SOLAR ENERGY RESEARCH at IOC-R&D Centre, Faridabad

Dr. D.K. Tuli
General Manager (Alternate Energy)

Coverage


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Solar Energy Research Plan of IOC-R&D
Approach
Line of action (strategy) Basic research


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Solar Power Generation Plans of IOC
Solar Lanterns & other products Solar hydrogen dispensing station Large scale solar farms

Three-Pronged Approach

1. Infrastructure & Expertise Creation
2. Product Development & Technology Evaluation 3. Basic Research Projects

R&D Strategy - Infrastructure & Expertise Creation

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Set-up laboratory facility for testing of lanterns and other solar energy driven products Testing facility for solar panels

Up-gradation of laboratory facility • To certification level
– Discussions with TUV, Germany and Fraunhaufer, Germany

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For Solar Cell Research For Solar Thermal Research

pump systems etc) Technology advisory services – Based on global technology evaluation and relevant standards/regulations Plant monitoring. Electrical. output energy yields checks and evaluation – Data logging and analysis capabilities Damage & fault assessment – Determination and analysis of damages & malfunctions of the systems including required repairs .Targeted Areas of Expertise Solar PV • • • • • • Testing of Modules & Components of PV Systems – Mechanical. Environment & Other Related Tests Energy yield assessments – Study of local irradiation data & system details and long term yield forecasts compilation using simulations Site Condition Evaluation – Actual energy yield at the site including shadowing/seasoning and type of plant (off or on grid.

Necessity for Comprehensive Testing Why? • • • • • Prolonged exposure to weather and extreme temperature conditions Sturdiness of insulating materials Performance of wires Extent of current leakages Fire and health hazards For Whom ? Grid tied systems Government rebates and tax incentives House insurance Off-grid systems Current leakages Durability .

can earn extra revenue • All collaborative basic research efforts shall be helped by leveraging the lab facility successfully and the pace of development will be enhanced by aggressive institution/industrial collaborations .Benefits of Comprehensive Testing Facilities • – • • Setting up of complete laboratory facility Can be utilized for all R&D purposes as well as for certification purpose Sole Indian party status and second Asian certification country after Japan If utilized for certification.

Targeted Areas of Expertise Solar Thermal Basic research areas: • Advanced coatings • Improved reflectors • Advanced thermal collectors • High temperature resistant thermic fluids Applied research areas: • Hydrogen generation through solar thermal route •Advanced solar systems for • refinery steam pre-heating • solar assisted biomass gasifiers • air heating & drying etc. .

Hydrogen through Solar Energy .

R&D Strategy Product Development & Technology Evaluation – Technology / product tie-ups – – – – for LED lanterns & other appliances development for panels for solar thermal products IITs & CSIR labs such as CMERI. CAZRI etc – • Existing technology evaluation and data generation Actual field evaluation exercise on controlled basis on a 10 KWp size plant complete with data management facilities – Power generation & data logging to evaluate all possible commercial PV technologies amongst following : » » » » » – Mono and/or multi c-Si a-Si CPV CIGS CdTe Activity can be extended further for all remaining cell technologies under incubation . CEERI.

Basic research for Improved Solar Systems • • Focus on 3rd & 4th Generation PV Cells Solar thermal systems leading up-to hydrogen generation R&D Strategy – Basic Research .

Solar Lanterns from IndianOil Made for poor.a viable solar power generation for India . adored by rich…….

/ltr (Range) Unit Puri Sea beach Mostly small shops (39/500) 200/(50-500) 40 (10-70) 27/(23-30) Nolia basti./mont h (Range) Rs./day (Range) ltr/month (Range) Rs.Kerosene use ./day (Range) 1071/(250-1950) 4. Puri Mostly fishermen (49/700) 110/(75-200) 20 (7-35) 26.10 (3-5) 515/(280-900) 4. BBSR Slums (36/200) Not divulged Kerosene consumption SKO purchase @ price 23 (10-60) 25/(25-28) Monthly SKO spend Amount ready to pay for SL Rs.60 (3-5) .70 (3-12) 574/(250-1500) 4.Market Surveys Puri & Bhubaneswar Parameter Target segment Income Rs.30 (20-30) Unit-12.

very little maintenance • Near-zero heat – Can sit very close to lamp: boon to villagers & shopkeepers • Above all. 10-20 lumens (kerosene ‘dibri’) • No smoke – Virtual elimination of soot-related health hazard • Cheaper than kerosene lights • No moving parts.The hows & whys of solar lights Solar light brighter. endless source of energy . healthier & cheaper than kerosene lamps • Brighter than kerosene lights – 15-20 times better quality light • 150-200 lumens vs.

Central charging station with lanterns on rental for lowincome villagers – Regular income for the rural entrepreneur – Micro-financing by MFI/RRB/CB for purchase of lanterns by the poor 2. Solar lights with small panels for relatively well-off villagers – Direct purchase & use 3.Solar lighting options for the poor & 3 options middle class 1. Village adoption Options 1 & 2 practical for both urban & semi-urban customers •Low-income areas •Shops/mandis (marketplace) •Emergency lights .

Sathla KSK Rooftop solar panels.Solar Charging Station (SCS) The Concept • Solar charging stations – At RO/KSK/LPGD or Any central location • Direct charging during the day – Batteries inside the lanterns D(PBD) inaugurating SCS. Sathla KSK .

the charging station owner arranges for delivery & collection of lanterns . Customers bring the discharged lantern and take a charged lantern with them – Alternatively.Solar Charging Station (SCS) The Concept • Customers pay rent for lantern & a fee for charging lantern on a daily/monthly basis – Every evening.

IndianOil’s Solar Charging Station KSK. Sathla. UP .

IndianOil’s Solar Lantern Charging Rack KSK. Chokoni. UP .

IndianOil’s Solar Lantern in use Ujhari village. Gajraula. Bareily DO Sweet shops using IndianOil’s solar lanterns A chemist shop using IndianOil’s solar lanterns .

5 (Wp) 4 – 7 AH @ 6 .5 – 5 (Wp) Upto 7AH @ 12V Min 80% 4 hours IndianOil 2.Solar Lantern’s Specifications Parameters PV module Battery Electronic efficiency Average duty cycle per day MNRE 2.7 V Min 80% • Central charging Upto 6 hrs in full brightness  Upto 8 hrs in dimmer • Stand alone mode = 4 hrs Autonomy 14 hours Lux (1’) V=105 H=32 (*) Three categories .5 – 4.

5 AH @ 6/12 V Solar Lanterns 4.50 V > 190 H > 65 .5 Wp 5 AH @ 6 V Solar Petromax 8 Wp 12 AH @ 6 .INDIANOIL’s Solar Lanterns (Proposed Target Specifications ) Parameters PV module Battery Solar Lamp 2.7 V Electronic efficiency Average duty cycle per day Autonomy Min 80% Central charging  5-6 hrs in full brightness  7-8 hrs in dimmer Stand alone mode = 4 hrs Min 80% Central charging  5-6 hrs in full brightness  7-8 hrs in dimmer Stand alone mode = 4 hrs Min 80% Central charging  5-6 hrs in full brightness  7-8 hrs in dimmer Stand alone mode = 4 hrs Lux (1’) V = 70-104 H =15-25 V = 105-175 H = 26 .5 Wp Upto 3.

IOC-R&D Plan & Targets (2011-2013) • New product development – Rural usage • Lanterns • Solar powered fans • Pump sets • Street lights Urban usage • Home lighting systems • Fans • Garden lights • Mobile chargers • Street lights • Inverters • Captive power generating sets Miscellaneous (Industrial including commercial buildings) usage • Cookers • Power generating units – 2011 – • Demo Projects – – – Installation of solar powered systems within R&D Extending support to install solar systems in sister divisions Setting up some proven technological units in the country as demo units to leap-frog the technical know-how 2012-13 ~ 50+ MW (12000 ROs x 6 W/d x 200 days x 4 years) Solar Mission target = 200 MW for of-grid by 2013 .

Development of Solar based HCNG dispensing station at Delhi during Commonwealth Games Project Objectives To gain experience with onsite Solar Hydrogen Production infrastructure and Hydrogen HCNG utilization in automotive vehicles  To study performance. emission. reliability and safety aspects of hydrogen powered vehicles  To demonstrate Hydrogen / HCNG powered vehicles for public awareness and acceptance during Commonwealth Games .

Work Plan Work Plan IOC will set up on-site Solar Photovoltaic / Electrolyser based hydrogen dispensing station. The station will comprise the following Solar photovoltaic panels Electrolyser Hydrogen compressor Hydrogen Storage Blender & Dispenser .

99.No.999 % 3 H2 Compressor H2 Storage HCNG Blender Dispenser Suction Pressure: 5-10 bar Discharge Pressure: ~450 bar 4 5 6 Pressure 450 bar Blending Range: 0-50% (v/v) HCNG : 200-250 bar Hydrogen : 350 bar . 1 Description Solar Photovoltaic System Specification 25 kW (Peak.Infrastructure Required S.50 kWp) Output : 100 V (DC) 2 Electrolyser 5 Nm3/hr Purity.

development expertise and certification accreditations .Existing Fuels Facility Creation GOAL Product Development & Evaluation Long term Basic Research Competencies & Leadership Future Fuels Future Fuels A progressive & profitable energy centre of repute having international level research facilities.

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Basic Research on New Generation PV Cells Possibilities:  – – Multi junction devices Stacks of single junction cells in descending order of band-gap Top cell captures high-energy photons and passes rest on to lower band-gap cells  – – – New materials / material technologies Nano PV cells Dye sensitized cells Polymer cells  – Concentrator PV Concentrates and utilizes maximum sun power .

8% 86.8% PROS: • Multi junction is one of the approach to exceed single junction efficiencies • For 50% efficiency.9% 49.theoretical projections # Junctions in Cells 1 Sun µ Maximum Concentration µ 1 Junction 2 Junction 3 Junction n Junctions 30.8% 55.PV Cells…. it is mentioned that 5 junctions shall be needed assuming 80% absorption is possible CONS • The tandem approach is limited by the availability of stable materials of desired band gaps • Concentration possess challenges in acceptance angle and thermal management as the degree of concentration is increased .8% 42.3% 68..2% 40.7% 63.

Solar Energy Some Interdisciplinary Areas of R&D • Hydrogen generation through Solar Energy – Comparative study of PV & Thermal route • Building Integrated PhotoVoltaic – Emerging & promising area • Polymeric Materials and chemicals used in solar panels – Polymeric films – Adhesives • Hybrid Systems – Fuel cells – Combustion engineering .

28 IEEE 1262-5. snow. ice.14 IEC 62108-10.13 IEC 61646-10.Type Testing – SOLAR PV MECHANICAL TESTS Terminal Robustness Static Mechanical Load Test Tensile and/or torque test on electrical terminations to assess the ability to withstand the normal stresses associated with handling and insulation Determines the ability of the module to withstand wind.9 IEC 61215-10.12 IEC 61646-1014 UL 1703-22.17 ASTM E-1038 & E 822 IEEE 1262-5.17 IEC 62108-10.9 IEC 61646-10.3 UL 1703-39 IEC 61215-10. or other static load IEC 61215-10.11 .16 IEC 62108-10.12 IEC 61730-10.9 & 1513-5.16 UL 1703-39 IEEE 1262-5.11 Impact Test Surface Cut Susceptibility Junction Box Securement Hail Impact Test Assesses the adequacy of the system to withstand impact forces Verifies if the covering surface can withstand surface cuts Verifies if junction box can withstand tensile pull forces Simulates hail impact to determine the ability to withstand and survive severe hailstorm conditions UL 1703-29 UL 1703-24 IEEE 1262-5.14 & 1513-5.

11 IEC 62108-10.12 IEC 62108-10.7 & 1513-5. non-uniform or repeated changes of temperature Rapid cycling of both temperature and humidity extremes similar to thermal cycling with additional high humidity @ 10 cycles per 24 hour.8 UL 1703-36 IEEE 1262-5.6 IEC 61646-10.7 ASTM E 1171-6.8 IEC 61646-10.7 Humidity Freeze Cycling Damp Heat Test .8 ASTM E 1171-6.11 UL 1703-35 IEEE 1262-5.13 IEC 62108-10.8 & 1513-5.6 IEC 61215-10.10 ASTM E 1171-6. fatigue or other stresses caused by rapid.13 & 1513-5.7 IEC 61646-10.13 IEEE 1262-5.5 IEC 61215-10. Determines the ability to withstand high temperature and high humidity followed by freezing temperatures +85C & 85% RH for 1000 hours to test the ability to withstand the effects of long-term penetration of humidity IEC 61215-10.Type Testing – SOLAR PV ENVIRONMENTAL TESTS Thermal Cycling Rapid cycling of temperature extremes between -40 C and + 85C for 200 cycles at 6 hours per cycle to test the ability to withstand thermal mismatch.

1/7.5.5.5 IEC 61646-10.3 IEC 61730-2-10. Verifies the adequacy of electrical insulation between all active parts of the power generating circuit and the frame or the outside world Assesses the adequacy of thermal design and relative long-term reliability of bypass/blocking diodes used to limit the detrimental effects of system hotspot susceptibility Verify the insulation’s ability to withstand over-voltage IEC 62108-10.6 ASTM E 1462-7.Type Testing – SOLAR PV ELECTRICAL TESTS Ground Path Continuity / Bonding Path Resistance Electrical Isolation (Including wet/dry hipot.5.4/10.4.5.5.3 IEC 62108-10.18 IEC 62108-10.12 UL 1703-21 . leakage current and dielectric voltage withstand tests) Bypass / Blocking Diode Terminal Test (Nonintrusive) Impulse Voltage Verifies electrical continuity between all exposed conductive parts and the grounding point under high current condition Measures the quality of electrical insulation under various conditions.3 IEC 61215-10.15 IEEE 1513-5.3 ASTM E 1462-7.11 IEEE 1262-5.3 UL 1703-21/26/27 IEC 61730-10.18 IEC 61646-10.6 IEEE 1513-5.2 IEEE 1262-5.6 IEC 61215-10.4.4 UL 1703-25 IEEE 1262-5.3 IEEE 1513-5.5.

1 IEC 62108-10.4 Verify the system to withstand high heat without showing signs of stress or deformation Visually inspect system for damage and compliance with design criteria IEC 61730-2-10.1 IEEE 1262-5.1 & 1513-5.1 IEC 61646-10.1 ASTM E 1799 .4 IEC 61646-10.1 IEC 61730-2-10.7 UL 1703-19 IEC 61215-10. voltage and peak power output of the module IEC 61215-10.Type Testing – SOLAR PV OTHER TESTS Temperature Coefficients Temperature Tests Visual Inspection Determines the effect of temperature on the current.

installing solar thermal plant is relatively cheaper than solar PV plant of equivalent capacity .Learning from the Workshop • Solar PV and Solar Thermal are two distinct and separate areas of solar energy research • Traditionally. while solar PV is now spreading far & wide • Total installed solar thermal capacity in world ~ 500 MW • Total installed solar PV capacity in world ~ 15 GW • At present. solar thermal was more in use quantitatively.

Solar Thermal – Some Areas Under R&D Basic research areas: • Advanced power cycles • Advanced coatings • Improved reflectors • Advanced thermal collectors • High temperature resistant thermic fluids Applied research areas: • Development of organic Rankine cycle system • Solar dish engines such as Stirling/steam/micro-turbines for decentralized power • Development of suitable receiver systems • Solar energy storage devise – Solargas. Molten salts with low freezing temperatures and options for low & medium temperature applications • Development of heliostats with automatic tracking controls • Advanced solar systems for • cooling • green buildings • cooking • air heating & drying etc. . Fuel Cells.

.Solar PhotoVoltaic – Some Areas Under R&D • Areas of basic research: – Crystalline silicon based solar technology • • • • Modeling & simulation of novel structures Reduction in optical losses Reduction in wafer thickness Indigenous development of transparent conducting light trapping oxides (TCLO) • Development of silver paste etc – Non-crystalline based solar technology • Development of CIGS (Copper indium gallium di-selenide) based solar modules • Amorphous silicon based modules • Nano-silicon & dye sensitized modules • Areas of applied research – Improvement of module life – Module making processes – Low weight modules etc.

.cumulatively Manpower CAPEX 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 2 0 10 2 0 11 2 0 12 Year 2 0 13 2 0 15 4 10 12 14 18 Rs. crores 25 20 15 10 5 0 20 25 22 * 5 7 2010 2011 2012 2013 2015 Year 2010 – Initiation & lantern project 2011 – Data generation & research project initiation 2012 – Building & lab upgradation + demo projects onstream 2013 Projects fructifications * In case of certification/accreditation lab .RESOURCES NEEDED….

2012 Dedicated Manpower Quantity 2 2 2 2 (1+1) 2 (1+1) 3 (1+1+1) 3 2 TOTAL 2010 18 .LIST OF ACTIVITIES Activity Lantern project Equipment procurement & Building/lab set up Lab upgradation Product development (PV + thermal) Solar fuels (gasification + reforming) Data generation (PV + thermal + outside R&D) Demo systems Propulsions 2013 + 2011 .

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