physically breaking the large molecules into smaller ones to produce gasoline and distillate fuels.OVERVIEW  Thermal Cracking Process:  Heavy fuels are subjected to pressure and intense heat. . Catalytic processes: Used to increase gasoline yield and improve octane yield which improves the anti-knock properties of the fuel.

Treatment process  Used to remove non-hydrocarbons. hydro treating . clay contacting. acid treating. solvent dewaxing. caustic washing.  Examples :  Chemical sweetening. impurities and other constituents that decrease the efficiency of the conversion process or adversely affect the finished product properties. solvent extraction . drying.

Common refinery chemicals .

Leaded Gasoline additives  TEL(Tetra Ethyl Lead) and TML(Tetra Methyl Lead) are additives formerly used to increase the octane no. . They are used only in Aviation fuels.

Oxygenates Chemical ETBE MTBE TAME Full Form Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether Tertiary Amyl Methyl Ether .

Oxygenates  Improve gasoline octane ratings  Reduce Carbon Mono Oxide Emissions .

 Added to desalted crude to reduce the amount of corrosive chlorides in the tower overheads  Used to remove contaminants from HC streams .Caustics  They are added to desalted water to neutralize acids and reduce corrosion.

Sulfuric Acid and Hydrochloric Acid  Used as catalysts in alkylation process  Sulfuric acid is also used in treatment processes .

Refining operations .

coker Sulfur Sulfur Sulfur Alkylation feedstocks Disulfides Wax .naptha Asphalt.Various Processes Process name Atmospheric distillation Vacuum distillation Sweetening Hydrogenation Hydrodesulphurization Hydrocracking Inhibitor sweetening Catalytic dewaxing Purpose Produce kerosene Produce lubricants Remove sulfur & odor Remove sulfur Remove sulfur Improve quality and reduce sulfur Remove mercaptan Improve pour point By-Products Tar.

octane no: residual Increase gasoline and improve Petrochemical octane no: feedstocks Increase octane number Increase octane number Convert low quality naptha Residual Petrochemical gasoline Aromatics Deasphalting Increase cracking and feedstock Asphalt .Various processes Process name Catalytic polymerization Alkylation Thermal Cracking Fluid catalytic cracking Thermal Reforming Catalytic cracking Catalytic Reforming Purpose Increase gasoline yield and octane no: Increase gasoline yield and octane no: Byproducts Petrochemical feedstocks High octane aviation gasoline Increase gasoline and improve Bunker fuel.

increased distillate Aromatics Naptha Coke .Various processes Process name Visbreaking Solvent Extraction Isomerization Coking Purpose Reduce viscosity Improve lubricant viscosity index Produce alkylation feedstock Produce gasoline feedstock Byproducts Tar.

Crude Oil  Average Composition  84% carbon  14% hydrogen  1-3% Sulfur  1% nitrogen. salts and metals Classification Paraffinic Aromatic Naphthenic . oxygen.

API  Higher the API gravity. more hydrogen and are high on paraffins and yield more gasoline. the lighter the crude as it has less Carbon.  Lesser API gravity means they are high on aromatics .

.Sweet ’n’ Sour  Crude oils that contain appreciable quantities of H2S or other reactive sulfur compounds are called as Sour and those with less Sulfur reactive compounds as Sweet.

 H2S is a primary contributor of corrosion in refinery equipment's. Mercaptans. stability and complexity of the compounds are greater in heavier crude oil fractions. elemental sulfur also cause corrosion .Sulfur problem  As a rule the proportion.

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