cos0 = 0.4 Nm (the side cutting the magnetic = 200 Nm field is furthest from the axis) b) T = 25 x 0.10 x 4 x cos 45 = 0.28 Nm c) T = 25 x 0.10 x 4 x cos 90 = 0 Nm (the perpendicular distance from the axis is zero)

## Do questions from Motors & Generators BK p20 all questions

Electric Motors

Electric motors are everywhere! In your house, almost every mechanical movement that you see around you is caused by an AC or DC .. motor. An electric motor is all about magnets and magnetism: A motor uses magnets to create .. So if you have two bar magnets with their ends marked "north" and "south," then the north end of one magnet will attract the end of the other. On the other hand, the north end of one magnet will the north end of the other (and similarly, south will repel south). Inside an electric motor, these attracting and repelling forces create .. motion. Electric motors convert .. energy into energy. They operate on . or ... Motors can further be classified as: a) .. motors b) motors

Word Bank: AC, DC, commutator, electric, electrical, induction, mechanical, motion, repel, rotational, south

Electric Motors
Electric motors are everywhere! In your house, almost every mechanical movement that you see around you is caused by an AC or DC electric motor. An electric motor is all about magnets and magnetism: A motor uses magnets to create motion. So if you have two bar magnets with their ends marked "north" and "south," then the north end of one magnet will attract the south end of the other. On the other hand, the north end of one magnet will repel the north end of the other (and similarly, south will repel south). Inside an electric motor, these attracting and repelling forces create rotational motion. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. They operate on DC or AC. Motors can further be classified as: a) commutator motors b) induction motors http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d_aTC0i KO68&feature=endscreen&NR=1

Electric motors are an important application of the motor effect. An electric motor consists of:

a permanent external field magnet () and a coiled conducting armature (.) which is free to rotate within the field of the magnet. .

and a .. (designed differently if A.C. or D.C.) connects the armature to an external voltage source.

## The speed of rotation of a motor depends on:

the .. of current flowing through it, The .. of coils on the armature, the of the field magnet, The of the armature, and the mechanical .connected

to the shaft.
Word Bank: amount, brushes, commutator, load, number, permeability, rotor, stator, strength,

Electric motors are an important application of the motor effect. An electric motor consists of:

a permanent external field magnet (stator) and a coiled conducting armature (rotor) which is free to rotate within the field of the magnet. Brushes

and a commutator (designed differently if A.C. or D.C.) connects the armature to an Stator external voltage source.

## The speed of rotation of a motor depends on:

the amount of current flowing through it, the number of coils on the armature, the strength of the field magnet, the permeability of the armature, and the mechanical load connected to the shaft.

## Do questions from Motors & Generators BK http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0ajvcdfC p 65w&NR=1&feature=endscreen

Motors Everywhere!
The fan over the stove Tape player in the answering machine

## In the microwave oven

dispose-all under the sink The blender Electric can opener Refrigerator Power windows Electric toothbrush Fans for the heater and the radiator Windshield wipers Several in the VCR Many in a computer (each disk drive has two or three, plus there's a fan or two) Electric clocks

Clothes washer
Dryer Vacuum cleaner Electric drill Fan Hair dryer Electric razor The starter motor in a car Electric radio antennas Several in a CD player or tape deck Most toys that move have at least one motor The garage door opener

## Questions on Electric Motor

Q1. Which of the following procedures will not generate e.m.f? Holding a magnet stationary inside a coil. Rotating a coil in a magnetic field. Rotating a magnet around a stationary coil. Moving a bar magnet across a flat piece of metal. Q2. For which one of the following is an alternating current essential in its operation? An electromagnet A galvanometer A transformer An electric lamp Q3. Which of the following must be made from a material which maintains its magnetism? The commutator for a d.c. motor The magnet in a moving coil meter The core of a transformer The slip rings of an a.c. generator

Q4. A coil of copper wire wrapped around a core could be used as an electromagnet. Which of the following combinations would produce the strongest electromagnet?
Number of turns iron Number of turns Number of turns copper Number of turns iron - few, core - soft- few, core - steel - many, core - many, core - soft-

## Parts of a DC Electric Motor

Part
.

Description / Function

Rotor (armature) Stator The axle Terminals Split ring Commutator Brushes

Core

## Permanent external field magnet. This doesnt usually move.

A cylindrical ring mounted on the armature shaft consisting of a number of copper segments arranged around the shaft . Reverses the current direction each 180 rotation. Holds the armature and the commutator The iron portion of the rotor. This is usually made up of cylindrical laminated steel or iron plates. The rotor core is to enable the rotor to turn within the stator. The portion of the structure of a DC motor that rotates.

The ends of each wire (one wire for each pole) The motor brushes electrically connect the armature coils to the power source as the commutator rotates. Usually made of Carbon.

## Parts of a DC Electric Motor

Part
.

Description / Function The portion of the structure of a motor that rotates. Permanent external field magnet. This doesnt usually move.

## Holds the armature and the commutator

The ends of each wire (one wire for each pole) A cylindrical ring mounted on the armature shaft consisting of a number of copper segments arranged around the shaft. Reverses the current direction each 180 rotation. The motor brushes electrically connect the armature coils to the power source as the commutator rotates. Usually made of Carbon.

The iron portion of the rotor. This is usually made up of cylindrical laminated steel or iron plates. The rotor core is to enable the rotor to turn within the stator.

Word Bank: The axle, Brushes, Core, Rotor (armature), Split ring Commutator, Stator, Terminals

## Answers: Parts of a DC Electric Motor

. Part

Description / Function The portion of the motor that rotates. Permanent external field magnet. This doesnt usually move. Holds the armature and the commutator. The ends of each wire (one wire for each pole). A cylindrical ring mounted on the armature shaft consisting of a number of copper segments arranged around the shaft. Reverses the current direction each 180 rotation. The motor brushes electrically connect the armature coils to the power source as the commutator rotates. Usually made of Carbon. The iron portion of the rotor. This is usually made up of cylindrical laminated steel or iron plates. The rotor core is to enable the rotor to turn within the stator.

Rotor (armature) Stator The axle Terminals Split ring Commutator Brushes

Core

Questions on DC Motors
Q1. Which part of a simple d.c. motor reverses the direction of current through the coil every half-cycle? The armature The split rings The brushes The slip rings Q2. Which of the following best describes the effects of doubling the speed of rotation of a d.c. motor? Maximum output voltage halved and frequency halved Maximum output voltage doubles and frequency halved Maximum output voltage halved and frequency doubles Maximum output voltage doubles and frequency doubles Q3. What is the purpose of the carbon brushes in a d.c. motor? Reverse the current through the coil every half-turn. Q4. Why is a commutator used in a d.c. motor? It allows the coil to rotate by preventing the Supply current to the motor. wires Provide sliding contact with rotating split rings. from being tangled. Ensure that magnetic field lines are being cut. It allows the coil to rotate by reversing the current through the coil every half-turn. http://10.28.168.30:9053/Player.htm?358 It produces greater turning effect by becoming magnetically induced. It produces a greater turning effect by increasing the

AC Motors

As in the DC motor case, a current is passed through the coil, generating a .. on the coil. Since the current is alternating, the motor will run smoothly only at the frequency of the sine wave. It is called a . motor.

More common is the .. motor, where electric current is induced in the rotating coils rather than supplied to them directly.
One of the drawbacks of this kind of AC motor is the high current which must flow through the rotating contacts. . and . at those contacts can waste energy and shorten the lifetime of the motor.

Word bank: heating, induction, Sparking, synchronous, torque Question: From the point of view of the commutator which way is this armature rotating.

AC Motors

As in the DC motor case, a current is passed through the coil, generating a torque on the coil. Since the current is alternating, the motor will run smoothly only at the frequency of the sine wave. It is called a synchronous motor.

More common is the induction motor, where electric current is induced in the rotating coils rather than supplied to them directly.
One of the drawbacks of this kind of AC motor is the high current which must flow through the rotating contacts. Sparking and heating at those contacts can waste energy and shorten the lifetime of the motor.

Commutators
The main purpose of the commutator is

Split Ring

Slip Ring

## Draw the two types of commutators

Commutators
The main . of the commutator is to make sure the . into the armature maintains the correct . so the armature rotates in the same . direction. DC and AC commutators are designed . to ensure this occurs.

Split Ring

Slip Ring

## Draw the two types of commutators

Commutators
The main purpose of the commutator is to make sure the current into the armature maintains the correct direction so the armature rotates in the same continuous direction. DC and AC commutators are designed differently to ensure this occurs.

Split Ring

Slip Ring

## Draw the two types of commutators

Galvanometers
The D'Arsonval galvanometer is a moving coil ammeter. It uses magnetic deflection, where current passing through a coil causes the coil to move in a magnetic field. The voltage drop across the coil is kept to a minimum to minimize resistance across the ammeter in any circuit into which it is inserted. The modern form of this instrument was developed by Edward Weston, and uses two spiral springs to provide the restoring force. By maintaining a uniform air gap between the iron core of the instrument and the poles of its permanent magnet, the instrument has good linearity and accuracy. Basic meter movements can have full-scale deflection for currents from about 25 microamperes Analog electric meters (i.e., galvanometer, ammeter, to 10 millamperes and have linear scales. voltmeter) operate on the motor principle. Activity: Do Questions from Motors & Generators BK p 45? Q1 to 5

Loudspeakers
The fluctuating magnetic field in the coil is produced due to the fluctuating current which causes the coil and cone to vibrate in response to these current fluctuations and produce sound. Activity: Create a step by step guide on how a loudspeaker works using the paragraph above. Steps: 1. Coil attached to a AC supply sets up a fluctuating magnetic field. 2. The permanent magnet produces a magnetic field.

3. These two interacting fields cause the coil to vibrate towards and away from the permanent magnet.
4. This vibrating coil attached to a cone makes the cone also vibrate. i.e. sound. Question: Does the loudspeaker utilise the motor effect? Explain.

Loudspeakers/ Galvanometer
Activity: Create a step by step guide on how a loudspeaker or Galvanometer work and draw a labelled diagram.
Steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Since an electric current can produce a magnetic field. Faraday asked: Can a magnet create a electric current? Answer: Yes as long as the magnet moves inside a coil. This is the way we produce electricity. A changing magnetic field will induce a changing electric current. This is called Faradays law of induction. = - d dt where is the magnetic flux

Did you know ? Newton was born the year Galileo died, Maxwell was born in 1831, the year Faraday discovered EM induction and died in 1879 the year of Einsteins Birth.

Q1. The diagram shows a permanent magnet moving up and down on the end of a spring. The movement of the magnet induces an e.m.f. in the coil. Which factor, on its own, would decrease the maximum value of the induced e.m.f.? a) Increasing the number of turns on the coil b) Increasing the strength of the magnet c) Raising the coil d) Raising the support of the spring

Q2. If a bar magnet is pushed into a solenoid, an e.m.f. will be induced across the ends of the solenoid. This e.m.f. can be made larger by a) using a bar of soft iron instead of a magnet. b) using a solenoid made of low resistance wire. c) moving the magnet more quickly. d) connecting a voltmeter across the solenoid.

Electromagnetic Induction
An electric current is induced in a conductor as it moves relative to a magnetic field. The term induction refers to a temporary condition in the circuit, and the induced current disappears when the event causing induction stops.

## Induction of a current in a coil of wire

Whenever there is a change in the number of magnetic field lines passing through a loop of wire a voltage (or emf) is generated (or induced) in the loop of wire. This is how an electric generator works. The phenomenon is known as electromagnetic induction and is explained by Faraday's law of induction.

Lenzs Law

Lenzs Law was formulated by the German physicist Heinrich Lenz in 1834, over a decade after Faraday and Henry had discovered electromagnetic induction. Lenzs Law gives the direction of the induced electromotive force and current resulting from electromagnetic induction. He discovered that the magnetic field of an induced current always opposes the change in magnetic field that is causing the induced current. An example of this is when the north pole of a magnet approaches a helix, the induced current forms a second north pole which repels the first. If the north pole of the magnet is moved away from the helix, then the induced current sets up a south pole to attract the bar magnet and again opposes the motion of the magnet.

The above scenario is only one example of electromagnetic induction. Lenz's Law ensures that all induced currents have magnetic fields that oppose the change that induces them. Lenzs law is a direct application of the principle of conservation of energy. The induced current must have received energy in order to begin to flow.

Lenzs Law states: that the .. of the induced . is such that the current it produces creates a . field .. the change that produced this emf. This is equivalent to an emf in the opposite direction to the applied emf (hence . emf). Word Bank: back, emf, direction, magnetic, opposing,

## Q2. Describe what is happening in diagram 2.

Lenzs Law
Lenzs Law states: that the direction of the induced emf is such that the current it produces creates a magnetic field opposing the change that produced this emf. This is equivalent to an emf in the opposite direction to the applied emf (hence back emf). http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kU6NSh7hr7Q&feature=related Q1. Describe what is happening in diagram 1. As the north pole of the magnet approaches the coil, a current is induced in the coil that makes the end closest to the magnet a North pole, so as to oppose the entry of the bar magnet. (Use right hand grip rule). The needle in the galvanometer moves to the left indicating the flow of current. Q2. Describe what is happening in diagram 2.

Questions:
Work out the direction of the current in each of the solenoids (draw coils and current direction), and the north and south poles of the solenoids due the bar magnet movement. (All coils are attached to a galvanometer).
1.

2. N S S N

3. S N

4. N

## What happens to the coil on the trolley?

1. S N S 2. S S N

3.

4.

## The trolley moves away from the bar magnet.

A neutral, straight, conducting wire contains equal amounts of positive and negative charges. However, the electrons are free to move inside the wire, while the positive nuclei are not.

If a straight conducting wire is placed in a plane perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field, and is moving in a direction perpendicular to the field, then each charge q in the wire experiences a magnetic force of magnitude F = qvB. The negatively charged electrons will accelerate in response to this force. Since they cannot leave the wire, negative charge will accumulate on one end of the wire, while positive charge will be left behind on the other end. The separated charges produce an electric field, which exerts a force on the other charges in the wire. This electric force opposes the magnetic force. Once the electric force is strong enough to cancel the magnetic force, electrons will no longer accelerate, and their net motion will stop due to the resistance of the wire. We then have qvB = qE. The electric

Questions:
Determine the direction of the induced current in each of the questions below. Use the RHPR.

a)

b)

c)

d)

Red line represents the conductor. Green arrow the applied force direction. Brown dots and orange crosses the direction on the magnetic field.

Questions:
Determine the direction of the induced current in each of the questions below. Use the RHPR.

a)

b)

c)

d)

Purple arrow represents the direction of the induced force Red arrow represent the direction of the induced current

## Questions on Lenzs Law

Q1. When a magnet was pushed towards a solenoid, the sensitive meter connected to the solenoid deflected to the right. When the same magnet was pulled away from the solenoid at the same speed, what was the deflection on the meter?

Q2. A bar magnet is rotated on a shaft near to a coil as shown. A cathoderay oscilloscope connected to the coil indicates the induced e.m.f. Which change does not increase the size of the induced e.m.f.? Moving the magnet closer to the coil . Turning the magnet in the opposite direction at a greater speed. Turning the magnet in the opposite direction at the same speed. Using a coil with more turns.

## The same but to the left

Greater but to the right Greater but to the left

A magnet is moved quickly towards a wire loop as shown. The flux through the wire loop (red) is increasing. A current starts flowing in the loop. The magnetic field produced by this current opposes the flux changes that produce it.

## Induced currents in coils caused by changes in magnetic flux

Each magnet is moved in a certain direction and induces a current in the loop of wire that will cause a magnetic field to be induced so as to hindered the movement of the magnet.

## Lenzs Law and Loops

Lenz's law describes the tendency of nature to resist any change in magnetic flux passing through a loop of wire. Changes in flux can be canceled by inducing a magnetic field in the appropriate direction.

## Question: Lenzs Law and Loops

The problem statement, all variables and given/known data A loop rests in the xy plane. The z axis is normal to the plane and positive upward. The direction of the changing flux is indicated by the arrow on the z axis. The diagram that correctly shows the direction of the resultant induced current in the loop is:-

## Correct one is Figure 4. The magnetic flux in this one is increasing in

the -z-direction. From Lenz's Law, there is an opposition to this change, so the induced current will be counter-clockwise, which corresponds to the +z-direction?

1. The problem: The figures show two different situations where a current may be induced in a loop according to Faraday's Law, with the direction given by Lenz' Law. The magnetic field is shown by the x's in Fig. 2. Select ALL correct answers for the current in the loop. A) fig2: Loop moving North, induced current `b'.
B) fig1: Magnet moving West, induced current `a'. C) fig2: Loop moving South, no induced current. D) fig1: Loop moving West, induced current `a'.

## E) fig2: Loop moving East, induced current `b'.

F) fig1: Magnet moving East, induced current `a'.

CDEF

Slidewire generator
Because the magnetic flux () through the loop is changing there is an emf induced in the loop in accordance with Faraday's law.

The induced current (I) causes a force F =B I L to be exerted on the purple bar.

This force is in the direction opposite (left), to the original velocity v (right).

If we place the wire on a conducting rail, a current will start to flow in the circuit formed by the rail and the wire.

Electric Generators
Electric Generators (alternator (AC), or dynamo (DC)) are a group of devices used to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy by electromagnetic means. The armature, which is the structure supporting the conductors cuts the magnetic field and carries the induced (Dynamo) a generator. Below Generator (Alternator) DC Generator current in AC shows one complete rotation of a rectangular coil. Voltage Curve Voltage Curve Voltage Voltage

Time

Time

The result is that current flows in one direction only and the voltage is always above the zero line.

This is a sine curve. In positions 1, 3, 5 the coil does not cut the flux lines and therefore the current is zero.

DC Generator (Dynamo)

In a DC generator the direction of the induced current in the loops must be changed one-half turn of the generator shaft. This is done with rings on the rotating armature contacting the stationary ." which are in turn connected to the wires coming out of the generator.

DC Generator

In a DC generator the direction of the induced current in the loops must be changed every one-half turn of the generator shaft. This is done with split rings on the rotating armature contacting the stationary "brushes" which are in turn connected to the wires coming out of the generator.

AC Generator

The ac generator uses Faraday's laws of induction, it consists of a coil of wire rotating a magnetic field. As the coil rotates it cuts the magnetic flux generating an EMF, the EMF produced is given by Faraday's law.

The electrons flow first in one direction and then, in the other. The generator produces an alternating current. One advantage that AC has over DC is that it can easily be "stepped up" or "stepped down" with a transformer.

AC Generator (Alternator)

In an AC electric generator, or , the flux through the loops of wire (wound on the armature) ., and therefore according to Faraday's law there will be an emf induced in the loops of wire. This induced emf causes a current to flow in the loops.

AC Generator

In an AC electric generator, or alternator, the flux through the loops of wire (wound on the armature) changes, and therefore according to Faraday's law there will be an emf induced in the loops of wire. This induced emf causes a current to flow in the loops.

## Question: AC Generator Voltage

A simple a.c. generator produces a voltage which varies with time as shown in the diagram above. Which graph below shows how the voltage varies with time when the speed of rotation is halved?

## Polyphase Motors/ Generators

By having 3 sets of armature coils separated by 120 three emfs (and currents) can be produced during each revolution. Such 3 phase generators or motors are more efficient than single phase ones. These motors are limited primarily to industrial applications (for higherpower) although they may be used in air conditioning units around the home. The starting & reversing torque characteristics of these motors are exceptionally good.

## emf (electromotive force)

A synonym for voltage that is usually restricted to generated voltage. i.e. what the power pack produces in the school science lab. If the term electromotive force is used, it is not a force, but energy per unit charge. Explanation: When a conductor is connected across the terminals of a battery or electric cell, a flow of charge (I) results. As the charges flow through the energy source they gain energy. The emf of a source of electrical energy is defined as the energy supplied to each unit of charge that passes through the source, i.e.

## = emf = energy supplied

charge Although potential difference and emf have the same unit and we think of them the same they are actually different. Explanation: When a charge q moves through a potential difference of V volts across a conductor, it does work given by W = qV. This work is equal to the energy transformed to heat in the conductor. Potential difference measures the energy released by the electric charge per unit of charge, i.e. p.d = potential difference = energy released charge

Back emf
The emf that a motor generates is called the back emf. The back emf increases with the speed, because of Faraday's law. So, if the motor has no load, it turns very quickly and speeds up until the back emf, plus the voltage drop due to losses, equal the supply voltage. The back emf can be thought of as a 'regulator': it stops the motor turning too quickly.

## Question: Q1. Why does a motor generate a back emf?

By Lenz's law, the emf generated by the motor coil will oppose the change that created it. Therefore an emf in the opposite direction will be generated (induced).

Eddy Currents
Definition: Localised currents induced in an iron or steel core by alternating magnetic flux. Explanation: When a metal sheet is present in the magnetic field, electromagnetic induction causes an eddy current perpendicular to the magnetic flux lines to flow on the surface of the sheet. Results: These currents translate into energy in the form of heat. The minimization of this heat is an important factor in lamination design in both motors and generators. In the case of solid conductors like metal sheets these currents are circular. Uses: These currents are used in:1.
2.

Electromagnetic braking
Induction cooking

## How to work out Direction of Eddy Currents in Sheets of Metal

Pick a point on the metal surface in the magnetic field but close to where the field ends. Since the eddy current must oppose the motion of the metal sheet (by Lenzs Law), the eddy current will cause a force on the sheet in the opposite direction to the motion of the sheet. So, the force is back towards the left, the field is into the page & therefore by the RHPR, the eddy current must move up towards the top of the page. Since the eddy current forms at the boundary of the magnetic field (ie where the magnetic flux changes from a particular value to zero), the eddy current will form in a clockwise direction in this case, as shown. In other words, the circle must come out of the field, not go further back into the field.

Example:
Here we examine a different method of changing the magnetic field inside a loop of wire. The yellow is a region of constant magnetic field (into the screen). When we move the loop across this region, since the area affected by the magnetic field changes, the loop senses a changing magnetic field, and a current is induced in the loop. Notice here that when the loop is completely outside or inside this region of constant magnetic field, there is no current.

Graph the changing emf occurring as the loop enters then passes through the magnetic field and out the other side. (x-axis = time; y-axis = emf strength)

Uses of Induction

Electromagnetic Breaking eddy currents Induction cooking eddy currents Transformers AC induction motor - Squirrel cage - Synchronous motors

Electromagnetic Braking
Electromagnetic braking relies on the opposing effect of the induced currents to create a retarding force on a conductor, such as:

## sheet metal on certain fun park rides

In Science triple beam balances.

Since the effect is greatest when the wheels of a train are moving fastest, it follows that as the wheels slow down the braking decreases resulting in smooth braking.
Reducing Eddy Currents: The eddy currents can be reduced though by creating slits in the metal wheels or the sheet metal. What this does is reduce the size of the eddy currents that can form. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gK9LD1G6fX8&feature=related

Induction Cooking
Induction cookers use coils placed beneath a glass ceramic cook top to generate heat for cooking. Steps:
1. 2. 3.

Alternating current in the coil sets up an oscillating magnetic field Which induces eddy currents in metal pans, placed in the vicinity of the varying magnetic field. These currents cause the metal to get hot and therefore heat its contents. Advantages: Almost all the heat goes into heating the pan and its contents and not the element. Therefore it is cheaper to operate i.e. More efficient. The glass ceramic cook top is easy to clean as it is flat with no depressions. Q1. Why do the metal pans have induced eddy currents and not the egg? A1. Free electrons available to move.

Transformers
Transformers are devices for transferring electrical energy from one circuit to another while changing the size of an AC voltage.

They are composed of: Two coils of wire (primary and secondary) Iron core Changing AC supply connected to the primary coil

The changing AC voltage in the primary coil sets up a changing magnetic field (flux) in the iron core. And by mutual induction this changing magnetic field induces a voltage in the secondary coil. Question : The diagram shows what type of transformer? (Step up or step down) Answer: Step up

Transformers
Transformers allow 240V to be stepped down to convenient levels for digital electronics (only a few volts) or for other low power applications (typically 12V). List 2 devices that use lower than 240V in your house and 2 devices that use higher than 240V in your house or factories

## Higher than 240V

The core has high magnetic permeability, i.e a material that forms a magnetic field much more easily than free space does, due to the orientation of atomic dipoles.
In the diagram, the core is laminated soft iron. The result is that the field is concentrated inside the core, and almost no field lines leave the core. It follows that the magnetic fluxes through the primary and secondary coils are approximately equal.

Transformers
Transformers allow 240V to be stepped down to convenient levels for digital electronics (only a few volts) or for other low power applications (typically 12V). List 2 devices that use lower than 240V and 2 devices that use higher than 240V.

## Lower than 240V

Laptop School Power Packs

## Higher than 240V

TV

The core (shaded) has high magnetic permeability, i.e a material that forms a magnetic field much more easily than free space does, due to the orientation of atomic dipoles.

In the diagram the core is laminated soft iron. The result is that the field is concentrated inside the core, and almost no field lines leave the core. It follows that the magnetic fluxes through the primary and secondary coils are approximately equal.

## Step Up / Step Down

Transformers Voltage Purpose

## Vp = Is = Np Vs Ip Ns From the conservation of energy

Power in = power out VI (primary coil) = VI (secondary coil) VpIp = VsIs, Vp/Vs = Is/Ip
So you don't get something for nothing: if you increase the voltage, you decrease the current by the same factor. In some cases, decreasing the current is the aim of the exercise. In power transmission lines, for example, the power lost in heating the wires due to their resistance is proportional to the square of the current. P = IR . So it saves a lot of energy to transmit the electrical power from power station to city at very high voltages so that the currents are only modest.

Questions:
Q1. A transformer has a primary of 5000 turns and a secondary of 250 turns. If the primary voltage is 240V what is the secondary voltage?
Q2. A 12V 24W globe is connected to the secondary in the previous example. If it operates at its correct power rating: a) What power is used in the primary? b) What current is in the primary? Q3. What is the turns ratio in the school transformers when it produces 12V?

Solutions:
A1. Vp = Np Vs = Ns
240 = 5000 Vs 250

## A2. a) Assuming a perfect transformer power in = power out VpIp = 24W

b) VpIp = 24W Ip = 24 / 240 Ip = 0.1A

## A3. Vp =240 Vs =12

r = Np /Ns = Vp/Vs = 240 / 12

Vs = 12V

Np : Ns 20 : 1

## Do questions: Motors & Generators p47

Questions on Transformers
Q1. A transformer consists of a coil of 1200 turns and another coil, with total of 120 turns, which can be tapped at various places. Which pair of terminals would you connect to a 12 V, 24 W lamp for it to be lit normally? RT RV SU TV
Q2. A step-up transformer has a turns ratio of 1:100. An alternating supply of 20 V is connected across the primary coil. What is the secondary voltage? 0.2 V 5V 100 V 2000 V

Q4. What is the purpose of a step-down transformer? It makes the output current lower than the input current.

Q3. A transformer is needed to convert a mains 240 V supply to a 12 V supply. If there are 2000 turns on the primary coil, how many turns should there be on the secondary coil? 100 200 24 000 90 000

## It makes the output current equal to the input current.

It makes the output voltage higher than the input voltage. It makes the output voltage lower than the input voltage.

Transformers
AC vs DC

Transformers only work on AC, which is one of the great advantages of AC. Without transformers, the waste of electric power in distribution networks, already high, would be enormous. It is possible to convert voltages in DC, but more complicated than with AC. Further, such conversions are often inefficient and/or expensive. AC has the further advantage that it can be used on AC motors, which are usually AC DC preferable to DC motors for high power applications. Transformers function using Complicated conversion Efficiency Expensive

Transformers
AC vs DC

Transformers only work on AC, which is one of the great advantages of AC. Without transformers, the waste of electric power in distribution networks, already high, would be enormous. It is possible to convert voltages in DC, but more complicated than with AC. Further, such conversions are often inefficient and/or expensive. AC has the further advantage that it can be used on AC motors, which are usually AC preferable to DC motors for high power applications.DC
Transformers function using Complicated conversion Efficiency Y N Good N Y Poor

Expensive

Low

High

Efficiency of transformers
In practice, real transformers are less than 100% efficient. 1. Resistive losses in the coils (losing power I.r) For a given material, the resistance of the coils can be reduced by making their cross section large. The resistivity can also be made low by using high purity copper. 2. Eddy current losses in the core. These can be reduced by laminating the core. Laminations reduce the area for eddy currents to form, and therefore the energy thust lost. How Describe

## Resistive losses in Losing power. Equation I.r coils

Resistive losses in Type of material coils Reduce the area for eddy Eddy current currents to form in the losses in core core.

## Making the coil cross section large reduces resistivity

Using high purity copper reduces resistivity Laminating the core reduces eddy currents

Laminations
Early designers of AC motors encountered problems traced to losses unique to alternating current magnetics. Both rotor and stator cores of AC motors are composed of a stack of insulated laminations. The laminations are coated with insulating varnish before stacking and bolting into the final form. Eddy currents are minimized by breaking the potential conductive loop into smaller segments. The thin isolated laminations break these loops. Also, the silicon (a semiconductor) added to the alloy used in the laminations increases electrical resistance which decreases the magnitude of eddy currents.

Induction Motors
Is an alternating current motor where the primary winding on one member (usually the stator) is connected to the power source. A secondary winding on the other member (usually the rotor) carries the induced current. There is no physical connection to the secondary winding; its current is induced. The AC induction motor was invented in 1888 by Tesla. Prior to this only DC motors were known.

## Induction Motors in your Home

Believe it or not, nearly everyone you know has induction motors within every home. These motors are often called "squirrel cage motors" and are in washing machines, dryers, water pumps and many other devices. Besides being numerous and cheap they use no brushes and do not produce any RFI (Radio Frequency Interference. OK, what is so great about it? There is nothing complicated about the conversion, no weird rewiring, no complicated math! There are no brushes to wear out. They can not be overloaded; if too much of a load is applied, it simply quits. Removing the load will usually cause the motor to start again. Typical electric squirrel cage motors

## Squirrel Cage Induction Motors:

The single-phase AC induction motor is the most common AC motor in use today. A changing magnetic field in the stator induces an AC current in the rotor. The current in the rotor produces its own magnetic field, which then interacts with the magnetic field of the stator, causing the rotor to turn. Clearly, the name induction motor comes from the fact that no current is fed directly to the rotor from the mains supply. Current is induced in the rotor by the changing magnetic field of the stator. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HWrNzU the Activity: Create a flow diagram of how Cjbkk&feature=related Squirrel cage induction motor works from the

## Flow Diagram of How an AC Induction Motor works

A changing magnetic field in the stator

## The current in the rotor produces its own magnetic field

Which then interacts with the magnetic field of the stator, causing the rotor to turn.

The rotor turns in the same direction as the stators magnetic field

The Rotor

The r.. of an induction motor consists of a c.. arrangement of c. or a. conducting b attached to two end r.. at either end of the bars. These end rings short circuit the bars and allow current to flow from one side of the cylinder to the o. This type of rotor is usually referred to as a s. c owing to its resemblance to the cage or wheel that people use to exercise pet squirrels or mice.

The squirrel cage fits into a laminated iron core or armature, which is mounted on the shaft of the motor.

Word Bank: aluminium, bars, cage, copper, cylindrical, other, rings, rotor, squirrel

The Rotor

The rotor of an induction motor consists of a cylindrical arrangement of copper or aluminum conducting bars attached to two end rings at either end of the bars. These end rings short circuit the bars and allow current to flow from one side of the cylinder to the other. This type of rotor is usually referred to as a squirrel cage, owing to its resemblance to the cage or wheel that people use to exercise pet squirrels or mice.

The squirrel cage fits into a laminated iron core or armature, which is mounted on the shaft of the motor.

The Stator
The stator consists of a number of coils of wire wrapped on laminated iron cores. The stator s the rotor. Single-phase alternating current flowing through the stator coils produces a c.... magnetic field that threads through the rotor. This changing magnetic field i... an alternating current in the rotor, which in turn sets up its own changing m field. The changing magnetic field produced by the stator actually rotates and drags the magnetic field of the rotor around with it. Thus, the rotor rotates in the s.. direction as the rotating field of the stator. Questions: Q1. The Squirrel cage is the (rotor/stator). Q2. Which one moves, the rotor or stator? Q3. Is there any contact between the rotor and stator? Q4. Which (rotor/ stator) is on the inside? Q4. How is an induction motor different from a normal AC motor?

The Stator
The stator consists of a number of coils of wire wrapped on laminated iron cores. The stator surrounds the rotor. Single-phase alternating current flowing through the stator coils produces a changing magnetic field that threads through the rotor. This changing magnetic field induces an alternating current in the rotor, which in turn sets up its own changing magnetic field. The changing magnetic field produced by the stator actually rotates and drags the magnetic field of the rotor around with it. Thus, the rotor rotates in the same direction as the rotating field of the stator.
Questions: Q1. The Squirrel cage is the (rotor/stator). Q2. Which one moves, the rotor or stator? Rotor Q3. Is there any contact between the rotor and stator? No Q4. Which (rotor/ stator) is on the inside? Rotor Q4. How is an induction motor different from a normal AC motor? No Brushes or connection between stator and rotor.

## Diagram of Induction Motor

Label the diagram below.

stator

## Question: Induction Motors

Q1. Discuss the reason why induction based electric motors are the most common motors in use today. Make sure you list the advantages of induction motors over commutator and brush type motors. Q2. List some common devices that use induction motors. A1. There is no physical connection to the secondary winding; its current is induced. Therefore less wear and tear as no commutator or brushes are involved. This leads to less maintenance and is more cost efficient. They can not be overloaded; if too much of a load is applied to the motor, it simply quits. Removing the load will usually cause the motor to start again. Do not produce any RFI (Radio Frequency Interference). A2. Air conditioners, vacuum cleaners, washers, dryers, fans, garden leaf blowers, most motorised kitchen appliances that run on AC supply.

Induction Motor

## This is a cut-away of a industrial three phase AC motor.

Synchronous Motor
A synchronous motor is composed of the following parts: A three-phase medium voltage stator similar to that of an induction motor. A wound rotor (rotating field) which has the same number of poles as the stator Is supplied by an external source of direct current (DC). Large machines may include additional parts for cooling the machine, supporting the rotor, lubricating and cooling the bearings, and various protection and measurement devices.

## How a Synchronous Motor Works

The operation of a synchronous motor is simple to imagine. The armature winding, when excited by a poly-phase (usually 3-phase) supply, creates a rotating magnetic field inside the motor. The field winding, which acts as a permanent magnet, simply locks in with the rotating magnetic field and rotates along with it. During operation, as the field locks in with the rotating magnetic field, the motor is said to be in synchronization. Once the motor is in operation, the speed of the motor is dependent only on the supply frequency. When the motor load is increased beyond the break down load, the motor falls out of synchronization i.e., the applied load is large enough to pull out the field winding from following the rotating magnetic field. The motor immediately stalls after it falls out of synchronization.

## Explaining How the Synchronous Motor Works in the Animation

First stare at the pole of the top-most (orange) winding. Observe that it pulses alternately red and blue, indicating that the current in the winding generates alternately a north and south magnetic pole here. This is, of course, due to the current in the winding passing first in one direction and then the other. Now look at all the other orange windings. Their poles pulse in the same pattern as the top one and at the same time. The orange winding are all connected together and carry the same current. Next, look at the green windings. Their poles pulse in the same way, but not at the same time. This is also true of the magenta windings. To see how the different windings generate magnetic poles moving in a circular manner, wait for a red (or blue, if you prefer) pulse at one pole and then move your eyes to the next counter clockwise winding and wait for your color there. It should take about a second. With a little practice, you will be able to follow a pulse around the stator. Now for the really tricky part. As you follow a red pulse around the stator poles, glance at the rotor and note the positions of the magnetic poles there. You will see a red rotor pole being "pushed" around in front of the red pulse you're following by magnetic repulsion. You will also see a blue rotor pole being "pulled" by magnetic attraction behind the red pulse you're following. That's it. That's how it works.

The initial cost of a synchronous motor is more than that of a conventional AC induction motor due to the expense of the wound rotor and synchronizing circuitry. These initial costs are often off-set by: Precise speed regulation makes the synchronous motor an ideal choice for certain industrial processes and as a prime mover for generators. Are available in small sizes for applications requiring precise timing such as time keeping, (clocks) and tape players. Synchronous motors have speed / torque characteristics which are ideally suited for direct drive of large horsepower, low-rpm loads such as reciprocating compressors.

AC Synchronous Motor
Synchronous motors have the characteristics of constant speed between no load and full load. They are often used to drive DC generators. Synchronous motors are designed in sizes up to thousands of horsepower. They may be designed as either single-phase or multiphase machines.

In the diagrams above, we have a squirrel cage AC induction motor, and a synchronous motor. The inventor of the three-phase AC motor was Nikola Tesla.

## Induction v Synchronous Motors

Induction
The changing magnetic field produced by the stator actually rotates and drags the magnetic field of the rotor around with it.

Synchronous
Is an AC motor distinguished by a rotor spinning with coils passing magnets at the same rate as the alternating current thus resulting in a rotating magnetic field which drives it. Does not rely on slip under usual operating conditions and as a result, produces torque at synchronous speed. In other words they operate synchronously with line frequency. Speed is determined by the number of pairs of poles and the line frequency. Synchronous motors are available in subfractional sizes to high-horsepower direct-current industrial sizes. In the fractional horsepower range, synchronous motors are used where precise constant speed is required. In high-horsepower industrial sizes, the synchronous motor provides a highly efficient means of converting AC energy to work.

## Must slip in order to produce torque.

Speed is determined by the number of pairs of poles and the line frequency.

Power Transmission
In a power station a turbine drives the alternator. This is achieved either by:

Using the force of moving water (hydro-electricity) Using the pressure of steam produced by burning coal, oil, or natural gas Using the heat energy released from nuclear reactions

Each alternator produces 3 phase electricity with voltages as high as 25000V (25KV) and currents as large as 20000A. Large step up transformers further boost the voltage to as high as 500 000V (500KV) for distribution over the power lines which form part of the electricity grid. Additional transformers between the power stations and the consumer reduce energy losses and gradually lower the voltage so by the time it gets to household users it is 240V. Question:

Power Transmission

The transformer's ability to step AC voltage up or down with ease gives AC an advantage unmatched by DC in the realm of power distribution in figure below. When transmitting electrical power over long distances, it is far more efficient to do so with stepped-up voltages and stepped-down currents (smaller-diameter wire with less resistive power losses), then step the voltage back down and the current back up for industry, business, or consumer use.

## Energy Loses during Transmission

Even good electrical conductors like copper used to supply electricity, to cities and towns generate substantial resistances. (Resistance is proportional to the length of the conductor). To minimise energy losses in wires the current needs to be kept low and the voltage high. heat loses I

Question:
Q1. Why are there energy losses that occur as energy is fed through transmission lines from the generator to the consumer? Q2. A transmission cable has a resistance of 5. If 10KW of power is fed into the cable, calculate the power wasted in the cable if it is transmitted at: a) 1000V b) 100 000V

Solution:
A1. Resistance due to length of line and type of wire. A2.a) P = VI b) P = VI 10 000 = 1000 x I 10 000 = 100 000 x I I = 10A current in cable I = 0.1A Hence power dissipated in the cable is: P = I R = 10 x 5 = 500W Hence power loss in cable is: P = I R = 0.1 x 5 = 0.05W

## Safety with Power Transmission

Obviously high voltage transmission lines (500KV) need to be insulated from the tall towers that support them. If a tower was to become live it would kill any person who came in contact with it. Look at the photos on the next slide to help you. Protection Description How it works Ground Wires Shield Wire Porcelain

Distance

Tall Towers

## Answers: To Safety Features of Power Transmission

Protection
Ground Wires

Description
Typically, one or two ground wires are placed on top and extend to the ground via the pole. A protective wire strung above the conducting cables protects the transmission lines Insulators of glass or porcelain discs or composite insulators using silicone rubber or EPDM rubber material assembled in strings or long rods whose lengths are dependent on the line voltage and environmental conditions. Can be from 30m to 150m depending on the voltage in the lines. The more voltage the greater the distance. The height of the towers is proportional to the amount of voltage in the power lines

How it works
Intercept lightning and harmlessly divert it to ground to earth it, thus limiting damage to current carrying lines. It is designed to intercept a lightning strike and divert it to earth reducing excessive current passing through lines to houses. Used as a material to prevent electricity short circuiting and finding the path of least resistance (into the ground via the tower).

Shield Wire

Porcelain

## Distance Between Towers Tall Towers

To prevent one tower receiving a lightening strike passing the excessive current to the next tower. Distance from the ground prevents sparking from lines reaching the ground.

## Impact of Electrical Generation on Society

List 10 things that you would not be able to do if all electrical power suddenly stopped.

## Impact of Electrical Generation on Society

List 10 things that you would not be able to do if all electrical power suddenly stopped.

Watch TV
Use Computers Fill your car with petrol Watch a movie in a theatre Refrigerate food Work at night ( no lights) Shop ( cash register use electricity) Bank

## Cook hot food.

Social Implications
The advent of the Industrial Revolution saw textile looms powered by steam engines effectively wipe out the textile cottage industry. The demand for labour in the new factories led to mass migration of people from rural communities to the larger towns and cities. Poor working conditions, overcrowding, inadequate sanitation...... led to formation of slums with their associated social problems. Many of these problems were exacerbated with the introduction of electric lighting enabling workers to work even longer hours.

Industrial revolution Change of rural to urban societies increase in population density in cities Working hours increase night time shifts (as light globes now available to light factories) Electrical equipment and devices increase in homes and the work place electrical supply demand increases - Leisure activities using electronics increases Society no longer functions without electricity shops cant sell (cash registers etc) ATMs electronic cash.

Environmental Implications:
Today most electrical energy is produced in power stations that burn fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas) with their associated environmental costs of global warming and acid rain.

Burning of fossil fuel (coal in coal power stations) Greenhouse gases increase (CO2) Global warming increases Climate change - melting of ice caps - El nino floods etc

## History of Generators and Motors

History Two related physical principles underlie the operation of generators and motors. First observed by the French physicist Andr Marie Ampre in 1820. If a current is passed through a conductor located in a magnetic field, the field exerts a mechanical force on it. This principle is that of electromagnetic reaction. The first is the principle of electromagnetic induction discovered in 1831 by the British scientist and inventor Michael Faraday. If a conductor is moved through a magnetic field, or if the strength of a magnetic field passing through a stationary conducting loop is made to vary, a current is set up or induced in the conductor. Late 1860s Zenobe-Theoplie Gramme, a French engineer and inventor built a continuous-current generator that proved pivotal in accepting electric power generation. In 1873 an accidental discovery occured when two Gramme dynamos were connected together resulting in the second dynamo receiving current from the first and acting like a motor. Thomas Edison invented the incandescent light bulb in 1879. In 1882 Edisons Electric Light Company commenced installing lightning systems in homes. In the late 1880s, George Westinghouse and Thomas Edison became adversaries due to Edison's promotion of direct current (DC) for electric power distribution over alternating current (AC) advocated by Westinghouse and Nikola Tesla.

DVD: E = mc part 1

## Questions on the War of the Currents:

Q1. When did this War of Currents occur and between who? Q2. Discuss the disadvantages of the DC electrical delivery system? Q3. Explain why AC electricity eventually became the preferred mechanism to produce and distribute electricity on a commercial scale. Q4. List the demonstration activities that were done to discourage the use of AC.

## Answers to War of the Currents

A1. 1880s to 1890s between Edison and Westinghouse / Tesla. A2.

Different voltages could not so easily be used with the DC system because there was no efficient low-cost technology that would allow conversion of a high transmission voltage to a low utilization voltage or vice versa. Converting DC power from one voltage to another requires a large spinning rotary converter or motor-generator set, which was difficult, expensive, inefficient, and required maintenance. This meant that separate electrical lines had to be installed to supply power to appliances that used different voltages, for example, lighting and electric motors. This required more wires to lay and maintain, wasting money and introducing unnecessary hazards. The voltage drop due to the resistance of the system conductors was so high that generating plants had to be located within 1to 2 km or so of the load. Edison's response to the limitations of direct current was to generate power close to where it was consumed (today called distributed generation) and install large conductors to handle the growing demand for electricity, but this solution proved to be costly (especially for rural areas which could not afford to build a local station or to pay for massive amounts of very thick copper wire), impractical (inefficient voltage conversion) and unmanageable.

A3.
With AC the voltage can be changed with simple and efficient transformers that have no moving parts and require very little maintenance. This was the key to the success of the AC system. Example: Large loads, such as industrial motors or converters for electric railway power, could be served by the same distribution network that fed lighting, by using a transformer with a suitable secondary voltage.
Fewer, larger generating plants could serve the load in a given area, (such as hydroelectric sites located far from the loads). Alternating current could be transmitted over long distances at high voltages, using lower current, and thus lower energy loss and greater transmission efficiency, and then conveniently stepped down to low voltages for use in homes and factories.

## Edison spread disinformation on fatal AC accidents.

Lobbying against the use of AC in state legislatures. Edison directed his technicians, to preside over several AC-driven killings of animals, primarily stray cats and dogs, unwanted cattle and horses. Edison also tried to popularize the term for being electrocuted as being "Westinghoused". Edison opposed capital punishment, but his desire to disparage the system of alternating current led to the invention of the electric chair. Harold P. Brown, who was being secretly paid by Edison, built the first electric chair for the state of New York to promote the idea that alternating current was deadlier than DC. So on August 6, 1890, the technicians on hand misjudged the voltage needed to kill the condemned prisoner, William Kemmler. The first jolt of electricity was not enough to kill Kemmler, and only left him badly injured. The procedure had to be repeated and a reporter on hand described it as "an awful spectacle, far worse than hanging." George Westinghouse commented: "They would have done better using an axe Years after DC had lost the "war of the currents," in 1902, his film crew made a movie of the electrocution with high voltage AC, supervised by Edison employees, of Topsy, a Coney Island circus elephant which had recently killed three men.

Edison
Direct current worked well with incandescent lamps that were the principal load of the day, and with motors

## Westinghouse & Tesla

From his work with rotary magnetic fields, Tesla devised a system for generation, transmission, and use of AC power.

Direct-current systems could be directly used with storage batteries, providing valuable load-leveling and backup power during interruptions of generator operation. At the introduction of Edison's system, no practical AC motor was available
Edison had invented a meter to allow customers to be billed for energy proportional to consumption, but this meter only worked with direct current.

Tesla partnered with George Westinghouse to commercialize this system. Westinghouse had previously bought the rights to Tesla's polyphase system patents and other patents for AC transformers.

Tesla had worked for Edison but was undervalued (for example, when Edison first learned of Tesla's idea of alternating-current power transmission, he dismissed it: "[Tesla's] ideas are splendid, but they are utterly impractical."

Several undercurrents lay beneath this rivalry. Edison was a brute-force experimenter, but was no mathematician. AC cannot be properly understood or exploited without a substantial understanding of mathematics and mathematical physics, which Tesla possessed

Bad feelings were exacerbated because Tesla had been cheated by Edison of promised compensation for his work. Edison later came to regret that he had not listened to Tesla and used alternating current

## The Nail in the Coffin:

In 1893, NFPC (Niagara Falls Power Company) was finally convinced by George Forbes to award the contract ( proposal to harness Niagara Falls to generate electricity) to Westinghouse, and to reject General Electric and Edison's proposal. Work began in 1893 on the Niagara Falls generation project: power was to be generated and transmitted as alternating current, at a frequency of 25 Hz to minimize impedance losses in transmission (changed to 60 Hz in the 1950s). Some doubted that the system would generate enough electricity to power industry in Buffalo. Tesla was sure it would work, saying that Niagara Falls could power the entire eastern United States. None of the previous polyphase alternating current transmission demonstration projects were on the scale of power available from Niagara. On November 16, 1896, electrical power was transmitted to industries in Buffalo from the hydroelectric generators at the Edward Dean Adams Station at Niagara Falls. The generators were built by Westinghouse Electric Corporation using Tesla's AC system patent. The nameplates on the generators bore Tesla's name. To appease the interests of General Electric, they were awarded the contract to construct the transmission lines to Buffalo using the Tesla patents. Competition outcome: The successful Niagara Falls system was a turning point in the acceptance of alternating current. AC replaced DC for central station power generation and power distribution, enormously extending the range and improving the safety and efficiency of power distribution. Edison's low-voltage distribution system using DC was superseded by AC devices proposed by others: primarily Tesla's polyphase systems. Eventually, the General Electric company (formed by a merger between Edison's companies and the AC-based rival ThomsonHouston) began manufacture of AC machines. Centralized power generation became possible when it was recognized that alternating current electric power lines can transport electricity at low cost across great distances by varying the voltage across the distribution path using power transformers. The voltage is raised at the point of generation from a typical generated voltage of a few kilovolts (kV) to a much higher voltage (tens to hundreds of kV) for efficient primary transmission, followed by several downward transformations, ending at

## Remnant and extant DC systems

Some cities continued to use DC well into the 20th century. For example, central Helsinki had a DC network until the late 1940s, and Stockholm lost its dwindling DC network as late as the 1970s. A mercury arc valve rectifier station could convert AC to DC where networks were still used. Parts of Boston, Massachusetts along Beacon Street and Commonwealth Avenue still used 110 volts DC in the 1960s, causing many destroyed small appliances (typically hair dryers and phonographs) used by Boston University students who ignored warnings about the electricity supply. New York City's electric utility company, Consolidated Edison, continued to supply direct current to customers who had adopted it early in the twentieth century, mainly for elevators. The New Yorker Hotel, constructed in 1929, had a large direct-current power plant and did not convert fully to alternatingcurrent service until well into the 1960s. In January 1998, Consolidated Edison started to eliminate DC service. At that time there were 4,600 DC customers. By 2006, there were only 60 customers using DC service, and on November 14, 2007, the last directcurrent distribution by Con Edison was shut down. Customers still using DC were provided with on-site AC to DC rectifiers.