2 How to model at contact? .

. • What are the deformations? • What are the pull off forces? • Case study .3 WHAT DO WE WANT TO KNOW? • What is the nature of the contacts? • Contact Radius as a function of applied force.

• Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR. Applicable to soft samples with high adhesion. 1971) neglects long-range interactions outside contact area but includes short-range forces in the contact area. • Derjaguin-Müller-Toporov (DMT. Applicable to stiff samples with low adhesion. 1975) considers an elastic sphere with rigid surface but includes van der Waals forces outside the contact region. .history • Hertz (1881) takes into account neither the surface forces nor adhesion and assumes a linearly elastic sphere in contact with an elastic plane surface. • Maugis (1992) theory is even more accurate – shows that JKR and DMT are limits of same theory.4 Continuum description of contacts.

if 1 and 2 are the same then W11 is the work of cohesion.5 SURFACE ENERGY NOTATION:• Work of adhesion and cohesion: work done to separate unit areas of two media 1 and 2 from contact to infinity in vacuum. • Surface energy: It is the free energy change when the surface area of the medium is increased by a unit area. Thus. • Work of adhesion in the third medium is given as . If 1 and 2 are different then W12 is the work of adhesion. • While separating dissimilar materials the free energy change in producing an interfacial area by unit area is known as their interfacial energy.

cam.ac.uk/mpsite/interactive_charts/stiffness-density/NS6Chart.eng.html: .6 What is “stiffness” of the tip/substrate? Source http://www-materials.

7 Standard results:- DEFORMATIONS .

8 Pull-off forces (standard results) F(Hertz) = 0 F(DMT)=2π Rtip W132 F(JKR)=3/2π*R tip W132 .

9 F-d CURVE .

10 F-d CURVE .

. 2. The strains are sufficiently small for linear elasticity to be valid. so that only a normal pressure is transmitted. The dimensions of the contact area must be small compared to the dimensions of each body and to the radii of curvature of the surfaces. Each body is approximated by an elastic half-space loaded over the contact area. 4.11 Hertz Theory Of Elastic Contact 1. 3. The contact is frictionless.

• The distance from the plane tangent at o to the two points M and N is given by .12 Case study : Two spherical bodies in contact. • If there is no pressure between the bodies the contact will be at one point only.

is intensity of pressure at contact due to normal force. • If the bodies are pressed together along the normal there will be local deformation near point of contact producing contact over a small surface with a circular boundary called the surface of contact. .13 Continued. • Mainly surface of contact is elliptical in shape and increases with force till plastic deformation range. • Let w1 and w2 denote the displacement due to local deformation in the z1 and z2 direction of point such as M and N respectively. Where q..

• If is the max. pressure at the centre O . • 𝜶 is the approach distance. Where A is area of semicircle and is equal to • By using these equation we find • Where P is the normal force .14 Continued. . k is constant factor .. • Let.

15 Applications. • Hand gripper in robotics. . • Wear analysis of gear tooth • Stator and rotor contact in orbit motor. • Wear of rolling element in rolling contact bearing.

London A 324.16 References • K. Kendall and A.pdf Theory of elasticity. Cambridge (1987) Comparison of various adhesion contact theories and the in• fluence of dimensionless load parameter by XINGHUA SHI and YA-PU ZHAO.Timoshenko and J. 301 (1971). K. Soc. R. . L. Johnson. .washington. Roberts. Cambridge • • • • University Press.edu/overney/ChemE554_C ourse_Mat/course_material/Ch_2_Contact%20Mechan ics. Johnson.P. D. 3rd edition by S.Goodier chapter axisymmetric stress and deformation in a solid of revolution. Proc. K. Contact Mechanics. http://courses.N. L.


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